IPv6 : Next Generation IP
Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
computer science crazy
Super Moderator
******

Posts: 3,048
Joined: Dec 2008
#1
23-10-2009, 04:12 PM



.pdf   IPv6 Next Generation IP.pdf (Size: 270.37 KB / Downloads: 1,153)

.pdf   IPv6 Next Pumming generation IP.pdf (Size: 328.04 KB / Downloads: 624)
a new Internet Protocol is well understood and accepted in the networking industry. Requirements for more address space, simpler address design and handling at the IP layer, better QoS( Quality of service) support, greater security, and an increasing number of media types and Internet-capable devices have all contributed to drive the development of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). IPv4, the current version of the Internet Protocol deployed worldwide, has proven remarkably robust, easy to implement, and interoperable with a wide range of protocols and applications. Though substantially unchanged since it was first specified in the early 1980s, IPv4 has supported the scaling of the Internet to its current global proportions. However, the ongoing explosive growth of the Internet and Internet services has exposed deficiencies in IPv4 at the Internetâ„¢s current scale and complexity. IPv6 was developed specifically to address these deficiencies, enabling further Internet growth and development
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
Reply
computer science technology
Active In SP
**

Posts: 740
Joined: Jan 2010
#2
29-01-2010, 07:27 AM


.doc   IPv6 full seminar report.doc (Size: 1.1 MB / Downloads: 465)

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 What is IP
The Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite, also referred to as TCP/IP.
IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering distinguished protocol datagrams (packets) from the source host to the destination host solely based on their addresses. For this purpose the Internet Protocol defines addressing methods and structures for datagram encapsulation. The first major version of addressing structure, now referred to as Internet Protocol Version 4 (Ipv4) is still the dominant protocol of the Internet, although the successor, Internet Protocol Version 6 (Ipv6) is being deployed actively worldwide.
1.2 Introduction to IPv6
The current version of the Internet Protocol (known as IP version 4 or IPv4) has not been substantially changed since RFC 791 was published in 1981. IPv4 has proven to be robust, easily implemented and interoperable, and has stood the test of scaling an internetwork to a global utility the size of today's Internet. This is a tribute to its initial design.
IPv6 stands for Internet Protocol version 6. This technology is designed to replace the existing IPv4 with improved address space, service, and data. Internet Protocol version 6 is meant to allow anyone who wants to use the Internet the capability to do s
However, the initial design did not anticipate:
¢ The recent exponential growth of the Internet and the impending exhaustion of the IPv4 address space. IPv4 addresses have become relatively scarce, forcing some organizations to use a network address translator (NAT) to map multiple private addresses to a single public IP address. While NATs promote reuse of the private address space, they do not support standards-based network layer security or the correct mapping of all higher layer protocols and can create problems when connecting two organizations that use the private address space. Additionally, the rising prominence of Internet-connected devices and appliances assures that the public IPv4 address space will eventually be depleted.
¢ The growth of the Internet and the ability of Internet backbone routers to maintain large routing tables. Because of the way in which IPv4 network IDs have been and are currently allocated, there are routinely over 70,000 routes in the routing tables of Internet backbone routers. The current IPv4 Internet routing infrastructure is a combination of both flat and hierarchical routing.
¢ The need for simpler configuration. Most current IPv4 implementations must be configured either manually or through a stateful address configuration protocol such as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). With more computers and devices using IP, there is a need for a simpler and more automatic configuration of addresses and other configuration settings that do not rely on the administration of a DHCP infrastructure.
¢ The requirement for security at the IP level.
Private communication over a public medium like the Internet requires encryption services that protect the data sent from being viewed or modified in transit. Although a standard now exists for providing security for IPv4 packets (known as Internet Protocol security or IPSec), this standard is optional and proprietary solutions are prevalent.
¢ The need for better support for real-time delivery of data (also known a quality of service). While standards for quality of service (QoS) exist for IPv4, real-time traffic support relies on the IPv4 Type of Service (TOS) field and the identification of the payload, typically using a UDP or TCP port. Unfortunately, the IPv4 TOS field has limited functionality and has different interpretations. In addition, payload identification using a TCP and UDP port is not possible when the IPv4 packet payload is encrypted.
To address these concerns, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has developed a suite of protocols and standards known as IP version 6 (IPv6). This new version, previously named IP-The Next Generation (IPng), incorporates the concepts of many proposed methods for updating the IPv4 protocol. IPv6 is intentionally designed for minimal impact on upper and lower layer protocols by avoiding the arbitrary addition of new features.
1.3 What will IPv6 do
IPv6 is technology with a main focus on changing the structure of current IP addresses, which will allow for virtually unlimited IP addresses. The current version, IPv4 is a growing concern with the limited IP addresses, making it a fear that they will run out in the future. IPv6 will also have a goal to make the Internet a more secure place for browsers, and with the rapid number of identity theft victims, this is a key feature.
2. History
2.1 Background
The current version of the Internet Protocol IPv4 was first developed in the 1970s, and the main protocol standard RFC 791 that governs IPv4 functionality was published in 1981. With the unprecedented expansion of Internet usage in recent years - especially by population dense countries like India and China.
The impending shortage of address space (availability) was recognized by 1992 as a serious limiting factor to the continued usage of the Internet run on Ipv4
The following table shows a statistic showing how quickly the address space has been getting consumed over the years after 1981, when IPv4 protocol was published With admirable foresight, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) initiated as early as in 1994, the design and development of a suite of protocols and standards now known as Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), as a worthy tool to phase out and supplant IPv4 over the coming years. There is an explosion of sorts in the number and range of IP capable devices that are being released in the market and the usage of these by an increasingly tech savvy global population. The new protocol aims to effectively support the ever-expanding Internet usage and functionality, and also address security concerns.
IPv6 uses a128-bit address size compared with the 32-bit system used in IPv4 and will allow for as many as 3.4x1038 possible addresses, enough to cover every inhabitant on planet earth several times over. The 128-bit system also provides for multiple levels of hierarchy and flexibility in hierarchical addressing and routing, a feature that is found wanting on the IPv4-based Internet.
2.2 A brief recap
The major events in the development of the new protocol are given below:

