Honda ASIMO
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summer project pal
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10-01-2011, 09:31 PM


INTRODUCTION

ASIMO, which stands for Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility, was developed by the Honda Motor Company and is the most advanced humanoid robot in the world. According to the ASIMO Web site, ASIMO is the only humanoid robot in the world that can walk independently and climb stairs. While there are several other humanoid robots that can walk, none have the smooth, realistic gait that ASIMO has.
In addition to ASIMO's ability to walk like we do, it can also understand some spoken commands and recognize faces. ASIMO has arms and hands so it can do things like turn on light switches, open doors, carry objects, and push carts
Rather than building a robot that would be another toy, Honda wanted to create a robot that would be a helper for people -- a robot to help around the house, help the elderly, or help someone confined to a wheelchair or bed. ASIMO is 4 feet (1.2 meters) high, which is just the right height to look eye to eye with someone seated in a chair. This allows ASIMO to do the jobs it was created to do without being too big and menacing. Often referred to as looking like a "kid wearing a spacesuit," ASIMO's friendly appearance and non-threatening size work well for the purposes Honda had in mind when creating it. ASIMO could also do jobs that are too dangerous for humans to do, like going into hazardous areas, disarming bombs, or fighting fires.


.doc   Honda ASIMO.doc (Size: 1.44 MB / Downloads: 177)
passwordConfusedeminar and presentationproject and implimentations



HISTORY

It was in the 1986 that the Honda Company began developing the ASIMO robot. The first robot Honda built was called E0. E0 walked very slowly, taking sometimes 10 seconds to complete a single step. This was because E0 did what was called "static walking". In static walking, after the robot begins moving one foot forward, it has to wait until it has its weight balanced on that foot before it begins to move the other foot forward. But humans don't walk that way, so the research continued.
To achieve a fast walking pace, it was necessary to study how human beings walk. The Honda engineers thoroughly researched and analyzed human walking and animal walking. The movement and location of joints needed were also researched. By 1987, Engineers developed a new method of walking called the “Dynamic Walking”. As technology improved, versions called E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 and E6 were brought out. Each of these versions had innovations of their own.

With a body, arms, hands and a head, the next generation of prototypes (P1, P2 and P3) looked more like a "humanoid”. P1, however, was a looming 6 feet 2 inches (188 cm) tall and weighed 386 pounds (175 kg). P2 was scaled down slightly in height, but weighed an even heavier 463 pounds (210 kg), it could walk very well on uneven surfaces, inclines, and could even grasp objects and push carts. P2 could even maintain its balance when pushed. Finally, P3 was built at a more comfortable (and less frightening) 5 feet 2 inches (157 cm) tall. Weighing 287 pounds (130 kg), P3 could walk faster and more smoothly than its predecessors.

Even more improvements had been made to the walking system, allowing ASIMO to walk gracefully and easily in almost any environment. Sophisticated hip joints allowed ASIMO to turn smoothly (something other robots have to stop and shuffle in order to do.)
In thinking about how ASIMO was to be used, the engineers made the decision to further reduce ASIMO's size to 4 feet (122 cm) so that not only would it not be intimidating to people who were seated (or standing, for that matter), it would actually be at eye level. This height also made it possible for ASIMO to work at table height or at a computer, reach light switches and turn door knobs. ASIMO's very strong but lightweight magnesium-alloy body, covered in plastic "skin," weighed in at only 115 pounds (52 kg).

Technology called "Intelligent walking technology" allowed ASIMO to predict its next movement automatically and shift its weight to make a turn. ASIMO's stride could also be adjusted in real time to make it walk faster or slower. P2 and P3 had to use programmed walking patterns.

In robotics, vision is a captured image that is interpreted based on programmed templates. In a manufacturing environment, where robotic arms build cars or robots inspect the microscopic connections on semiconductor chips, you're dealing with a controlled environment. The lighting is always the same, the angle is always the same, and there are a limited number of things to look at and understand. In the real (and unstructured) world, however, the number of things to look at and understand increases greatly.

A humanoid robot that must navigate through homes, buildings, or outdoors while performing jobs must be able to make sense of the many objects it "sees." Shadows, odd angles and movement must be understandable. For example, to walk on its own into an unknown area, a robot would have to detect and recognize objects in real time, selecting features such as color, shape, and edges to compare to a database of objects or environments it knows about. There can be thousands of objects in the robots "memory."


CONFIGURATION

WALKING


Honda researched both human and other forms of walking, performed numerous experiments and collected an immense amount of data. Based on this research, Honda established fast walking technology just like a human’s. Honda researchers began by studying the legs of insects, mammals, and the motion of a mountain climber with prosthetic legs to better understand the physiology and all of the things that take place when we walk, particularly in the joints. For example, the fact that we shift our weight using our bodies and especially our arms in order to balance was very important in getting ASIMO's walking mechanism right. The fact that we have toes that help with our balance was also taken into consideration: ASIMO actually has soft project and implimentationions on its feet that play a similar role to the one our toes play when we walk. This soft material also absorbs impact on the joints, just as our soft tissues do when we walk.

