IMPROVING INTRUSION DETECTION PERFORMANCE USING LAMSTAR NEURAL NETWORK full report
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IMPROVING INTRUSION DETECTION PERFORMANCE USING LAMSTAR NEURAL NETWORK

Presented By:
V. Venkatachalam1 S.Selvan2
1Asst Professor HOD/CSE Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Thudupathi, Erode-638057, Tamilnadu, India 2Professor HOD/ITPSG college of Technology ,Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.

ABSTRACT

Computer systems vulnerabilities such as software bugs are often exploited by malicious users to intrude into information systems. With the recent growth of the Internet such security limitations are becoming more and more pressing. One commonly used defense measure against such malicious attacks in the Internet are Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs). Due to increasing incidents of cyber attacks, building effective intrusion detection systems (IDS) are essential for protecting information systems security, andyet it remains an elusive goal and a great challenge. We previously developed an Intrusion Detection System using LAMSTAR neural network to learn patterns of normal and intrusive activities and to classify observed system activities. Here we further investigate the time taken for training and testing, generate Confusion matrix with KDD CUP 99 data using simulation tool and compare it with five classification techniques (Gaussian Mixture, Radial Basis Function, Binary Tree Classifier, SOM, and ART). The results indicate that LAMSTAR exhibit high accuracy at the cost of long training time.
Keywords: Intrusion Detection System, LAMSTAR, Gaussian Mixture, SOM, Radial Basis Function, Binary Tree Classifier, ART.

1. INTRODUCTION

Intrusion detection and prevention generally refers to a broad range of strategies for defending against malicious attacks. Intrusion detection can be categorized into mis¬use detection and anomaly detection[1]. Misuse typically is a known attack, e.g., a hacker attempting to break into an email server in a way that IDS has already trained. A misuse detection system tries to model normal and abnormal behavior from known attacks. It works by comparing network traffic, system call sequences, or other features of known attack patterns. An anomaly is something out of the ordinary, e.g., abnormal network traffic which is actually caused by unknown attacks. An anomaly detection system models normal behavior and identifies a behavior as abnormal (or anomalous) if it is sufficiently different from known normal behaviors.
We previously developed an Intrusion Detecton System using LAMSTAR neural network to learn patterns of normal and intrusive activities and to classify observed system activities. In this paper we further investigate the time taken for training and testing, generate Confusion matrix using simulation tool and compare it with five classification techniques (Gaussian Mixture, Radial Basis Function, Binary Tree Classifier, SOM, and ART)
This paper is organized as follows: section 2 gives some theoretic background about LAMSTAR neural network. Section 3 presents the details about KDD cup 99 dataset used for testing and training the Intrusion Detection system and the cost matrix used to calculate cost per e xample. Section 4 gives details about the various algorithms and the parameters used to obtain the confusion matrix and cost per example. Section 5 summarizes the obtained results with comparison and discussions. The paper is finally concluded with the most essential points
2. LAMSTAR

