INDIAN AIR LINES full report
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29-03-2010, 11:40 PM


IAL
PRESENTATION ON

INDIAN AIR LINES (IAL)


SUBMITTED BY:-
DEVANSHU CHANDA
PERSUING B.E. IN
ELECTRONICS &


COMMUNICATION
( ECE )

INDIAN AIRLINES
Indian Airlines came into existence as a public sector undertaking on June 15th 1953.

Indian Airlines is the member of International Air Transport Association (IATA).

Indian Airlines is also the member of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

Offers about 220 services daily &links 59 destinations.

Has 17 stations in the neighboring countries of Nepal, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Srilanka, Maldives, Thailand,

Bangladesh, Singapore, Oman, UAE, Kuwait, & Malaysia.

Maintenance carried out at four engineering bases equipped with hangers, modern workshops, and test equipment

located at Kolkata,Delhi, Mumbai & Hyderabad.

Real time computer reservations system (CRS) established in March 1985.

INDIAN AIRLINES AT GLANCE

BOEING B-737 12
AIRBUS A-320 30
AIRBUS A-300 11
Domestic destinations 69
Over seas destination 17

Revenue (per year) 9974 million
Passengers carried (per year) 7.8 million
Cargo carried (per year) 94,000 tonnes






PRINCIPLE
The Bernoulliâ„¢s theory of Ventures- According to Bernoulliâ„¢s principle, which says that if air speeds up, the

pressure is higher. Thus a wing generates lift because the air goes slower over the top creating a region of low

pressure and air goes faster at the bottom, and thus lifts.
CURVED SURFACE CRITERIA
Coanda effect
Why should a fluid follow a curved surface? The answer is viscosity; the resistance to flow which also gives the

air a kind of "stickiness". Viscosity in air is very small but it is enough for the air molecules to want to stick

to the surface.
ABOUT WINGS
Lift can be accurately and exactly defined by the relationship
Lift =1/2 pV2 S C
Where, p is air density
V is speed of aircraft
S plane area of wing
C lift coefficient
The relationship of lift coefficient and the angle of attack, which the lift coefficient depicts, is as under :-

HOW THE AIRCRAFT FLIES ?
Straight and Level Flight
For an airplane to fly straight and level, the following relationships must be true:
Thrust = Drag
Lift = Weight
If, for any reason, the amount of drag becomes larger than the amount of thrust, the plane will slow down. If the

thrust is increased so that it is greater than the drag, the plane will speed up.
ABOUT FUEL AND FUEL PUMPS
THE MAXIMUM FUEL CARRYING CAPACITY IS=19000 LT.
THE FUEL IS KNOWN AS A.T.F .
THERE ARE 6 FUEL PUMPS.
2-ARE LOCATED IN LEFT WING
2-ARE LOCATED IN RIGHT WING
2-ARE LOCATED AT THE CENTER
ELECTRICAL SUPPLY=200 V,400 HZ.
CURRENT CONSUMPTION=8 A.
AIRCRAFT PARTS
AILERON
They are used to control the aircraft in roll.
Two Interconnected ailerons so that one goes down when the other goes up.
The downgoing aileron increases the lift on its wing while the upgoing aileron reduces the lift on the other wing,

producing a rolling moment about the aircraft's longitudinal axis.
AIRCRAFT PARTS
RUDDER

Usually attached to the fin (or vertical stabilizer).

Allows the pilot to control yaw in the horizontal axis, i.e. change the horizontal direction in which the nose is

pointing.

SPOILERS

Device intended to reduce lift in an aircraft.

These are plates on the top surface of a wing which can be extended upward into the smooth airflow.
AIRCRAFT PARTS
LANDING GEAR
The landing gear is essential during take-off and landing.

