INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY
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30-01-2009, 03:25 PM


Infrared thermography has evolved into one of the most valuable diagnostic tools for Predictive Maintenance of electrical equipment from reliability and safety point of view. By detecting anomalies often invisible to the naked eye, thermography allows corrective action to be taken before costly system failures occur or where safety of man and machine are at stake. By utilizing thermography to inspect electrical systems and components under load, the faulty components can be identified and thus heavy loss of health and wealth is avoided. Infrared cameras have become compact systems that look just like a normal video camera is easy to use and generate a real time high resolution image. Numerous industries worldwide have discovered the advantage of incorporating infrared cameras in their predictive maintenance schedule? This seminar and presentation gives an indepth account on the basics and its utilization in the field of electrical engineering When considering remote or non-contact diagnostic testing of electrical equipment, infrared thermography is regarded as the most powerful of all diagnostic tools currently available. Of all causes of electrical failures, connection problems are number one. The key method chosen to identify these problems is infrared thermography. An infrared thermographic survey should be performed annually in commercial buildings as well as manufacturing plants. All cable runs, bus ducts, distribution panels, motor control centers etc. should be checked to hotspots or heat imbalances. This can identify loose connections, overloads, unbalanced loads, and high neutral currents that need to be corrected.
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22-10-2009, 02:35 PM


.ppt   THERMOGRAPHY presentation.ppt (Size: 4.03 MB / Downloads: 611)

THERMOGRAPHY


Presented by,
ARYA.S.VIJAYAN
Rollno:14
INTRODUCTION

INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY IS THE TECHNIQUE THAT USES AN INFRARED IMAGING AND MEASUREMENT CAMERA TO SEE AND MEASURE INVISIBLE INFRARED ENERGY BEING EMITTED FROM AN OBJECT.


What is Infrared

All matter (gases, planets, etc) emits some amount of electromagnetic radiation across a range of energies (or wavelengths).
Infrared refers to the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum where biological life-forms emit the most light, at wavelengths slightly longer than what we perceive as the color red.


Why Donâ„¢t We See It

Put simply, our eyes do not have the elements necessary for detecting infrared. While there are practical evolutionary reasons for this, infrared is a reality that exists behind the scenes.


Everyday Infrared


We may not be able to see infrared, but we can still sense it through what is commonly called heat. Physical touch is the most direct way of observing it. You sense it on a hot day under the sun, or when someone walks between you and a campfire.

Some properties of the ThermaCAM B1:

Thermal Sensitivity: 0.12°C

Min/Max Auto Adjust: Continuous or Manual
Range: -20 to 50°C (-4 to 155°F)
Spectral Range: 7.5 - 13 m
Lens: standard 24° or wide angle 45°


Difference between infrared film and thermography

IR film is sensitive to infrared (IR) radiation in the 250°C to 500°C range, while the range of thermography is approximately -50°C to over 2,000°C. So, for an IR film to show something, it must be over 250°C or be reflecting infrared radiation from something that is at least that hot. Night vision infrared devices image in the near-infrared, just beyond the visual spectrum, and can see emitted or reflected near-infrared in complete visual darkness. Starlight-type night vision devices generally only magnify ambient light.


Additional Features:

Video Output: NTSC/Standard RCA
Available Palettes: Iron, High Contrast Rainbow, B/W, B/W inverted
On board 1mW 635nm laser enables long-range precision temperature measurements.


What will the camera see

These raw images were captured with an infrared
camera stationed on the fourth floor. Notice the
heat signatures on cafeteria seats after the students have left. Using our project and implimentationion system, those areas would remain lit until the heat dissipates; if you were to leave your seat to get a drink, you would come back to find your own heat signature, still lit.


USES OF THERMOGRAPHY

air port staff using the technology to detect suspected swine flu cases.
fire fighters use it to see through smoke, find persons, and localize the base of fire.
thermal imaging cameras are installed in some luxury cars to aid the driver, the first being the 2000 Cadillac De Ville.


Advantages of thermography

It shows a visual picture so temperatures over a large area can be compared
It is capable of catching moving target in real time
It is able to find deteriorating
It can be used to find defects in shafts, pipes, and other metal or plastic parts
It can be used better in dark areas


DISADVANTAGES OF THERMOGRAPHY

Due to the low volume thermal cameras, quality cameras often have a high price range
Images can be difficult to interpret accurately
Accurate temperatures measurements are hindered by differing emissivities and reflections from other surfaces
Only able to directly detect surface temperature


CONCLUSION

The spectrum and amount of thermal radiation depend strongly on an objectâ„¢s surfaces temperature this makes it possible for a thermal camera to display an objectâ„¢s temperature
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#3
22-10-2009, 02:42 PM