A Large Scale Memory Storage and Retrieval (LAMSTAR) network is proposed in [2,3] by combining SOM modules and statistical decision tools. It was specifically developed for application to problems involving very large memory that relates to many different categories (attributes) where some data is exact while the other is fuzzy and where for a given problem some categories might be totally missing [2]. Large Scale Memory Storage and Retrieval (LAMSTAR) network research, which targets large-scale memory storage and retrieval problems. This model attempts to imitate, in a gross manner, processes of the human central nervous system (CNS) concerning storage and retrieval of patterns, impressions, and sensed observations including processes of forgetting and recollection. It attempts to achieve this without contradicting findings from physiological and psychological observations, at least in an input/output manner. Furthermore, it attempts to do so in a computationally efficient manner using tools of neural networks, especially Self-Organizing-Map based (SOM) network modules, combined with statistical decision tools. Its design was guided by trying to find a mechanistic neural network-based model for very general storage and retrieval processes involved. This general approach is related to Minsky's idea that the human brain consists of many agents, and a knowledge link is formed among them whenever the human memorizes an experience. When the knowledge link is subsequently activated, it reactivates the mental agents needed to recreate a mental state similar to the original. The LAMSTAR network employs this general philosophy of linkages between a large number of physically separate modules that represent concepts, such as time, location, patterns, etc., in an explicit algorithmic network.
The LAMSTAR network has been successfully applied in fields of medicine (diagnosis)[4,5,6], engineering (automotive fault detection) and multimedia information systems[7]. Whereas the LAMSTAR design addresses large-scale memory retrieval problems, we use LAMSTAR concepts to processes of storage and retrieval, interpolation and extrapolation of input data, and the use of reward-based correlation-links between modules to detect intrusions. In this modified LAMSTAR network, each Kohonen SOM module represents a class of sub-patterns. The model assumes that the input patterns have been separated into sub-patterns before entering the SOM module . The network is thus organized to assign each neuron to a class of neurons (i.e., one SOM module) that best corresponds to the input sub-pattern. This SOM configuration yields very rapid matching with good error tolerance, and is capable of generalization. Arrays of correlation links (C -links) connect the modules using coefficients determined by the statistical correlations between the various patterns considered. A coordinated activation of neurons between the
various modules allows the network to recreate (interpolate) complex patterns and make associations.

3. DATA SET & COST MATRIX
3.1 DATA SET

We trained and tested our system using KDD Cup's 99 dataset [8,9] which covers four categories of attacks: Denial of Service (DoS) attacks:deny legitimate requests to a system, e.g.syn flood, User-to-Root (U2R) attacks: unauthorized access to local super user(root) privileges, e.g.various buffer overlow attacks, Remote-to-Local (R2L) attacks:unauthorized access from a remote machine, e.g. guessing password, and Probing: surveillance and other probing, e.g. port scanning. The 1999 Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Intrusion Detection Evaluation Program was prepared and managed by MIT Lincoln Labs. The objective was to survey and evaluate research in intrusion detection. A standard set of data to be audited, which includes a wide variety of intrusions simulated in a military network environment, was provided. Table I gives the details of KDD CUP 99 data.
Dataset DOS PROBE U2R R2L Total Total
Label



Attack Normal
Traini ng data 391458 4107 52 1126 494020 97277
Testing data 229853 4166 228 16189 311029 60593
Table I : KDD Cup 99 Training and Testing data

3.1.1 Feature Extractions and Preprocessing

The input data to the neural network must be in the range [0 1] or [-1 1]. Hence preprocessing and normalization of data is required. The kdd-cup format data is preprocessed. Each record in kdd-cup format has 41 features, each of which is in one of the continuous, discrete and symbolic form, with significantly varying ranges. Based on the type of neural nets, the input data may have different forms and so needs different preprocessing. Some neural nets only accept binary input and some can also accept continuous-valued data. In Preprocessor, after extracting kdd-cup features from each record, each feature is converted from text or symbolic form into numerical form. For converting symbols into numerical form, an integer code is assigned to each symbol. For instance, in the case of protocol_type feature, 0 is assigned to tcp, 1 to udp, and 2 to the icmp symbol. Attack names were first mapped to one of the five classes, 0 for Normal, 1
for Probe, 2 for DoS, 3 for U2R, and 4 for R2L.
Two features spanned over a very large integer range, namely src_bytes [0, 1.3 billion] and dst_bytes [0, 1.3 billion]. Logarithmic scaling (with base 10) was applied to these features to reduce the range to [0.0, 9.14]. All other features were boolean, in the range [0.0, 1.0]. Hence scaling was not necessary for these attributes.