Basic protocol (RFC 2460) published in 1998

Basic socket API (RFC 2553) and DHCPv6 (RFC 3315) published in 2003.

Mobile IPv6 (RFC 3775) published in 2004

Flow label specifications (RFC 3697) added 2004

Address architecture (RFC 4291) stable, minor revision in 2006

Node requirements (RFC 4294) published 2006
3. IPv6 Features
The massive proliferation of devices, need for newer and more demanding applications on a global level and the increasing role of networks in the way business is conducted are some of the pressing issues the IPv6 protocol seeks to cater to. The following are the features of the IPv6 protocol:

New header format designed to keep header overhead to a minimum - achieved by moving both non-essential fields and optional fields to extension headers that are placed after the IPv6 header. The streamlined IPv6 header is more efficiently processed at intermediate routers.

Large address space - IPv6 has 128-bit (16-byte) source and destination IP addresses. The large address space of IPv6 has been designed to allow for multiple levels of subnetting and address allocation from the Internet backbone to the individual subnets within an organization. Obviates the need for address-conservation techniques such as the deployment of NATs.

Efficient and hierarchical addressing and routing infrastructure- based on the common occurrence of multiple levels of Internet service providers.

Stateless and stateful address configuration both in the absence or presence of a DHCP server. Hosts on a link automatically configure themselves with link-local addresses and communicate without manual configuration.

Built-in security: Compliance with IPSec [10] is mandatory in IPv6, and IPSec is actually a part of the IPv6 protocol. IPv6 provides header extensions that ease the implementation of encryption, authentication, and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). IPSec functionality is basically identical in IPv6 and IPv4, but one benefit of IPv6 is that IPSec can be utilized along the entire route, from source to destination.

