Holographic Memory (Download Full Seminar Report)
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Computer Science Clay
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30-07-2009, 05:02 PM


As processors and buses roughly double their data capacity every three years (Mooreâ„¢s Law), data storage has struggled to close the gap. CPUs can perform an instruction execution every nanosecond, which is six orders of magnitude faster than a single magnetic disk access. Much research has gone into finding hardware and software solutions to closing the time gap between CPUs and data storage. Some of these advances include cache, pipelining, optimizing compilers, and RAM. As the computer evolves, so do the applications that computers are used for. Recently large binary files containing sound or image data have become commonplace, greatly increasing the need for high capacity data storage and data access.


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24-12-2010, 04:40 PM



.pptx   holo sem.pptx (Size: 195.81 KB / Downloads: 606)

BY CHINMAYEE BAITHARU


WHAT’S THE NEW BUZZ
Holographic memory is developing technology that has promised to revolutionalise the storage systems.
It can store data upto 1 Tb in a sugar cube sized crystal. Data from more than 1000 CDs can fit into a holographic memory System.
Holographic data storage systems use the volume to store data. It is based on the principle of holography

WHAT IS HOLOGRAPHY?

Holography was invented in 1947 by the Hungarian-British physicist Dennis Gabor (1900-1979), who won a 1971 Nobel Prize for his invention.

 Holography is a technique of recording patterns of light to produce three dimensional object.

COMPONENTS OF HOLOGRAPHIC MEMORY
The holographic memory system is made up of the following basic components:
Blue-green argon laser
Beam splitters to spilt the laser beam
Mirrors to direct the laser beams
LCD panel (spatial light modulator)
Lenses to focus the laser beams
Lithium-niobate crystal or photopolymer
Charge coupled device camera

RECORDING OF DATA IN HDSS

DETAILS ABOUT CCD
CCD is a 2-D array of thousands or millions of tiny solar cells, each of which transforms the light from one small portion of the image into electrons. Next step is to read the value (accumulated charge) of each cell in the image. In a CCD device, the charge is actually transported across the chip and read at one corner of the array. An analog-to-digital converter turns each pixel's value into a digital value. CCDs use a special manufacturing process to create the ability to transport charge across the chip without distortion.
WHAT IS SLM?
A spatial light modulator is used for creating binary information out of laser light. The SLM is a 2D plane, consisting of pixels which can be turned on and off to create binary 1.s and 0.s.
PAGE LEVEL PARITY BITS
Once error-free data is recorded into a hologram, methods which read data back out of it need to be error free as well. Because page data is in the form of a two dimensional array, error correction needs to take into account the extra dimension of bits. When a page of data is written to the holographic media, the page is separated into smaller two dimensional arrays. These sub sections are appended with an additional row and column of bits.
MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUE
Unlike magnetic storage mechanisms which store data on their surface, holographic memories store information throughout their whole volume.
Fortunately, the properties of holograms provide a unique solution to this dilemma.
This method of storing multiple pages of data in the hologram is called multiplexing.
POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS
One possible application is data mining. Data mining is the process of finding patterns in large amounts of data.

Another possible application of holographic memory is in petaflop computing. A petaflop is a thousand trillion floating point operations per second.

Holographic memory can be used as extended DRAM with 10ns access time,

Holographic memory vs. conventional storage devices
ADVANTAGES
In contrast to the currently available storage strategies, holographic mass memory simultaneously offers high data capacity and short data access time
(Storage capacity of about1TB/cc and data transfer rate of 1 billion bits/second)

Holographic data storage has the unique ability to locate similar features stored within a crystal instantly.

ADVANTAGES(CONT)
Because the interference patterns are spread uniformly throughout the material, it endows holographic storage with another useful capability: high reliability.

No rotation of medium is required as in the case of other storage devices.
It can reduce threat of piracy since holograms can’t be easily replicated.
DISADVANTAGES
Manufacturing cost HDSS is very high.