3.1.2 Normalization

For normalizing feature values, a statistical analysis is performed on the values of each feature based on the existing data from KDD Cup's 99 dataset and then acceptable maximum value for each feature is determined. According to the maximum values and the following simple formula, normalization of feature values in the range [0,1] is calculated.
If ( f > MaxF ) Nf=1; Otherwise Nf = ( f / MaxF) F: Feature f: Feature value MaxF: Maximum acceptable value for F Nf: Normalized or scaled value
of F
Another simple way to Normalize the data is to use SOM toolbox of the MATLAB software. In this paper the following matlab commands were used to normalize the data.
sD=som_read_data('kddcup.data')
sD=som_normalize(sD,'var',1:4)
sD=som_normalize(sD,'log',5:6)
sD=som_normalize(sD,'var',7:41)
sD=som_normalize(sD,'var',1:41)
3.2 COST MATRIX
A cost matrix © is defined by associating classes as labels for the rows and columns of a square matrix: in the current context for the KDD dataset, there are five classes, {Normal, Probe, DoS, U2R, R2L}, and therefore the matrix has dimensions of 5x5. An entry at row i and column j, C(i,j), represents the non-negative cost of misclassifying a pattern belonging to class i into class j. Cost matrix values employed for the KDD dataset are defined elsewhere in [10]. These values were also used for evaluating results of the KDD'99 competition. The magnitude of these values was directly proportional to the impact on the computing platform under attack if a test record was placed in a wrong category. A confusion matrix (CM) is similarly defined in that row and column labels are class names: a 5x5 matrix for the KDD dataset. An entry at row i and column j, CM(i,j), represents the number of misclassified patterns, which originally belong to class i yet mistakenly identified as a member of class j. Given the cost matrix as predefined in [10 ] and the confusion matrix obtained subsequent to an empirical testing process, cost per example (CPE) was calculated using the formula,
1 5 5 CPE = ” ? ? CM(ij)*C(ij)
where CM corresponds to confusion matrix, C corresponds to the cost matrix, and N represents the number of patterns tested. A lower value for the cost per example indicates a better classifier model. Comparing performances of classifiers for a given attack category is implemented through the probability of detection along with the false alarm rate, which are widely accepted as standard measures. Table II shows the cost matrix used for scoring entries
Normal Probe DOS U2R R2L
Normal 0 1 2 2 2
Probe 1 0 2 2 2
DOS 2 1 0 2 2
U2R 3 2 2 0 2
R2L 4 2 2 2 0
Table II The cost matrix used for scoring entries
In the confusion matrices above, columns correspond to predicted categories, while rows correspond to actual categories.
The software tool LNKnet, which is a publicly available pattern classification software package [11], was used to simulate pattern recognition and machine
learning models. The SOM and LAMSTAR was
simulated using JNNS [12] software tool.
3.2.1 Standard metrics for evaluations of Intrusions (attacks)
We evaluated the performance of various IDS systems based on the Detection Rate :detecting normal traffic from attack and recognizing the known attack type False Positive Rate : mis-detecting attack[13] . Table III shows the standard metrics for evaluation of Intrusions
Number of samples classified correctly
Detection rate :
Number of samples used for training
False Positives
False alarm Rate :
Total number of normal connections
Confusion matrix
(Standard Metrics)
Actual Normal
Connection Intrusions
label (Attacks)
Normal
True Negative(TN) False Negative(FN)
Intrusions(Attacks)
False Alarm(FP)
Correctly detected
Attacks (TP)
Table III: Standard metrics for evaluations of Intrusions (attacks)
^Predicted Actual ^\ Normal Probe DOS U2R R2L %correct
Normal 59969 423 190 5 6 98.97
Probe 195 3876 95 0 0 93.03
DOS 18015 9002 202822 9 5 88.24
U2R 145 25 1 52 5 22.8
R2l 13950 650 5 30 1554 9.6
%correct 64.99 27.73 99.85 54.16 98.98
CPE = .3801
Table IV Confusion Matrix for Gaussian mixture IDS CPE = .2796
^Predicted Actual ^\ Normal Probe DOS U2R R2L %correct
Normal 60030 263 290 8 2 99.07
Probe 350 3804 8 3 1 91.31
DOS 37050 20163 172620 15 5 75.10
U2R 190 20 2 16 0 7.01
R2l 7282 7800 200 0 907 5.6
%correct 57.22 11.87 99.71 38.09 99.12
Table V ConfusionMatrix for RBF IDS
^Predicted Actual ^\ Normal Probe DOS U2R R2L %correct
Normal 56945 3448 190 8 2 93.98
Probe 1200 2679 280 5 2 64.30
DOS 7964 996 220889 3 1 96.10
U2R 101 68 9 49 1 21.49
R2l 11295 2993 7 0 1894 11.7
%correct 73.47 21.30 99.78 75.38 99.68
Table VIII Confusion Matrix for ART IDS CPE=.1830