Better support for prioritized delivery thanks to the Flow Label field in the IPv6 header

New protocol for neighboring node interaction- The Neighbor Discovery protocol for IPv6 replaces the broadcast-based Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), ICMPv4 Router Discovery, and ICMPv4 Redirect messages with efficient multicast and unicast Neighbor Discovery messages.

Extensibility- IPv6 can easily be extended for new features by adding extension headers after the IPv6 header.
IPv6 thus holds out the promise of achieving end-to-end security, mobile communications, quality of service (QoS), and simplified system management.
4. Why IPv6 ls needed
It is expected that some time in the years of 2006/2007 we will definitely run out of IPv4 address space. In Asia the available IPv4 address space is already exhausted. This is why many Asian ISPs have already begun to roll out IPv6 commercially. IPv4 offers less than one IP address per person living on this planet and therefore we need a new version with a larger address space. With the new types of services that we will have in the future we will not only need IP addresses for personal computers and servers, but for all sorts of devices, like mobile phones, cars, refrigerators, TV-sets, sensor systems, home games and many more. The answer to that challenge is IPv6.
IPv6 offers a new, clean, well designed protocol stack which implements all the features of security (IPsec), Quality of service (Diffserv and intserv (flowlabel)) and configuration (auto-configuration). All applications that are known on IPv4 can be ported to IPv6, with additional features if required. IPv6 is also designed taking into account the mobile networks, which are expected to be ubiquitous networks of the future providing always on-line, anytime and anywhere. IPv6 is considered to be the backbone of the future information society.
Here is a list of facts and reasons for IPv6:
¢ No IPv4 addresses available anymore (will happen sometimes between 2006 and 2010 in Europe)
¢ The number of mobile devices and devices with embedded Internet stacks will grow by magnitudes over the following years (the ongoing use of IPv4 would create poorly interconnected islands of IP networks with limited mobility and security between them)
¢ IPv6 is MANDATORY for the 3GPP UMTS IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) in release 5
¢ IPv6 brings better support for security, quality of service and mobility
¢ IPv6 reduces OPEX of IP networks through better design and the auto configuration features
¢ IPv6 enables ubiquitous networks of the future providing always on-line, anytime and anywhere
¢ IPv6 enables ubiquitous/pervasive computing and with this a huge amount of new business opportunities and changes in existing business models
¢ IPv6 is considered as the backbone of the future information society
¢ (And last but not least) IPv6 is here, supported in all kinds of devices and ready to be used! And it will (soon) come and it's better to be prepared for it!
5. Goals:
5.1 Capabilities of IPv4 Multihoming
The following capabilities of current IPv4 multihoming practices
Should be supported by an IPv6 multihoming architecture.
5.1.1 Redundancy
By multihoming, a site should be able to insulate itself from certain failure modes within one or more transit providers, as well a failures in the network providing interconnection among one or moretransit providers.
Infrastructural commonalities below the IP layer may result in connectivity which is apparently diverse, sharing single points of failure. For example, two separate DS3 circuits ordered from different suppliers and connecting a site to independent transit providers may share a single conduit from the street into a building; in this case, physical disruption (sometimes referred to as "backhoe-fade") of both circuits may be experienced due to a single incident in the street. The two circuits are said to "share fate".
The multihoming architecture should accommodate (in the general case, issues of shared fate notwithstanding) continuity of connectivity during the following failures:
- Physical failure, such as a fiber cut, or router failure,
-Logical link failure, such as a misbehaving router interface,
- Routing protocol failure, such as a BGP peer reset,
-Transit provider failure, such as a backbone-wide IGP failure