And there is a lack of availability of resources which are needed to produce HDSS.

Writes in the same fashion can degrade previous writes in the same region of the medium.

The re-illuminated reference beam used to retrieve the recorded information, also excites the donor electrons and disturbs the equilibrium of the space charge field in a manner that produces a gradual erasure of the recording.
In the past, this has limited the number of reads that can be made before the signal-to -noise ratio becomes too low.

CONCLUSION
The future of holographic memory is very promising. The page access of data that holographic memory creates will provide a window into next generation computing by adding another dimension to stored data.
Holographic memory will most likely be used in next generation super computers where cost is not as much of an issue.



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usman_allison
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06-01-2011, 10:00 PM

thank you for accepting to download 2 copy for me i really appreciate it and i will use dis to impact people life
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04-02-2011, 10:18 PM

sir i want the full report on seminar and presentation titled holographic memory
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08-02-2011, 11:34 AM

please send me full info regarding holographic memory
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i want abstract,ppt ,report for this topic
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ABHINAV ANSHUMAN
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13-03-2011, 05:42 PM

Dear sir
please send me seminar and presentation report on HOLOGRAPHIC MEMORY
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23-03-2011, 09:25 AM

Presented by:
T.Aishwarya,
S.Sindhu,
A.Anusha


.docx   Abstract1.docx (Size: 244.43 KB / Downloads: 138)
ABSTRACT
Holographic memory is developing technology that has promised to revolutionalise the storage systems. It can store data up to 1 Tb in a sugar cube sized crystal. Scientist Pieter J. van Heerden first proposed the idea of holographic (three-dimensional) storage in the early 1960s. . Data from hard drives available today can hold only 10 to 40 GB of data, a small fraction of what holographic memory system can hold. Conventional memories use only the surface to store the data. But holographic data storage systems use the volume to store data. It has more advantages than conventional storage systems. It is based on the principle of holography. more than 1000 CDs can fit into a holographic memory System..
INTRODUCTION:
Devices that use light to store and read data have been the backbone of data storage for nearly two decades. Compact discs revolutionized data storage in the early 1980s, allowing multi-megabytes of data to be stored on a disc that has a diameter of a mere 12 centimeters and a thickness of about 1.2 millimeters. In 1997, an improved version of the CD, called a digital versatile disc (DVD), was released.
CDs and DVDs are the primary data storage methods for music, software, personal computing and video. A CD can hold 783 megabytes of data. A double-sided, double-layer DVD can hold 15.9 GB of data. scientists are now working on a new optical storage method called holographic memory that wili go beneath the surface and use the volume of the recording medium for storage, instead of only the surface area. Three-dimensional data storage will be able to store conventional storage mediums meet today's storage needs, but storage technologies have to evolve to keep pace with increasing consumer demand. CDs, DVDs and magnetic storage all store bits of information on the surface of a recording medium. In order to increase storage capabilitiesre more information in a smaller space and offer faster data transfer times.
HOLOGRAPHY
A hologram is a block or sheet of photosensitive material which records the interference of two light sources. To create a hologram, laser light is first split into two beams, a source beam and a reference beam. The source beam is then manipulated and sent into the photosensitive material. Once inside this material, it intersects the reference beam and the resulting interference of laser light is recorded on the photosensitive material, resulting in a hologram. Once a hologram is recorded, it can be viewed with only the reference beam. The reference beam is project and implimentationed into the hologram at the exact angle it was project and implimentationed during recording. When this light hits the recorded diffraction pattern, the source beam is regenerated out of the refracted light. An exact copy of the source beam is sent out of the hologram and can be read by optical sensors.
CREATING HOLOGRAM
RETRIEVING HOLOGRAM
APPLICATION TO BINARY

