Humanoid robots used for surveillance
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19-10-2010, 12:57 PM



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Humanoid robots used for surveillance

Shanker godwal M.TECH (Power system),2Keshav Kumar VIIth SEM (EE) ,
1V.J.T.I Mumbai,

ABSTRACT
Today is a world of new scientific invention. As this paper includes the use of humanoid robots in the field of security. There is a wide range of use of robot like in restaurant, in spying; in medical .our main objective is to bring this humanoid robot in the field of surveillance. My paper will give immense use to the army personnel those who are survellancing in the remote areas of the India. Now question arises why only humanoid robots used for the surveillance purpose? Now for this answer take the example of Mumbai terror attack the terrorist have done the damage for 72 hrs.now the N.S.G doesn’t know how many terrorist are there in hotel Taj .for this reason the robots are designed in a such a way to counter such terror activities . In my paper I have presented some modification in the robot i.e. to use the metal detector, infrared cameras for sensing in the very dim light or no light .temperature detector for detecting the human inside the building. In my paper I have used 10 mega pixel camera 360 rotation to get the clear cut view of the inside building .so this will help the army personnel to counter strike with the terrorist. There will be fewer casualties to army as well as human being. My motive for bringing this paper to you that there is a great scope of enhancement in the field of robotics for the security inside the country. The robot will also carry insurgency operation in country for countering terrorism. Human-Robot has recently received considerable attention in the academic community, in labs, in technology companies, and through the media. Because of this attention, it is desirable to present a survey of HR to serve as a tutorial to people outside the field and to promote discussion of a unified vision of HR within the field. The goal of this review is to present a unified treatment of HR-related problems, to identify key themes, and discuss challenge problems that are likely to shape the field in the near future. Although the review follows a survey structure, the goal of presenting a coherent "story" of HR means that there are necessarily some well-written, intriguing, and influential papers that are not referenced. Instead of trying to survey every paper, we describe the HR story from multiple perspectives with an eye toward identifying themes that cross applications. The survey attempts to include papers that represent a fair cross section of the universities, government efforts, industry labs, and countries that contribute to HR, and a cross section of the disciplines that contribute to the field, such as human, factors, robotics, cognitive psychology, and design. in the field of defense it is widely used for searching and surveillance purpose because it decreases the human casualties and other hindrance for the army personnel.

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kumarkeshavee
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11-11-2010, 02:17 PM

hi this is keshav author of this article and my email id is kumarkeshavee@gmail.com. any query contact with this mail
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nice to meet you ...
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29-01-2011, 06:51 PM

can any one send me ppt for the topic Humanoid robots used for surveillance.... my mail address basvojumahesh@gmail.com[/b]
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Abstract
A humanoid robot is a robot with its overall appearance, based on that of the human body, allowing interaction with made-for-human tools or environments. In general humanoid robots have a torso with a head, two arms and two legs. Creating the artificial human has always been the desire of mankind and the dream for many scientists and engineers. Nevertheless, it proved to be more difficult than one would imagine. We are now at a time where the technology permits us to draw closer to our quest. The humanoid robot is controlled by using the voice input. The voice input is given by MIC through PC the voice is transmitted through the robot end through wireless medium. The voice input is recognized in the PC and for the voice corresponding values are transmitted through RF transmitter. The RF receiver in the robot module receives the signal from the transmitter and operates according to the signal. Nevertheless, these humanoids represent our first step towards the creation of the artificial human. This robot has an ability to move forward, reverse, left and right motions. These operations are carried out by using the voice input coming from the PC.
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28-03-2011, 05:24 PM

this is a nice post it create awareness among the learner.
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02-04-2011, 03:57 PM


.doc   humanoid as swurvillace.doc (Size: 243.5 KB / Downloads: 36)
Humanoid robots used for surveillance
ABSTRACT

