Heat Exchanger
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Introduction

A device designed to transfer heat between two physically separated fluids; generally consists of a cylindrical shell with longitudinal tubes; one fluid flows on the inside, the other on the outside.

Any of several devices that transfer heat from a hot to a cold fluid. In many engineering applications, one fluid needs to be heated and another cooled, a requirement economically accomplished by a heat exchanger. In double-pipe exchangers, one fluid flows inside the inner pipe, and the other in the annular space between the two pipes. In shell-and-tube exchangers, many tubes are mounted inside a shell; one fluid flows in the tubes and the other flows in the shell, outside the all heat tubes. Special-purpose devices such as boilers, evaporators, superheaters, condensers, and coolers are exchangers. Heat exchangers are used extensively in fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants, gas turbines, heating and air conditioning, refrigeration, and the chemical industry. See also cooling system.

A device used to transfer heat from a fluid flowing on one side of a barrier to another fluid (or fluids) flowing on the other side of the barrier.
When used to accomplish simultaneous heat transfer and mass transfer, heat exchangers become special equipment types, often known by other names. When fired directly by a combustion process, they become furnaces, boilers, heaters, tube-still heaters, and engines. If there is a change in phase in one of the flowing fluids—condensation of steam to water, for example—the equipment may be called a chiller, evaporator, sublimator, distillation-columnreboiler, still, condenser, or cooler-condenser.
Heat exchangers may be so designed that chemical reactions or energy-generation processes can be carried out within them. The exchanger then becomes an integral part of the reaction system and may be known, for example, as a nuclear reactor, catalytic reactor, or polymerize.
Heat exchangers are normally used only for the transfer and useful elimination or recovery of heat without an accompanying phase change. The fluids on either side of the barrier are usually liquids, but they may also be gases such as steam, air, or hydrocarbon vapors; or they may be liquid metals such as sodium or mercury. Fused salts are also used as heat-exchanger fluids in some applications.
Most often the barrier between the fluids is a metal wall such as that of a tube or pipe. However, it can be fabricated from flat metal plate or from graphite, plastic, or other corrosion-resistant materials of construction.

A device used to exchange heat from one medium to another often through metal walls, usually to extract heat from a medium flowing between two surfaces. A heat exchanger is usually in the form of a radiator with one fluid flowing inside tubes and the other outside them. Various forms of heat exchangers are air-to-air, air-to-liquid, and liquid-to-liquid.

A heat exchanger is a device built for efficientheat transfer from one medium to another. The medium may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or they may be in direct contact.[1] They are widely used inspace heating, refrigeration, air conditioning,power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, and natural gas processing. One common example of a heat exchanger is the radiator in a car, in which the heat source, being a hot engine-cooling fluid, water, transfers heat to air flowing through the radiator (i.e. the heat transfer medium).
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INTRODUCTION
A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment. One common example of a heat exchanger is the radiator in a car, in which the heat source, being a hot engine-cooling fluid, water, transfers heat to air flowing through the radiator (i.e. the heat transfer medium).
Types of heat exchangers
Shell and tube heat exchanger

A Shell and Tube heat exchanger
Shell and tube heat exchangers consist of a series of tubes. One set of these tubes contains the fluid that must be either heated or cooled. The second fluid runs over the tubes that are being heated or cooled so that it can either provide the heat or absorb the heat required. A set of tubes is called the tube bundle and can be made up of several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc. Shell and tube heat exchangers are typically used for high-pressure applications (with pressures greater than 30 bar and temperatures greater than 260°C). This is because the shell and tube heat exchangers are robust due to their shape.
Plate heat exchanger
Another type of heat exchanger is the plate heat exchanger. One is composed of multiple, thin, slightly-separated plates that have very large surface areas and fluid flow passages for heat transfer. This stacked-plate arrangement can be more effective, in a given space, than the shell and tube heat exchanger. Advances in gasket and brazing technology have made the plate-type heat exchanger increasingly practical. In HVAC applications, large heat exchangers of this type are called plate-and-frame; when used in open loops, these heat exchangers are normally of the gasket type to allow periodic disassembly, cleaning, and inspection. There are many types of permanently-bonded plate heat exchangers, such as dip-brazed and vacuum-brazed plate varieties, and they are often specified for closed-loop applications such as refrigeration. Plate heat exchangers also differ in the types of plates that are used, and in the configurations of those plates. Some plates may be stamped with "chevron" or other patterns, where others may have machined fins and/or grooves.
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24-04-2012, 12:40 PM