4. ALGORITHMS APPLIED TO INTRUSION DETECTION
4.1 Gaussian Mixture

The Gaussian Mixture classifier[14] can perform better than a Gaussian classifier when classifier distributions are not unimodal Gaussian. Different simulations were performed by changing various parameters like, each class has its own Gaussian mixture, all classes share a single set of tied Gaussian mixtures, diagonal covariance, full matrices covariance, separate variance for each gaussian . The simulation result with parameters ,each class has its own Gaussian mixture and diagonal covariance gives the better cost per example 0.2796. Table IV shows the Confusion Matrix obtained for Gaussian mixture IDS indicates that in total 98.97% of the "normal" examples were recognized correctly. The bottom row shows that 64.99% of test examples said to be normal were indeed "normal" in reality. From the last column, we can obtain the average detect rate of 62.52%. The false positive rate for Normal class is 100-64.99 =35.01 %.
4.2 Radial Basis Function
Radial Basis Function classifiers [15] calculate discriminant functions using local Gaussian functions. A total of six simulations were performed using the RBF algorithm .Each simulation used initial clusters created using K-means algorithm: there were 8,16,32,40 ,64 and 75 clusters each in different output classes. Weights are trained using least-square matrix inversion to minimize the squared error of the output sums given the basis function outputs for the training patterns. During training and testing variance are increased to provide good coverage of the data .For each simulation using the RBF, cost per example for the test dataset was calculated. The model with 64 clusters performed best with the cost per example equal to .3801. Table V shows the Confusion Matrix obtained for Radial Basis Function IDS.
4.3 SOM
For SOM [16,17] the training algorithm can be summarized in four basic steps. Step 1 initializes the SOM before training. Best matching unit (BMU) is the neuron, which resembles the input pattern most. On Step 2, best matching unit is determined. Step 3 involves adjusting best matching neuron (or unit) and its neighbors so that the region surrounding the best matching unit will represent the input pattern better. This training process continues until all input vectors are processed. Convergence criterion utilized here is in terms of epochs, which defines how many times all input vectors should be fed to the SOM for training. The epochs ranging from 100 to 130 gives the better performance cost per example .1996. Table VI shows the confusion matrix obtained for
SOM IDS
Predicted Actual \ Normal Probe DOS U2R R2L %
correc t
Normal * 56945 3448 190 8 2 93.98
Probe 1200 2679 280 5 2 64.30
DOS 7964 996 220889 3 1 96.10
U2R 101 68 9 49 1 21.49
R2l 11295 2993 7 0 1894 11.7
%correct 73.47 21.30 99.78 75.38 99.68
Table VI Confusion Matrix for SOM IDS CPE =.1996
4.4 Binary Tree classifier
The binary decision tree classifier[17] trains and tests very quickly. It can also be used to identify the input features which are most important for classification because feature selection is part of the tree-buliding process. Two different training options were used 1.Expand tree until there are no errors. 2.Stop Expansion Early .Two different testing options were used 1.Full tree for testing, 2.Maximum number of nodes during testing .The simulation with the parameters Expand tree until there are no errors for training and Full tree for testing gives the best cost per example .1841 . Table VII shows the confusion matrix obtained for the Binary tree classifier IDS
Predicted Actual Normal Probe DOS U2R R2L %correct
Normal 58430 1475 678 7 3 96.43
Probe 419 3247 492 6 2 77.94
DOS 7159 995 221694 4 1 96.45
U2R 97 99 1 31 0 13.59
R2l 8063 1000 7054 0 72 0.44
%correct 78.78 47.63 96.42 64.58 92.3 0
Table VII Confusion Matrix for Binary Tree Classifier IDS CPE=.1841
4.5 ART
Stability and plasticity of ART[18] nets and the capability of clustering input patterns based on the user controlled similarity between them, made such nets more appropriate for using in IDSs, rather than the other types of unsupervised nets including SOM, for classifying network traffic into normal and intrusive attack. Accordingly, we
used two types of unsupervised ART nets, ART -1 and ART-2. For ART1 and ART2 the optimum value for the vigilance parameter and number of epochs determines the performance. ART1 with vigilance value of .92, ART2 with vigilance value of .97 and epochs ranging from 90 to 120 gives the better result. Cost per example .1830. Table VIII shows the confusion matrix obtained for ART
IDS
4.6 LAMSTAR
4.6.1 LAMSTAR IDS DESIGN
KDD Cup data
Using the LAMSTAR[19,4,5] algorithm, different clusters were specified and generated for each output class. ulations were run having 2,4,8,16,32,40,64 clusters. Clusters were trained until the average squared error difference between two epochs was less than 1%.