Advantages of thermography

* It shows a visual picture so temperatures over a large area can be compared
* It is capable of catching moving targets in real time
* It is able to find deteriorating, i.e., higher temperature components prior to their failure
* It can be used to measure or observe in areas inaccessible or hazardous for other methods
* It is a non-destructive test method
* It can be used to find defects in shafts, pipes, and other metal or plastic parts
* It can be used to see better in dark areas

please go through this links

.pdf   Condition-Monitoring-Using-Infrared-Thermography.pdf (Size: 2.68 MB / Downloads: 231)
bdc.com.hk/eng/doc/news/Seminar%20in%20HKISC/Testing%20of%20Wall%20tiles%20using%20Infrared%20Thermography.pdf
medithermclinicBreast/Diagnostic%20prognostic%20role%20infrared%20thermography.pdf
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computer science crazy
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#4
22-10-2009, 02:42 PM

drumindiaUserFiles/File/o&m/7-Case%20Studies/OM%207-2%20Case%20Study%20on%20Infrared%20Thermography%20of%20transformers.doc
ndtarticle/ecndt2006/doc/We.4.3.1.pdf
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21-02-2010, 07:59 AM


.ppt   THERMOGRAPHY.ppt (Size: 1.93 MB / Downloads: 153)

Infrared Energy & Radiation

Part of electro magnetic spectrum
It travels through space at the speed
of light.
The thermal energy emitted from the
surface of a material is called IR
radiation.
Temperature of an object=IR radiation
emitted from it.
Eg: x-ray, ultra violet, radio waves.

Electromagnetic Spectrum

Infrared radiation, visible light & ultra violet
light form energy in spectrum.
Categorized by wave length & frequency.
Human eye can see narrow range of
wavelength.(0.4-0.75 micron)

Thermography?

Itâ„¢s a - infrared imaging science.
- cost effective method.
- non invasive method.
- non contact method.
Applications include building diagnostics,
plant maintenance, research, etc.

What?

IRT is the technique that used for
producing a visible image of invisible
IR energy emitted by objects.
Since wavelength is too long for the
sensors in our eyes, IR cameras are used.

Where it is used?

It can be applied in any situation
where a problem or condition can
display itself by means of a thermal
difference.
For example, firefighters use it to see through smoke,
find persons, and localize hotspots of fires. Cooled IR
cameras can also be found at most major astronomy
research telescopes.

What makes it useful?

Its non contact.
-uses remote sensing, keeps the user out of danger.
It is two dimensional.
-thermal patterns can be analyzed, comparison
between areas of target is possible.
It is real time.
-fast scanning of stationary targets, capture of fast
moving targets & fast changing thermal patterns.

Principle

Black body radiation-Black body is
that which absorbs completely all
the radiations falling on it.
The law is associated with Thermodynamics.
Every object whose surface temperature is above
absolute zero (-273 °C) radiates energy at a
wavelength corresponding to its surface temperature.

Thermographic Camera

Produces a live TV image of heat
radiation.
It converts invisible IR energy into
a 2d visual image & displays on std.
TV monitor.
Thermal image produced is called
thermogram.
It allows us to see what our eyes can't.
It resembles a std. camcorder.

How camera see heat?

It can image temperatures from -20 to 500
degree Celsius & can be extended down to
-40 & up to 2000 degree Celsius.
It converts invisible IR
energy to 2d visual image.
Then displays on a TV
monitor.

Types of Thermographic Cameras

2 types:
Cooled cameras-They are contained in a
vacuum sealed case & cryogenically cooled. Drawbacks-
expensive to produce & run, several minutes to cool
down before it begin working.
Uncooled cameras-Use sensors that work by
change of resistance, volume & current when heated.
It is smaller & less costly.
Cooled cameras provide superior image quality than
uncooled.

Process

IR camera creates an image.
-convert radiant heat energy into a signal.
Colorizing IR images.
-camera assigns black to coolest area &
white to hottest area.
Adjusting images for clarity.
-upper & lower temperature limits are adjusted to get the clearest picture.

Applications

Medical imaging
Night vision
Non destructive testing
Medical field
Condition monitoring

Medical Imaging

The technique used to create images
of human body for clinical purposes or
medical science.
Imaging technology:
Electron microscope.
Fluoroscopy.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

Night Vision

Ability to see in a dark enviornment.
Possible by 2 approaches: spectral
range, intensity range.
NVD used in military forces.
Absence of Tapetum lucidum is the reason for poor
night vision in humans.
Thermal imaging cameras helps in seeing through fog,
rain and smoke.

Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)

It is the testing that does not destroy
the test object.
Aimed mainly at industrial NDT.
Destructive testing is not possible for forensic
investigation.
Eg:-Aircraft skins need regular checking to detect
cracks.
Underground pipelines are subject to corrosion
& stress corrosion cracking.

Medical Thermography

It can be done in 2 fields
-Vetinary Minor injuries to muscle tissue may
go unnoticed until the problem is more severe.IR
imaging aids expert trainer in caring for the horse.