FLIGHT DYNAMICS
SELCAL SYSTEM
The SELCAL system alerts the flight crew that a ground station is calling the Airplane. The SELCAL (selective call)

system receives SELCAL codes from the airplane communication receivers called the Call sign.
When the assigned airplane code is received, the SELCAL system alerts the flight crew with visual and signals.
Each country has a set of alphabetic or numeric International Telecommunication Union-designated prefixes with

which their call signs must begin. For example:

India uses AT“AW, VT“VW, and 8T“8Y.
Brazil uses PP“PY and ZV“ZZ.
Russia uses R and UA“UI.
The United Kingdom uses G, M, VS, ZB“ZJ, ZN“ZO, ZQ, and 2.
The United States uses K, W, N, and AA“AL.


TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM
The Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System (or TCAS) is a computerized avionics device which is designed to

reduce the danger of mid-air collisions between aircraft
It monitors the airspace around an aircraft warns pilots of the presence of other aircraft which may present a

threat of mid air collision (MAC).
It is an implementation of the Airborne Collision Avoidance System mandated by International Civil Aviation

Organization to be fitted to all aircraft over 5700 kg or authorised to carry more than 19 passengers.
Each TCAS-equipped aircraft "interrogates" all other aircraft in a determined range about their position (via the

1030 MHz frequency).
TCAS system builds a three dimensional map of aircraft in the airspace, incorporating their bearing, altitude and

velocity, it determines if a potential collision threat exists.
Versions of TCAS
TCAS I TCAS II TCAS III




HIGH FREQUENCY (HF) SYSTEM
The HF communication system provides long range communication between The Aircraft and Ground Stations.
The Aircraft and other Aircraft

VERY HIGH FREQUENCY SYSTEM (VHF)
DESCRIPTION

The Aircraft and Ground Stations.
The Aircraft and other Aircraft.
OPERATES AT 27.5 VDC
Frequency range for commercial aviation VHF communication is 118.00 to 136.975 MHz.
Also sends an audio signal to the SELCAL system to alert the flight crew of an incoming call.

EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER (ELT)
ARTEX ELT 110-406 is an automatic activated Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT). It is a device to detect the

aircraft after it has been crashed.
During this time an encoded message is sent to the satellite. The information contained in this message is

shown below:
Serial number of the Transmitter.
Country code.
I.D. code.
Position coordinates (optional).


DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT
DME is a system combining Ground Based and Airborne Equipment to measure the distance of the aircraft from a ground

station.
The airborne DME-RT computes the slant range (Line-Of-Sight) distance from the ground station as follows: -
D = {(T “ 50 µs)/12.359}
Where,
D = Slant range distance in nautical miles from the
ground Station.
T = Time in µs b/w transmission of interrogation pulse
pair and reception of corresponding reply pulse pair.
50 µs = Delay at ground station b/w reception of DME
Interrogation & transmission of reply.
12.359 =Time in µs for RF energy to travel one nautical
mile and return.
The distance is then sent to the distance indicator where it is
displayed for pilotâ„¢s use.
GYROSCOPE
A gyroscope is a rotating mass having freedom of rotation in one or more planes at right angles to the plane of

rotation.

It possesses two fundamental characteristics:

Gyroscopic Inertia or Rigidity & Precesion.

The property by which a gyro resists any force tending to change the plane of the rotor rotation is called

Rigidity.
Depends on :1)Mass of the rotor,
2) The speed of rotation &
3) The distance at which the mass acts at the center i.e. radius of gyration.

Precesion is the angular change of direction of the plane of rotation, under the action of an external force.

The gyro will move in a plane at right angles to the disturbing torque.

CABIN PRESSURE CONTROLLER
THE MAJOR FUNCTION OF CABIN PRESSURE CONTROLLER IS TO KEEP THE DESIRED CABIN PRESSURE BY UTILIZING THE EXTERNAL

AIRCRAFT INPUT AND INTERNAL LOGIC.