In order for holographic technology to be applied to computer systems, it must store data in a form that a computer can recognize. In current computer systems, this form is binary. In the previous section, it was mentioned that the source beam is manipulated. In common holograms, this manipulation ;s the creation of an optical image such as a ball or human face. In computer applications, this manipulation is in the form of bits. The next section explains the spatial light modulator, a device that converts laser light into binary data.
SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR (SLM)
A spatial light modulator is used for creating binary information out of laser light. The SLM is a 2D plane, consisting of pixels which can be turned on and off to create binary 1.s and O.s. An illustration of this is a window and a window shade. It is possible to pull the shade down over a window to block incoming sunlight. If sunlight is desired again, the shade can be raised. A spatial light modulator contains a two-dimensional array of windows which are only microns wide. These windows block some parts of the incoming laser light and let other parts go through. The resulting cross section of the laser beam is a two dimensional array of binary data, exactly the same as what was represented in the SLM. After the laser beam is manipulated, it is sent into the hologram to be recorded. This data is written into the hologram as page form. It is called this due to its representation as a two dimensional plane, or page of data. Spatial light modulator is a Liquid Crystal Display panel that consists of clear and dark areas corresponding to the binary information it represent.
Spatial light modulator is actually that device which makes holography applicable to computers. Sort is one of the important components of Holographic Data Storage System.
IMPLEMENTATION
The components of Holographic data storage system is composed of
• Blue-green argon laser
• Beam splitters to spilt the laser beam
• Mirrors to direct the laser beams
• LCD panel (spatial light modulator)
• Lenses to focus the laser beams
• Lithium-niobate crystal or photopolymer
• Charge coupled device camera
They can be classified into three sections namely recording medium, optical recording system and photo detector array. The laser is used because it provides monochromatic light. Only the interference pattern produced by the monochromatic beam of light is stable in time.
Lithium niobate crystal is used as photosensitive material on which hologram is recorded. It has certain optical characteristics that make it behave as photosensitive material. CCD camera detects the information in the light, converts to digital information and forwards it to computer.
RECORDING OF DATA IN HOLOGRAPHIC MEMORY SYSTEM
When the blue-green argon laser is fired, a beam splitter creates two beams. One beam, called the object or signal beam, will go straight, bounce off one mirror and travel through a spatial-light modulator (SLM). An SLM is a Liquid crystal display (LCD) that shows pages of raw binary data as clear and dark boxes. The information from the page of binary code is carried by the signal beam around to the light-sensitive lithium-niobate crystal. Some systems use a photopolymer in place of the crystal. A second beam, called the reference beam, shoots out the side of the beam splitter and takes a separate path to the crystal. When the two beams meet, the interference pattern that is created stores the data carried by the signal beam in a specific area in the crystal - the data is stored as a hologram.
RETRIEVAL OF DATA FROM HOLOGRAPHIC MEMORY SYSTEM:
An advantage of a holographic memory system is that an entire page of data can be retrieved quickly and at one time. In order to retrieve and reconstruct the holographic page of data stored in the crystal, the reference beam !s shined into the crystal at exactly the same angle at which it entered to store that oage of data. Each page of data is stored in a different area of the crystal, based on the angle at which the reference beam strikes it. During reconstruction, the beam will be diffracted by the crystal to allow the recreation of the original page that was stored. This reconstructed page is then project and implimentationed onto the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, which interprets and forwards the digital "'ormation to a computer.