4.6.1 LAMSTAR IDS DESIGN

A modified LAMSTAR network used for intrusion detection is as shown in Figure 1. The model reads in KDD cup 99 data sends it first to the feature extraction module which extracts 41 features of the data and sends it to preprocessing module. The preprocessing module converts the 41 features into a standardized numeric repres entation Normalization block reads the preprocessed data and normalizes the data into a format required by the SOM's. The normalized input pattern was split into sub patterns (basic features 9, content features 13, traffic 9, and others 10 )[8]. Each sub pattern given to one SOM module. This SOM configuration yields very rapid matching with good error tolerance, and is capable of generalization. Between SOM modules, connections are established using correlation links. The correlation links distribute information between various modules. The training data contains 22 attack patterns and normal patterns. The SOM modules are trained using this pattern. The coordinated activation of neurons between the various modules allows the network to detect intrusions.
The input pattern is stored as a real vector x given by:
mT
X [ x1T,^.xiT,^.x
(1)
To store data concerning the i'th category of the input
i
pattern, each sub-pattern x is then channeled to the corresponding i'th SOM module. A winning neuron is determined for each input based on the similarity
i i
between the input vector x and weight vectors w (stored
i
information). For a sub-pattern x , the winning neuron is determined by the minimum Euclidean distance between
i i
x and w :
- input vector in i'th SOM
-index of the winning neuron - winner weight vector in ith
where xi module
winner
i
^winner
SOM module
k - a number of neurons(stored
patterns)in ith SOM module
||-|| - Vector Euclidean distance :
i? n
||x-w|| = ? (w i- x)2
i?1
where n - dimension of sub vectors x and w
The SOM module is a Winner-Take-All[12]
network where only the neuron with the highest correlation between its input vector and its correspondence weight vector will have a non-zero output. The Winner-Take-All feature also involves lateral inhibition such that each neuron has a single positive feedback onto itself and negative feedback connections to all other units.
? -Learning rate a slowly decreasing function of time, initial weights are assumed with random values. The learning rate is updated by, ? (t+1) = 0.5 ? (t)
4.6.2 Training phase
The training of the SOM modules are done as described below
SOM modules are trained with sub-patterns derived from the KDD cup 99 data. Given an input pattern x and for
i
each x sub-pattern to be stored, the network inspects all
i
weight vectors w in the i'th SOM module. If any previously stored pattern matches the input sub-pattern within a preset tolerance (error e), the system updates the proper weights or creates a new pattern in the SOM module. The choice of e 's value depend on the size of the cluster. The following expression is used to calculate the value of e:
e = M/faX (dist(x,ci))/10 where c is the cluster center
x? cli
i
-.(3)
output of neuron j in
oj
0 otherwise
where
wiw
ith SOM module
winning weight
winner
vector in ith SOM module
winner - index of winning
neuron in ith SOM module The neuron with the smallest error determined is declared the winner and its weights w are adjusted using the