Today is a world of new scientific invention. As this paper includes the use of humanoid robots in the field of security. There is a wide range of use of robot like in restaurant, in spying; in medical .our main objective is to bring this humanoid robot in the field of surveillance. My paper will give immense use to the army personnel those who are survellancing in the remote areas of the India. Now question arises why only humanoid robots used for the surveillance purpose? Now for this answer take the example of Mumbai terror attack the terrorist have done the damage for 72 hrs.now the N.S.G doesn’t know how many terrorist are there in hotel Taj .for this reason the robots are designed in a such a way to counter such terror activities . In my paper I have presented some modification in the robot i.e. to use the metal detector, infrared cameras for sensing in the very dim light or no light .temperature detector for detecting the human inside the building. In my paper I have used 10 mega pixel camera 360 rotation to get the clear cut view of the inside building .so this will help the army personnel to counter strike with the terrorist. There will be fewer casualties to army as well as human being. My motive for bringing this paper to you that there is a great scope of enhancement in the field of robotics for the security inside the country. The robot will also carry insurgency operation in country for countering terrorism. Human-Robot has recently received considerable attention in the academic community, in labs, in technology companies, and through the media. Because of this attention, it is desirable to present a survey of HR to serve as a tutorial to people outside the field and to promote discussion of a unified vision of HR within the field. The goal of this review is to present a unified treatment of HR-related problems, to identify key themes, and discuss challenge problems that are likely to shape the field in the near future. Although the review follows a survey structure, the goal of presenting a coherent "story" of HR means that there are necessarily some well-written, intriguing, and influential papers that are not referenced. Instead of trying to survey every paper, we describe the HR story from multiple perspectives with an eye toward identifying themes that cross applications. The survey attempts to include papers that represent a fair cross section of the universities, government efforts, industry labs, and countries that contribute to HR, and a cross section of the disciplines that contribute to the field, such as human, factors, robotics, cognitive psychology, and design. in the field of defense it is widely used for searching and surveillance purpose because it decreases the human casualties and other hindrance for the army personnel.
INTRODUCTION
Before Da Vinci there was Al-Jazari – the Engineering genius of the Islamic world in the middle Ages. He designed and built a number of automatas including the first programmable humanoid robot. He is also invented the Crank-shank. A 13th Century Programmable Robot team from the USA history channel was on campus last month in the Faculty of Engineering to talk about some very old robots. They were there to film a replica of the mechanism for al-Jazari’s drinking boat; a boat full of musical automata first constructed in 1206. Professor Noel Sharkey from Computer Science built the core of the device –”bogged it together from a pile of rubbish”, he says – to demonstrate how it could have been programmed. The previous claim for the world’s oldest programmable automata is for a machine built by Leonardo da Vinci in 1478.
Al-Jazari’s machine was originally a boat with four automatic musicians that floated on a lake to entertain guests at royal drinking parties. It had two drummers, a harpist and a flautist. Professor Sharkey’s machine has just the one drummer with a drum, cymbals, bells and no body. The flautist is replaced with an Irish penny whistle. He says he wouldn’t risk taking this to any drinking parties round here.
The heart of the mechanism is a rotating cylindrical beam with pegs (cams) protruding from it. These just bump into little levers that operate the percussion. The point of the model is to demonstrate that the drummer can be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns if the pegs are moved around. In other words it is a programmable drum machine.
“Whether or not al-Jazari dynamically programmed his machines is an intriguing question”, he says, “it is quite likely that he used this method, at the very least, for fine tuning the rhythm of the musicians”. Professor Sharkey is currently looking at a much older mobile automaton device by Heron of Alexandria, 1st Century AD, which he now suspects may also have been programmable. [8]
HUMANOID ROBOT
Today in modern era of development of robot has come in great extent. ROBOT means servant. The word has been derived from word ROBOTA.
A humanoid robot is a robot with its overall appearance, based on that of the human body, allowing interaction with made-for-human tools or environments. In general humanoid robots have a torso with a head, two arms and two legs, although some forms of humanoid robots may model only part of the body, for example, from the waist up. Some humanoid robots may also have a 'face', with 'eyes' and 'mouth'. Androids are humanoid robots built to aesthetically resemble a human. A humanoid robot is an autonomous robot because it can adapt to changes in its environment or itself and continue to reach its goal. This is the main difference between humanoid and other kinds of robots. In this context, some of the capacities of a humanoid robot may include, among others:
• self-maintenance (like recharging itself)
• autonomous learning (learn or gain new capabilities without outside assistance, adjust strategies based on the surroundings and adapt to new situations)
• avoiding harmful situations to people, property, and itself
• safe interacting with human beings and the environment