IT COMPARES THE DESIRED PRESSURE TO THE ACTUAL SENSED CABIN PRESSURE & IF A DIFFERENCE EXISTS ,THEN IT VARIES THE

OUTFLOW VALVE POSITION & COMMANDS SIGNAL TO THE ELECTRONIC BOX UNTIL THE PRESSURE DIFFERENCE EQUALS TO ZERO.
SOLID STATE COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER
Use large capacity computer memory chips.
Much cheaper to maintain.
It has CSMU crash survival memory unit. Underwater locator device mounted on the front of CSMU.

MAGNETIC COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER
Endless loop tape device that records all voice signals transmitted or received by aircraft crew members for a

maximum period of 2 hours of continuous operation.
Housed in an international orange colored short equipment case and consists of a tape recorder and an electronic

chassis
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL(A.T.C)
Air traffic control system contains airborne components controlled by the ground facilities to identify the flight

number & altitude of airplane.
In addition to this ,the ground facilities monitorâ„¢s the airplaneâ„¢s location & direction of travel.
The power requirement is 115 V.
Transmit frequency is (1090+/-3) MHz
&
Receive frequency is (1030+/-0.2) MHz

RADAR
THE RADAR RANGE IS UPTO 300 MILES .
POWER REQUIREMENT IS 115 V,400HZ.
TRANSMITTER FREQUENCY=9375 MHZ.
RECEIVER FREQUENCY=9375+/-40 MHZ.
AIRSPEED INDICATOR
DESCRIPTION :

Contains a capsule operated mechanism which measures the static pressure and provides airspeed indication in terms

of knots, up to altitudes of 50,000 feet.

The pressure-sensitive capsule expands and contracts in response to change in the static pressure .

The capsule deflection is transmitted via the rocking shaft, to the sector which converts the linear motion to

rotary movement of the pointer.
ACTUATOR
Electromechanical unit with 2 ends of travel positions: Retracted and Extended.
IT IS USED TO OPERATE THE DOOR OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM.
IT IS SINGLE PHASE ELECTIC MOTOR :
VOLTAGE-115 VOLTS & 28 VDC
FREQUENCY-400 HZ
IT HAS TWO PORTS:
RAM AIR INLET(RAI)
RAM AIR OUTLET(RAM)



IGNITION EXCITER
B-737-200 USING JT8D ENGINE.
A-320,21 USING V-2500 ENGINE.
BOEING HAS 2-PLUG FIRE & OPERATES ON 28 VDC & GENERATES (18-22) J OF ENERGY.
AIRBUS HAS 1-PLUG FIRE & OPERATES ON 115 V,400HZ & GENERATES (18-22)J OF ENERGY.
EMERGENCY EXIT LIGHT POWER SYSTEM
A self - contained unit made up of a package of six nickel - cadmium batteries and an electronic switching circuit

with voltage regulator.

The unit is used to supply power for emergency exit lighting.

The unit is connected to the aircraftâ„¢s 28 volt D.C. power system and controlled by a switch at the pilotâ„¢s cabin.

Depending upon presence or absence of power supply and on the pilotâ„¢s switch position; following different

phenomenon occur in batteries:
OFF
ON


THERMOCOUPLE
A Thermocouple is an instrument used for measuring temperature. When installed on a brake thermocouple provides

means of checking the heat generated during brake applications.
CHARACTERISTICS
Weight - 120 kg
Probe - Chromel, Alumel
Max. Operating temperature - 800 deg C
GENERATOR
Rating - 40 KVA
Voltage - 120/208 Voltac
Frequency - 380/420 Hz
Current - 111 A
Phase - 3
Power factor - 0.75
Speed - 5700/6300 RPM
Maximum weight - 37 Kg


TAKE-OFF LIGHT
Input voltage - 115 Volts
Frequency - 400 Hz
OPERATES AT 28 VOLTS BY STEP DOWN 115 VOLTS.
Power - 600 Watts
TAXIING LIGHT
Input voltage - 115 Volts
Frequency - 400 Hz
OPERATES AT28 VOLTS BY STEPPING DOWN 115 VOLTS
Power - 450 Watts


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INTRODUCTION


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