Heat Exchanger


.doc   Basic Concepts of Heat Exchangers.doc (Size: 120.5 KB / Downloads: 49)

A heat exchanger is a device designed for the purpose of allowing heat transfer from one medium to another at different temperatures. Most commonly, these mediums consist of two fluids that flow close to each other and are separated by a material, often metals, with good heat transfer properties. The fluids are primarily characterized by their temperatures at the entrance to the heat exchanger. The hot (warm, in figure below) fluid, the fluid with the highest temperature initially, transfers heat to the cold fluid as they both pass through the heat exchanger, thus lowering the temperature of the hot fluid and raising the temperature of the cold fluid.




Physics of basic heat exchangers
Two methods are readily used to physically and mathematically explain the purpose of heat exchangers. These two techniques are known as the Log Mean Temperature Difference (LTMD) method and the Effectiveness-NTU method. However, for these techniques to be useable, several assumptions must be made.
• Uniform flow
• Steady flow
• All of the heat transferred from the hot stream is deposited into the cold stream
• No phase change
• Constant specific heats
• Negligible kinetic and potential energy
• U (over heat transfer coefficient) is constant



Heat Exchanger Principles in Automobiles
Most automotive heat exchangers are similar to shell and tube cross flow design, with multiple tube passes. But instead of having a defined shell around the tubes, with another controlled fluid forced across the tubes by means of a pump, there is no limited control volume for the shell. The tubes are open to the air and are dependant upon outside conditions.



Types of Vehicle Heat exchangers
Some types of Automotive Heat Exchangers include but are not limited to radiators, oil coolers and intercoolers. It is possible to use heat exchangers for almost any of the fluids in a vehicle. Air conditioners and heaters are also examples, however they are not restricted to vehicles.
A radiator is a cooling device used in the engine in which hot liquid flows through exposed pipes and transfers heat to the air by fans. Fins are used to conduct the heat from the tubes and transfer it to the air. The fluid used is typically a mixture of ethylene glycol, water and a small amount of corrosion reducer.


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25-04-2012, 11:45 AM

Selecting a Heat Exchanger


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Select the heat exchanger product series
Choose an aluminum, copper or stainless steel heat exchanger based on the fluid compatibility. Aluminum tubing is usually used with light oils, or ethylene glycol and water solutions. Copper is normally used with water. Stainless steel is used with deionized water or corrosive fluids.


Select the appropriate heat exchanger model
Refer to the thermal performance graphs for the heat exchangers selected (See performance graphs for copper heat exchangers - 6000 series, copper heat exchangers - OEM Coils, stainless steel heat exchangers - Aspen Series, stainless steel heat exchangers - 4000 Series and oil coolers). Any heat exchanger that exceeds 56 W/°C at 2 gpm (using a standard fan) would be acceptable. As shown in the following graph, Lytron’s 6210 exceeds the required performance.



Determine the liquid pressure drop
From the data given, we know our pump needs to supply water at 2 gpm. Using the liquid side pressure drop chart for the 6210 curve, the point where a vertical line at the 2 gpm point on the x-axis intersects with the 6210 curve reveals that the liquid pressure drop through the 6210 is 8 psi (0.55 bars). The pump selected must overcome this pressure drop to ensure a 2 gpm flow.



Cooling Air
In cabinet cooling applications, the air is hotter than the liquid. In this case, the ITD is the difference between the hot air entering the heat exchanger and the cold liquid entering the heat exchanger. You may need to calculate the temperature rise using the heat load and the temperature of the cool air entering the cabinet.



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03-07-2012, 04:04 PM

heat exchanger




A heat exchanger is an equipment or device built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another, whether the media are separated by a solid wall so that they never mix, or the media are in direct contact. Heat exchanger are widely used in refrigeration, space heating, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, and natural gas processing. A common example of a heat exchanger is the radiator in a car, in which the heat source, being a hot engine-cooling fluid, water, transfers heat to air flowing through the radiator.
In industry, specifically process or manufacturing plants there are other types of heat exchanger such as plate heat exchangers, spiral heat exchangers and shell and tube heat exchangers. All of these heat exchangers are special and have their dedicated purpose or function when being employed. The price, size, specification, purpose and design varies within each other.
Heat exchanger must be properly maintained in order for it to be working efficiently and effectively. Energy is being transferred from one side to the other, thus it acts like an energy saver. When the heat exchanger is no longer efficiently transferring heat, it is time for cleaning. Hence, the heat exchanger will be stopped and cleaned from scale sticking on the surface of the wall. Failing to clean the heat exchanger will result to tremendous lost of energ