ASIMO has hip, knee, and foot joints. Robots have joints that researchers refer to as "degrees of freedom." A single degree of freedom allows movement either right and left or up and down. ASIMO has 26 degrees of freedom spread over different points of its body in order to allow it to move freely. There are two degrees of freedom in ASIMO's neck, six on each arm and six on each leg. The number of degrees of freedom necessary for ASIMO's legs was decided by measuring human joint movement while walking on flat ground and on stairs.

Achieving Stable Walking
Issues to be address in order to achieve stable walking were

 Not falling down even when the floor is uneven
 Not falling down even when pushed
 Being able to walk stable on stairs or slopes

The Engineers combined three controls to achieve stable walking for ASIMO. They are Floor reaction control, Target ZMP control and Foot planting location control



1. Floor Reaction Control

The floor reaction control absorbs irregularities in the floor and controls the placement of the soles of the feet when falling is imminent. For example, if the tip of the robot’s toe steps on a rock, the actual center of ground reaction shifts to the tip of the toe. The floor reaction control then causes the toe to rise slightly, returning the center of ground reaction to the target ZMP

2. Target ZMP Control

Zero moment point (ZMP) is defined as that point where the total inertial force is zero. Target ZMP will control ASIMO to maintain position by accelerating the upper torso in the direction in which it threatens to fall when the soles of the feet cannot stand firmly.

3. Foot Planting Location Control

When target ZMP control operates, the target position of the upper torso shifts in the direction of acceleration. When the next step is taken in the ideal step length, the feet will fall behind the torso. The Foot planting location control idealizes the stride to ensure the ideal relationship between torso speed and length of stride


INTELLIGENT WALKING TECHNOLOGY

Intelligent walking technology features a predicted movement control added to the earlier walking control technology. This new two legged walking technology permits more flexible walking. As a result, ASIMO can walk more smoothly and more naturally.

Creating Prediction Movement Control



When human beings walk straight ahead and start to turn a corner, before commencing the turn they shift their centre of gravity toward the inside of the turn. Using Intelligent Walking Technology ASIMO can predict next movement in real time and shift its centre of gravity in anticipation


VISION

In robotics, vision is a captured image that is interpreted based on programmed templates. In a manufacturing environment, where robotic arms build cars or robots inspect the microscopic connections on semiconductor chips, you're dealing with a controlled environment. The lighting is always the same, the angle is always the same, and there are a limited number of things to look at and understand. In the real (and unstructured) world, however, the number of things to look at and understand increases greatly.

A humanoid robot that must navigate through homes, buildings, or outdoors while performing jobs must be able to make sense of the many objects it "sees." Shadows, odd angles and movement must be understandable. For example, to walk on its own into an unknown area, a robot would have to detect and recognize objects in real time, selecting features such as color, shape, and edges to compare to a database of objects or environments it knows about. There can be thousands of objects in the robots "memory."

ASIMO's vision system consists of basic video cameras for eyes, located in its head. ASIMO uses a proprietary vision algorithm that lets it see, recognize, and avoid running into objects even if their orientation and lighting are not the same as those in its memory database. These cameras can detect multiple objects, recognize programmed faces, and even interpret hand motions. For example, when you hold your hand up to ASIMO in a "stop" position, ASIMO stops. The facial recognition feature allows ASIMO to greet "familiar" people.

ASIMO is not an autonomous robot. It can't enter a room and make decisions on its own about how to navigate. ASIMO either has to be programmed to do a specific job in a specific area that has markers that it understands, or it has to be manually controlled by a human.



CONTROLLERS

ASIMO's "backpack" carries the computer that controls ASIMO's movement. ASIMO can be controlled by three methods:

 PC
 Wireless controller (sort of like a joystick)
 Voice commands

Using wireless technology and a laptop or desktop computer, we can control ASIMO as well as see what ASIMO sees via its camera eyes. ASIMO can also use its PC connection to access the Internet and retrieve information for us, such as weather reports and news.

The wireless joystick controller operates ASIMO's movements the same way we would operate a remote-control car. We can make ASIMO go forward, backward, sideways, diagonally, turn in place, or walk around a corner. Making ASIMO move by remote control may not seem that advanced, but ASIMO does have the ability to self-adjust its steps. If it walks forward, and encounters a slope or some sort of obstacle, ASIMO automatically adjusts its steps to accommodate the terrain.

There are also preprogrammed gestures that can be selected using buttons on the controller. These include things like waving, grasping, and responding in other ways.

ASIMO's ability to understand voice commands is the newest addition for control. Its database includes about 30 different spoken commands that activate certain movements in ASIMO's repertoire.

In addition to the voice commands for controlling ASIMO's movements, there are also spoken commands to which ASIMO can respond verbally. This is the feature that has made it possible for ASIMO to work as a receptionist, greeting visitors and answering questions.