Like other mechanical robots, humanoid refer to the following basic components too: Sensing, Actuating and Planning and Control. Since they try to simulate the human structure and behavior and they are autonomous systems, most of the times humanoid robots are more complex than other kinds of robots. This complexity affects all robotic scales (mechanical, spatial, time, power density, system and computational complexity), but it is more noticeable on power density and system complexity scales. In the first place, most current humanoids aren’t strong enough even to jump and this happens because the power/weight ratio is not as good as in the human body. The dynamically balancing Dexter can jump, but poorly so far. On the other hand, there are very good algorithms for the several areas of humanoid construction, but it is very difficult to merge all of them into one efficient system (the system complexity is very high). Nowadays, these are the main difficulties that humanoid robots development has to deal with. Humanoid robots are created to imitate some of the same physical and mental tasks that humans undergo daily. Scientists and specialists from many different fields including engineering, cognitive science, and linguistics combine their efforts to create a robot as human-like as possible. Their creators' goal for the robot is that one day it will be able to both understand human intelligence, reason and act like humans. If humanoids are able to do so, they could eventually work in cohesion with humans to create a more productive and higher quality future. Another important benefit of developing androids is to understand the human body's biological and mental processes, from the seemingly simple act of walking to the concepts of consciousness and spirituality. Right now they are used for welding. In the future they can greatly assist humans by welding and mining for coal. There are currently two ways to model a humanoid robot. The first one models the robot like a set of rigid links, which are connected with joints. This kind of structure is similar to the one that can be found in industrial robots. Although this approach is used for most of the humanoid robots, a new one is emerging in some research works that use the knowledge acquired on biomechanics. In this one, the humanoid robot's bottom line is a resemblance of the human skeleton.
Enon was created to be a personal assistant. It is self-guiding and has limited speech recognition and synthesis. It can also carry things.
Humanoid robots are used as a research tool in several scientific areas.
Researchers need to understand the human body structure and behavior (biomechanics) to build and study humanoid robots. On the other side, the attempt to simulate the human body leads to a better understanding of it.
Human cognition is a field of study which is focused on how humans learn from sensory information in order to acquire perceptual and motor skills. This knowledge is used to develop computational models of human behavior and it has been improving over time.
It has been suggested that very advanced robotics will facilitate the enhancement of ordinary humans.
Although the initial aim of humanoid research was to build better orthosis and prosthesis for human beings, knowledge has been transferred between both disciplines. A few examples are: powered leg prosthesis for neuromuscular impaired, ankle-foot orthosis, biological realistic leg prosthesis and forearm prosthesis.
Besides the research, humanoid robots are being developed to perform human tasks like personal assistance, where they should be able to assist the sick and elderly, and dirty or dangerous jobs. Regular jobs like being a receptionist or a worker of an automotive manufacturing line are also suitable for humanoids. In essence, since they can use tools and operate equipment and vehicles designed for the human form, humanoids could theoretically perform any task a human being can, so long as they have the proper software. However, the complexity of doing so is deceptively great.
They are becoming increasingly popular for providing entertainment too. For example, Ursula, a female robot, sings, dances, and speaks to her audiences at Universal Studios. Several Disney attractions employ the use of animatrons, robots that look, move, and speak much like human beings, in some of their theme park shows. These animatrons look so realistic that it can be hard to decipher from a distance whether or not they are actually human. Although they have a realistic look, they have no cognition or physical autonomy.[9]
Humanoid robots, especially with artificial intelligence algorithms, could be useful for future dangerous and/or distant space exploration missions, without having the need to turn back around again and return to Earth once the mission is completed
THEORY SENSORS
A sensor is a device that measures some attribute of the world. Being one of the three primitives of robotics (besides planning and control), sensing plays an important role in robotic paradigms.
Sensors can be classified according to the physical process with which they work or according to the type of measurement information that they give as output. In this case, the second approach was used.
Proprioceptive Sensors
Proprioceptive sensors sense the position, the orientation and the speed of the humanoid's body and joints. In human beings inner ears are used to maintain balance and orientation. Humanoid robots use accelerometers to measure the acceleration, from which velocity can be calculated by integration; tilt sensors to measure inclination; force sensors placed in robot's hands and feet to measure contact force with environment; position sensors, that indicate the actual position of the robot (from which the velocity can be calculated by derivation) or even speed sensors.
Exteroceptive Sensors
Exteroceptive sensors give the robot information about the surrounding environment allowing the robot to interact with the world. The exteroceptive sensors are classified according to their functionality.
Proximity sensors are used to measure the relative distance (range) between the sensor and objects in the environment. They perform the same task that vision and tactile senses do in human beings. There are other kinds of proximity measurements, like laser ranging, the usage of stereo cameras, or the project and implimentationion of a colored line, grid or pattern of dots to observe how the pattern is distorted by the environment. To sense proximity, humanoid robots can use sonars and infrared sensors, or tactile sensors like bump sensors, whiskers (or feelers), capacitive and piezoresistive sensors.
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