Introduction

A heat exchanger is a device that is used for transfer of thermal energy (enthalpy)between two or more fluids, between a solid surface and a fluid, or between solidparticulates and a fluid, at differing temperatures and in thermal contact, usually withoutexternal heat and work interactions. The fluids may be single compounds or mixtures.Typical applications involve heating or cooling of a fluid stream of concern, evaporation orcondensation of a single or multicomponent fluid stream, and heat recovery or heatrejection from a system. In other applications, the objective may be to sterilize, pasteurize,fractionate, distill, concentrate, crystallize, or control process fluid. In some heatexchangers, the fluids exchanging heat are in direct contact. In other heat exchangers, heattransfer between fluids takes place through a separating wall or into and out of a wall in atransient manner.In most heat exchangers, the fluids are separated by a heat transfer surface, andideally they do not mix. Such exchangers are referred to as the
direct transfer type,
orsimply
recuperators.
In contrast, exchangers in which there is an intermittent heatexchange between the hot and cold fluids via thermal energy storage and rejection throughthe exchanger surface or matrix—are referred to as the
indirect transfer type
or
storagetype,
or simply
regenerators.
Such exchangers usually have leakage and fluid carryover fromone stream to the other.Heat exchangers may be classified according to transfer process, construction, flowarrangement, surface compactness, number of fluids and heat transfer mechanisms oraccording to process functions
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Heat Exchanger


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Introduction

A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage. The classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal combustion engine in which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through radiator coils and airflows past the coils, which cools the coolant and heats the incoming air.
Heat exchange is a natural phenomenon occurring throughout our environment. It drives the weather cycles and energy exchange between ecosystems. Harnessing its utility through accurate control of heat exchange has been a focus of our industry for over a century.

Literature review

For well over a century, efforts have been made to produce more efficient heat exchangers by employing various methods of heat transfer enhancement. The study of enhanced heat transfer has gained serious momentum during recent years, however, due to increased demands by industry for heat exchange equipment that is less expensive to build and operate than standard heat exchange devices. Savings in materials and energy use also provide strong motivation for the development of improved methods of enhancement. When designing cooling systems for automobiles and spacecraft, it is imperative that the heat exchangers are especially compact and lightweight. Also, enhancement devices are necessary for the high heat duty exchangers found in power plants (I. E. air-cooled condensers, nuclear fuel rods). These applications, as well as numerous others, have led to the development of various enhanced heat transfer surfaces.

A Shell and Tube heat exchanger

Shell and tube heat exchangers consist of a series of tubes. One set of these tubes contains the fluid that must be either heated or cooled. The second fluid runs over the tubes that are being heated or cooled so that it can either provide the heat or absorb the heat required. A set of tubes is called the tube bundle and can be made up of several types of tubes: plain, longitudinally finned, etc. Shell and tube heat exchangers are typically used for high-pressure applications (with pressures greater than 30 bar and temperatures greater than 260 °C).[2] This is because the shell and tube heat exchangers are robust due to their shape.
There are several thermal design features that are to be taken into account when designing the tubes in the shell and tube heat exchangers.

Plate heat exchanger

Another type of heat exchanger is the plate heat exchanger. One is composed of multiple, thin, slightly separated plates that have very large surface areas and fluid flow passages for heat transfer. This stacked-plate arrangement can be more effective, in a given space, than the shell and tube heat exchanger. Advances in gasket and brazing technology have made the plate-type heat exchanger increasingly practical. In HVAC applications, large heat exchangers of this type are called plate-and-frame; when used in open loops, these heat exchangers are normally of the gasket type to allow periodic disassembly, cleaning, and inspection. There are many types of permanently bonded plate heat exchangers, such as dip-brazed and vacuum-brazed plate varieties, and they are often specified for closed-loop applications such as refrigeration. Plate heat exchangers also differ in the types of plates that are used, and in the configurations of those plates. Some plates may be stamped with "chevron" or other patterns, where others may have machined fins and/or grooves.


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