-Human beings
Respiratory dysfunctions-asthma,bronchitis
Digestive disorders-hyper &hypo gastric secretions.
Urinary diseases-urinary tract inspections.
Cardiovascular & circulatory
disorders-heart disease, varicose vein.
Nervous dysfunctions-brain, spinal cord, nerves.
Locomotors disorders-arthritis, disk injury.
Surgical assistance-tumours size, surgical area.
Skin problems-skin cancer & tumours.
Dentistry-inflammation in oral cavity.
Endocrine disorders-hypo & hyperthyroidism.
Ear, Nose & Throat dysfunctions-tonsillitis,
sinusitis.


Condition Monitoring

Monitoring a parameter of condition in
machinery, such that a significant change is
indicative of a developing faliure.
Major component of predictive maintenance.
Cost effective than allowing the machinery
to fail.
Serviceable machinery-rotating machines
& stationary plant like boilers, heat exchangers.
Electrical maintenance-camera can see the
difference in the heat of defected & normal components.
Buildings-monitors the heat loss & air leakage.
Furnace & boilers-finds incipient defects in
power plant equipments.
Tanks & vessels-inspects for tank leaks & to
verify tank level.


Active & Passive Thermography

In passive thermography, inspected parts are
naturally at a higher or lower temperature than
the background.
In active thermography, an energy source is
required to produce a thermal contrast.
The defects can be either detected as
hot (active) or cold spots (passive) on
the surface.

Advantages

Non-destructive test method.
Capable of catching moving targets in
real time.
Find defects in shafts and other metal parts.
Measurement in areas inaccessible or
hazardous for other methods.
Condition monitoring.
Help to compare temperatures over a
large area .

Limitations

Training and staying proficient in IR
scanning is time consuming.
Images is hard to interpret accurately
even with experience.
Quality cameras have a high price range.
Cameras have worse accuracy.

Conclusion

Thermography enables us to see and
measure heat.
It is a method that utilizes
a thermal image to detect, display and
record thermal patterns and temperatures
across the surface of an object.
It is the future in water damage and
mold claims adjudication for the insurance industry.
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#6
23-12-2010, 04:57 PM

Prepared by:RAJKUMAR PRADHAN


.ppt   IRT.ppt (Size: 3.23 MB / Downloads: 80)

INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY
In 1800, astronomer Sir William Herschel discovered infrared, and thus began the exploration of the science of thermography
Infrared thermography is equipment or method, which detects infrared energy emitted from object, converts it to temperature, and displays image of temperature distribution.Equipment is called infrared thermograph and method is called infrared thermography.
Non contact thermal imaging technique.
Everything with a temperature above absolute zero emits infrared radiation, which means that it may be tracked and measured via thermography

WHY IS THERMOGRAPHY NEEDED?
Shows a visual picture so temperatures over a large area can be compared
Capable of catching moving targets in real time.
Able to find deteriorating (i.e. at higher temperature) components prior to their failure .
It can be used to measure or observe in areas inaccessible or hazardous for other methods .
It is a non-destructive test method .
It can be used to find defects in shafts and other metal parts .

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
PLANCK’S BLACK BODY RADITION
It states that electromagnetic radition of all wavelength emitted in normal direction from a black body in a cavity in thermo dynamicequlibrium.
MATHEMATICALLY:-

BLOCK DIAGRAM
THEORY OF OPERATION
THEORY OF OPERATION
APPLICATIONS OF THERMOGRAPHY

R&D
Medical and veterinary
Process monitoring
Non-destructive testing
Electrical Maintenance
Mechanical, friction
Buildings
Furnaces and boilers
Security
EXAMPLES OF THERMAL IMAGING
This is a busbar connection that is loose. The scale on the left is the temperature range. The loose connection is producing temperatures close to 175° Fahrenheit
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24-12-2010, 05:15 PM



.ppsx   IRT.ppsx (Size: 4.99 MB / Downloads: 79)


Presented ByTonguearul Mahajan


OBJECTIVE


Infrared thermography is the science of acquisition and analysis of thermal information by using non contact thermal imaging devices.

TYPES OF PLANNED MAINTENANCE



TEMPERATURE
Why is temperature important?

Name some processes – industrial or
otherwise, where temperature is important. Why?

Name ONE process where temperature is completely unimportant…

HOW THERMOGRAPHERS DETECT FAULTS ?


The surface temperature distribution of equipment is the signature
of its operating condition.

Infrared thermogram
becomes an excellent tool for truly
nondestructive evaluation of product and process quality

Why is temperature important?

Name some processes – industrial or
otherwise, where temperature is important. Why?

Name ONE process where temperature is completely unimportant…



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navanitha
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#8
06-03-2012, 03:37 PM

hey plz send me the full report on infrared thermography..i have tech seminar and presentation in clg Sad

thanks
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