winner
Hebbian learning law, which leads to an approximate
solution:
w (t+1)= w (t)+ ? .( x(t) w' (t))
w nner w nner w nner
-.(4)
The adjustment in the LAMSTAR SOM module is
weighted according to a pre-assigned Gaussian hat neighborhood function ?(winner,j):
w j (t+1) = w) (t) + ? (winner, j). ? .(xi(t) - w\ (t)
i -.(5)
Where wj(t+1) - new weight of the neighbour neuron j
from winning neuron winner
? (winner, j). -Neighborhood define as gaussian
hat
new pattern, x = w , where index j is the first unused k
j J
neuron in i'th SOM module. If there are no more 'free' neurons, the system will fail, which means either the preset tolerance has to be increased to include more patterns in the same cluster of already stored patterns, or more neurons have to be added on the i'th SOM module.
?
(old)- C Max) ,
reward( (
Correlation links C-links among SOM modules are created as follows. Individual neurons represent only a limited portion of the information input. Sub-patterns are stored in SOM's and the correlation links between these sub-patterns are established in such a way that the informations are distributed between neurons in various SOM modules and correlation links. Even if one neuron fails only a little information is lost since the information is spread among SOM's and correlation links. Correlation-link coefficient values C-link are determined by evaluation distance minimization to determine winning neurons, where a win activates a count-up element associated with each neuron and with its respective input-side link. During training sessions, the values of C-links are modified according to the following simple rule (reward)
Cl (new)= Ci (old) – 
Ck j (old) ? 0, 1 otherwise -.(6)
'k, j
i,
k, j
correlation link between k'th neuron in i'th
for
C
SOM module and l'th neuron in j'th SOM module
TABLE X Comparison of Detection Rate, False Alarm Rate, Training Time and Testing Time of various classifiers
To keep link-weights within a reasonable range, whenever the highest of all weights reaches a certain threshold all link-weights to that SOM are uniformly reduced by the same proportion, for example 50%. Additionally, link-weights are never reduced to zero or the connection between the two neurons will be lost permanently. If the correlation link between two sub-patterns already exists,
namely, Ck\ > 0 (a result from previous training), the formula of equation 6 updates (increases) the analyzed C¬link. If there are no correlations (Ck,l = 0), the system
creates new C-link with initial value Ci,j =1.
4.6.3 Detection phase
The sub-patterns from input pattern is selected and the correlations with stored sub-patterns in each SOM module is examined. For example, one i'th SOM module could have previously stored source IP address, and will correlate any given input i'th sub-pattern and determine if there is a match or not. The Intruder packet is detected by means of its C-links. Once all the winning neurons are determined, the system obtains all correlation-links coefficient values among all SOM modules. The output SOM layer (Figure 1), with which all C-links are inter-connected, will determine whether the input pattern is an intruder packet or a normal packet. This model achieved the lowest cost per example value .1020. Table IX shows the confusion matrix obtained for LAMSTAR IDS