CCD is a 2-D array of thousands or millions of tiny solar cells, each of which transforms the light from one small portion of the image into electrons. Next step is to read the value (accumulated charge) of each cell in the image. In a CCD device, the charge is actually transported across the chip and read at one corner of the array. An analog-to-digital converter turns each pixel's value into a digital value. CCDs use a special manufacturing process to create the ability to transport charge across the chip without distortion. This process leads to very high-quality sensors in terms of fidelity and light sensitivity. CCD sensors have been mass produced for a longer period of time, so they are more mature. They tend to have higher quality and more pixels.
The key component of any holographic data storage system is the angle at which the second reference beam is fired at the crystal to retrieve a page of data. It must match the original reference beam angle exactly. A difference of just a thousandth of a millimeter will result in failure to retrieve t hat page of data
PAGE DATA ACCESS: Because data is stored as page data in a hologram, the retrieval of this data must also be in this form. Page data access is the method of reading stored data in sheets, not serially as in conventional storage systems. It was mentioned in the introduction that conventional storage was reaching its fundamental limits. One such limit is the way data is read in streams. Holographic memory reads data in the form of pages instead. For example, if a stream of 32 bits is sent to a processing unit by a conventional read head,
a holographic memory system would in turn send 32 x 32 bits, or 1024 bits due to its added dimension. This provides very fast access times in volumes far greater than serial access methods. The volume could be one Megabit per page using a SLM resolution of 1024 x 1024 bits at 15-20 microns per pixel.
MULTIPLEXING
Once one can store a page of bits in a hologram, an interface to a computer can be made. The problem arises, however, that storing only one page of bits is not beneficial. Fortunately, the properties of holograms provide a unique solution to this dilemma. Unlike magnetic storage mechanisms which store data on their surface, holographic memories store information throughout their whole volume. After a page of data is recorded in the hologram, a small modification to the source beam before it reenters the hologram will record another page of data in the same volume. This method of storing multiple pages of data in the hologram is called multiplexing. The thicker the volume becomes, the smaller the modifications to the source beam can be.
ANGULAR MULTIPLEXING
When a reference beam recreates the source beam, it needs to be at the same angle it was during recording. A very small alteration in this angle will make the regenerated source beam disappear. Harnessing this property,
Angular multiplexing changes the angle of the source beam by very minuscule amounts after each page of data is recorded. Depending on the sensitivity of the recording material, thousands of pages of data can be stored in the same hologram, at the same point of laser beam entry. Staying away from conventional data access systems which move mechanical matter to obtain data, the angle of entry on the source beam can be deflected by high-frequency sound waves in solids.
WAVELENGTH MULTIPLEXING
Used mainly in conjunction with other multiplexing methods, wavelength multiplexing alters the wavelength of source and reference beams between recordings. Sending beams to the same point of origin in the recording medium at different wavelengths allows multiple pages of data to be recorded. Due to the small tuning range of lasers, however, this form of multiplexing is limited on its own.
SPATIAL MULTIPLEXING
Spatial multiplexing is the method of changing the point of entry of source and reference beams into the recording medium. This form tends to break away from the non-mechanical paradigm because either the medium or recording beams must be physically moved. Like wavelength multiplexing, this is combined with other forms of multiplexing to maximize the amount of data stored in the holographic volume. Two commonly used forms of spatial multiplexing are peristrophic multiplexing and shift multiplexing
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01-10-2011, 11:37 PM