POWER

Like most other technologies in the robotics field, ASIMO is powered by servo motors. These are small but powerful motors with a rotating shaft that moves limbs or surfaces to a specific angle as directed by a controller. Once the motor has turned to the appropriate angle, it shuts off until it is instructed to turn again. For example, a servo may control the angle of a robot's arm joint, keeping it at the right angle until it needs to move, and then controlling that move. Servos use a position-sensing device (also called a digital decoder) to ensure that the shaft of the motor is in the right position. They usually use power proportional to the mechanical load they are carrying. A lightly loaded servo, for example, doesn't use much energy.

ASIMO has 26 servo motors in its body that move its arms, hands, legs, feet, ankles, and other moving parts. ASIMO manages a series of servo motors to control each kind of movement.

Batteries Required

ASIMO is powered by a rechargeable, 40-volt, nickel-metal hydride battery that lasts for 30 minutes on a single charge. The battery is stored in ASIMO's mid-section, where its weight also helps create ASIMO's center of balance. ASIMO's battery takes four hours to fully charge, so a second (and third) battery is crucial if we need ASIMO to operate for very long.

SPECIFICATIONS




FEATURES
Its main features are its friendly design, compactness, light weight body and more over the advanced walking technology. ASIMO’s size was chosen to allow it to operate in the human living space and to make it people friendly. A robot height between 120cm and that of an adult is ideal for operating in the human living space. This height characteristic makes ASIMO more user friendly than any other new age robots. A relative comparison is given below







APPLICATIONS

Although ASIMO isn't quite ready for prime time (there are still improvements that need to be made to allow it to fully function as Honda hopes), several ASIMO robots have been put to work in Japanese businesses, including IBM Japan and the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Tokyo. ASIMO works as a receptionist in these businesses, greeting guests and leading them around the facilities.
To perform these duties, ASIMO has to be specially programmed to know the layout of the buildings and the appropriate way to greet visitors and answer questions. While the heavy lease amount for ASIMO might be steep when compared to the salary these businesses would pay a human receptionist, the coolness factor appears to be worth the price.

OTHER DEVELOPMENTS

In addition to ASIMO, there are some other sophisticated humanoid robots out there that appear to do a lot of the same things (except for the smooth turning). The difference is that most of them are built on a much smaller scale and are intended more for entertainment than service. Right now, ASIMO's greatest competition in terms of technology seems to be:
 SONY's QRIO robot
 Fujitsu's HOAP-1 robot
 Dr. Robot
There are also robots used in hospitals around the world that navigate hallways and take elevators to deliver patient records, x-rays, medicines, and other things all over the hospital. They travel on wheels and are programmed to identify and follow markers and bar codes placed on the walls.





SOME FACTS

 It has been reported that because ASIMO's walk is so eerily human-like, Honda engineers felt compelled to visit the Vatican just to make sure it was okay to build a machine that was so much like a human. (The Vatican thought it was okay.)

 The maker company said that it had chosen 3 clients out of 40 offers for long term contract. Among them is IBM, Japan, which hired Asimo as a receptionist for an annual contract of 20 million yen ($ 1,66,200).


Conclusion

ASIMO was conceived to function in an actual human living environment in the near future. It is easy to operate, has a convenient size and weight and can move freely within the human living environment, all with a people friendly design. In the future, ASIMO may serve as another set of eyes, ears, hands and legs for all kinds of people in need. Someday ASIMO might help with important tasks like assisting the elderly or a person confined to a bed or a wheelchair. ASIMO might also perform certain tasks that are dangerous to humans, such as fighting fires or cleaning up toxic spills



BIBLIOGRAPHY

 honda.ca/HondaCorpEng/AboutHonda/ASIMO/Inside_ASIMO.htm

 en.wikipediawiki/Asimo

 w3cTR/1999/REC-html401-19991224/loose.dtd"

 forbeshome/2002/02/21/0221tentech.html

 pcmagarticle2/0,1759,849588,00.asp

 news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/4098201.stm

 electronics.howstuffworksasimo.htm/printable

 exn.ca/dailyplanet/story.asp?id=2003101452

 mechatronics.mech.western.edu/design/actuators/servomotor_intro.html

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summer project pal
Active In SP
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Posts: 308
Joined: Jan 2011
#2
10-01-2011, 09:51 PM

ASIMO stands for ADVANCED STEP IN INNOVATIVE MOBILITY
. It was developed by the honda motor campany. It is the most advanced humanoid robot in the world.
History:
1986:understanding how to walk on two legs
1987-1993: success in walking on two legs
1993-1997:Adding a head amd body to the two legs
2000: success in achieving human-like movement

CONFIGURATION:
Antenna-used to communicate to the controlling PC
Battery: the Ni-cad battery allows 25 mins of operation
Gyroscope and acceleration sensor: Body lean and acceleration are sensed.
Camera:To see the front of the robot.
6-Axis force sensor: The direction and amount of the force on the hand is sensed
Actuator: A brushless DC motor and a harmonic drive speed reducer performs the functions of the human muscles.

presentation:

.rar   ASIMO presentation.rar (Size: 1.03 MB / Downloads: 155)
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