5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Best performing instances of all classifiers developed through the KDD testing data set[20] . For a given classifier, its detection rate, false alarm rate, Training time and Testing time performance on a specific attack category was recorded. Simulation results are presented in Table X .Both detection rate, false alarm rate, Training time and Testing time are indicated for each classifier and each attack category. The false alarm rate and detection rate of all the classifiers were recorded. TABLE X shows the comparison of various classifiers.

CONCLUSION

In this paper, we proposed a novel method based on LAMSTAR neural network for intrusion identification. A simulation study was performed to assess the performance of a set of machine learning algorithms on the KDD 1999 Cup intrusion detection dataset. Simulation results demonstrated that all the algorithms
performed well for NORMAL ,DOS and PROBE classes
except SOM which shows poor result for PROBE class.
For the U2R class SOM and LAMSTAR gives a better
performance than the other algorithms For R2L class
LAMSTAR gives the better result. Overall LAMSTAR
gives better performance at the cost of long training time

REFERENCES

[1 ] K.Anup Ghosh et.al, " Study in Using Neural Networks for Anomaly and Misuse Detection ", Proceedings of the 8th USENIX Security Symposium, pp 131-142, August 1999, Washington, D.C.
[2] Abirami Muralidharan, J.Patrick Rousche, " Decoding of auditory cortex signals with a LAMSTAR neural network ", Neurological Research, Volume 27, pp. 4-10, January 2005
[3] D.Graupe and H. Kordylewski, "A Large Memory Storage and Retrieval Neural Network for Adaptive Retrieval and Diagnosis ", International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, volume 8, pp.115-138, 1998.
[4] D.Graupe, " Principles of Artificial Neural Networks", pp. 191-222, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore, 1997.
[5] H. Kordylewski, "A Large Memory Storage and Retrieval Neural Network for Medical and Engineering Diagnosis/Fault Detection ", Doctor of Philosophy's Thesis, University of Illinois at Chicago, TK-99999-K629,
1998.
[6] D.Graupe and H. Kordylewski, "A Large Memory Storage and Retrieval Neural Network for Adaptive Retrieval and Diagnosis ", International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, volume 8, pp.115-138, 1998.
[7] S.Chang.et.al, "An Active Multimedia Information System for Information Retrieval, Discovery and Fusion ", International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, volume 8, pp. 139-160,
998.kdd.ics.uci.edu//databases/kddcup98/kddcup98 .html
[8] Srilatha Chebrolu et.al, "Feature deduction and ensemble design of intrusion detection systems", Elsevier Journal of Computers & Security" Vol. 24/4, pp. 295-307, 2005.
[9] Itzhak Levin, KDD-99 Classifier Learning Contest LL
Soft's Results Overview , " SIGKDD Explorations.
Copyright 2000 ACM SIGKDD" , Volume 1, Issue 2,
pp. 67 -75, January 2000.
[10] ll.mit.edu/SST/lnknet/
[11] www-ra.informatik.uni-
tuebingen.de/software/JavaNNS/welcome_e.html
[12] Dae-Ki Kang, "Learning Classifiers for Misuse and Anomaly Detection Using a Bag of System Calls Representation", Proceedings of the 6th IEEE Workshop on Information Assurance and Security United States Military Academy, West Point, NY,2005.
[13] Jing Gao et.al, "A Novel Framework for Incorporating Labeled Examples into Anomaly Detection", Proceedings of the Siam Conference on Data Mining,
April 2006.
[14] Dima Novikov et.al, "Anomaly Detection Based Intrusion Detection" Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Information Technology: New
Generations (ITNG'06), pp. 420-425.
[15] Khaled Labib and Rao Vemuri , " NSOM: A Real-Time Network-Based Intrusion Detection System Using Self-Organizing Maps " , Networks and Security, 21(1), Oct.
2002.
[16] Richard Lippmann, "Passive Operating System Identification From TCP/IP Packet Headers" published in the Proceedings of the Workshop on Data Mining for Computer Security (DMSEC), Lincoln Laboratory
,Massachusetts, 2003.
[17] Morteza Amini et.al, "Network-Based Intrusion Detection Using Unsupervised Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)", Published in the Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Engineering of Intelligent Systems (EIS
2004), Madeira, Portugal, 2004.
[18] Liberios VOKOROKOS et.al, "Intrusion detection system using self organizing map", Acta Electrotechnica et Informatica , Vol. 6 No.1, pp.1-6, 2006
Dr. S. Selvan
Professor & HOD, PSG College of
Technology, Coimbatore.
Qualification : B.E, M.E, PhD. Specialization areas : Soft Computing, Information Processing, Computer Networks, Digital Communication Techniques. E- mailid selvanfSiit.psgtech.ac.in ,
V. Venkatachalam
Assistant Professor & Head / CSE, Erode Sengunthar Engg. College,. Pursuing Ph.d Networking in Anna University, M. Tech Computer Science in National Institute of Technology, Trichy (Formerly REC). M.S. Computer Science
from BITS, Pilani. B.E. ECE from
CIT, Coimbatore. He has presented
15 papers in National and
International Conferences.
Published the book " Computer Placement Guidance " .
[19] Chaker Katar, Combining Multiple Techniques for Intrusion Detection", International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.6 No.2B, February
2006.
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dhamu
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27-10-2011, 05:11 PM

hello.I am also doing project and implimentation in intrusion detection with reduced input features using neural networks.can u send the codings to me
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