Mail me full report on holographic memroy
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Holographic Memory


.pdf   Holographic_Memory.pdf (Size: 873.17 KB / Downloads: 152)
Introduction & Summary
Part 4 of the CeBIT 2001 Report is a synopsis of the latest developments in 2”, 3½”, and 5¼” MO, 12” (phase change WORM), and 3-D holographic optical storage (crystal and photopolymer WORM).
Very few companies exhibited “high-performance” optical storage products of any kind. Fujitsu overwhelmingly dominates the 3½” MO drive market, Maxoptix and Sony are the only surviving 5¼” MO drive manufacturers, and Plasmon is the sole source for 12” WORM (ATG appears to have exited the business). Sony did not exhibit its 5¼” MO drive, but its major OEM customer, Hewlett Packard, did at its main stand in Hall 1. Neither Sony nor Maxoptix exhibited their advanced 5¼” MO UDO (Ultra Density Optical) or OSD (Optical Super Density) drive.


3-D Holographic Memories
Almost every year for the past 5 years, the promise of some type of 3-D holographic memory (holomem) system has hung ripe over CeBIT. The greater the demand for high-performance storage, the greater the level of interest in 3-D holomems. Unfortunately, 3-D holomems have generally turned out to be the hype du jour. Still, hope springs eternal, and those seeking something better than the old standby magnetic disk array or tape farm persist in reacting to every new prospect. Those with a need to do long-term archiving are especially interested


3-D Holographic Storage Background
The hologram was invented by 1971 physics Nobel laureate Dr. Dennis Gabor in 1948 at Imperial College (England) to solve an aberration problem in electron microscope images. The technology was made practical with the availability of the He-Ne gas laser and the invention of the off-axis (Fresnel) hologram by Emmett N. Leith and Uris Upatnieks at the University of Michigan in 1962. Finally, the concept of the 3-D holomem was proposed by P. J. van Heerden, a research scientist at Polaroid, in 1963


Basic 3-D Holomem Theory
A hologram is a true amplitude and phase representation of some object or data pattern. It is created with coherent laser light by interfering the light transmitted by or reflected from a data pattern (object or signal beam) with an unmodulated carrier (reference beam). The interference pattern created by the interaction of the two beams is captured by a storage medium, such as a photopolymer film or an electro-optical crystal (these are referred to as volume phase storage media, and are the focus of our interest here).
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03-07-2012, 03:31 PM

Holographic Memory


.pptx   Holographic Memory.pptx (Size: 469.36 KB / Downloads: 22)

Introduction


As computer systems continue to become faster, they will need a way to access larger amounts of data in shorter periods of time.
Holographic memory is a three-dimensional data storage system that can stored information at high density inside the crystal or photopolymer.
Hence holographic storage system has the potential to became the next storage generation over conventional storage system.


What is holographic memory?


It is a memory that can store information in form of holographic image.
It is a technique that can store information at high density inside crystals or photopolymers.
As current storage techniques such as DVD reach the upper limit of possible data density (due to the diffraction limited size of the writing beams), holographic storage has the potential to become the next generation of storage media.
Like other media, holographic media is divided into write once (where the storage medium undergoes some irreversible change),and rewritable media (where the change is reversible). Rewritable holographic storage can be achieved via the photorefractive effect in crystals.



What is HVD

Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD) is an optical disc technology still in the research stage which would hold up to 3.9 terabyte (TB) of information.
It employs a technique known as collinear holography, whereby two lasers, one red and one blue-green, are collimated in a single beam.
The blue-green laser reads data encoded as laser interference fringes from a holographic layer near the top of the disc while the red laser is used as the reference beam and to read servo information from a regular CD-style aluminum layer near the bottom.
Holographic memory systems have been around for decades. They offer far more storage capacity than CDs and DVDs -- even "next-generation" DVDs like Blu-ray -- and their transfer rates leave conventional discs in the dust.


Advantages of HVD

Resistance to damage - If some parts of the medium are damaged, all information can still be obtained from other parts.
2. Efficient retrieval - All information can be retrieved from any part of the medium.
These discs have the capacity to hold up to 3.9 terabyte (TB) of information, which is approximately 6,000 times the capacity of a CD-ROM, 830 times the capacity of a DVD, 160 times the capacity of single-layer Blu-ray-Discs, and about 48 times the capacity of standard computer hard drives.
The HVD also has a transfer rate of 1 gigabit/s.
5. While reading a page the entire page of data can be retrieved quickly and at one time .






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13-07-2012, 02:36 PM

Holographic Display



.ppt   holo ppt.ppt (Size: 1.22 MB / Downloads: 23)

Introduction


A method of creating a three-dimensional image of an object on film by encoding not just the intensity but also the phase information of the light striking the film.
Invented by Dennis gabor in 1960.
The development of the laser enabled the first practical optical holograms that recorded 3D objects


Applications


Mobiles
Computers
Projectors
Televisions


Conclusion


Holography is one of the most recent developments in the field of science and technology.
With the use holography a very realistic picture can be produced i.e., the 3-D images.



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