- Exchange failure, such as a BGP reset on an inter-provider
Peering.
5.1.2 Load Sharing
By multihoming, a site should be able to distribute both inbound and outbound traffic between multiple transit providers. This goal is for concurrent use of the multiple transit providers, not just the usage of one provider over one interval of time and another providerover a different interval.
5.1.3 Performance
Interconnection T1-T2. The process by which this is achieved should be a manual one. A multihomed site should be able to distribute inbound traffic from particular multiple transit providers according to the particular address range within their site which is sourcing or sinking the traffic.
5.1.5 Policy
A customer may choose to multihome for a variety of policy reasons beyond technical scope (e.g., cost, acceptable use conditions, etc.) For example, customer C homed to ISP A may wish to shift traffic of a certain class or application, NNTP, for example, to ISP B as matter of policy. A new IPv6 multihoming proposal should provide support for site-multihoming for external policy reasons.
5.1.5 Simplicity
As any proposed multihoming solution must be deployed in real networks with real customers, simplicity is paramount. The current multihoming solution is quite straightforward to deploy and maintain. A new IPv6 multihoming solution should not be substantially more complex to deploy and operate (for multihomed sites or for the rest of the Internet) than current IPv5 multihoming practices.
5.1.6 Transport-Layer Survivability
Multihoming solutions should provide re-homing transparency for
transport-layer sessions; i.e., exchange of data between devices onthe multihomed site and devices elsewhere on the Internet may proceed
with no greater interruption than that associated with the transient packet loss during the re-homing event. New transport-layer sessions should be able to be created following a re-homing event.Transport-layer sessions include those involving transport-layer protocols such as TCP, UDP and SCTP over IP. Applications which communicate over raw IP and other network-layer protocols may also enjoy re-homing transparency.
5.1.7 Impact on DNS
Multi-homing solutions either should be compatible with the observed dynamics of the current DNS system, or the solutions should demonstrate that the modified name resolution system required to support them is readily deployable.
5.1.8 Packet Filtering
Multihoming solutions should not preclude filtering packets wit forged or otherwise inappropriate source IP addresses at the administrative boundary of the multihomed site, or at the administrative boundaries of any site in the Internet
5.2 Additional Requirements:
5.2.1 Scalability
Current IPV5 multihoming practices contribute to the significant growth currently observed in the state held in the global inter- provider routing system; this is a concern, both because of the hardware requirements it imposes, and also because of the impact on the stability of the routing system. This issue is discussed in great detail in [6].
A new IPv6 multihoming architecture should scale to accommodate orders of magnitude more multihomed sites without imposing unreasonable requirements on the routing system.
5.2.2Impact on Routers
The solutions may require changes to IPv6 router implementations, but these changes should be either minor, or in the form of logically separate functions added to existing functions.
Such changes should not prevent normal single-homed operation, any routers implementing these changes should be able to interoperatefully with hosts and routers not implementing them.

5.2.3Impact on Hosts
The solution should not destroy IPv6 connectivity for a legacy host implementing RFC 3513 [3], RFC 2460 [4], RFC 3493 [5], and basic IPv6 specifications current in April 2003. That is to say, a host can work in a single-homed site, it should still be able to work in a multihomed site, even if it cannot benefit from site multihoming.
It would be compatible with this goal for such a host to lose connectivity if a site lost connectivity to one transit provider,
despite the fact that other transit provider connections were still operational.
If the solution requires changes to the host stack, these changes
should be either minor, or in the form of logically separate functions added to existing functions.
If the solution requires changes to the socket API and/or the transport layer, it should be possible to retain the original socket API and transport protocols in parallel, even if they cannot benefit from multihoming.The multihoming solution may allow host or application changes if that would enhance transport-layer survivability.
5.2.4 Interaction between Hosts and the Routing System
The solution may involve interaction between a site's hosts and its
routing system; such an interaction should be simple,scalable and securable.

5.2.5 Cooperation between Transit Providers
A multihoming strategy may require cooperation between a site and its transit providers, but should not require cooperation (relating specifically to the multihomed site) directly between the transit providers. The impact of any inter-site cooperation that might be required to facilitate the multihoming solution should be examined and assessed from the point of view of operational practicality.

5.2.6 Multiple Solutions
There may be more than one approach to multihoming, provided all approaches are orthogonal (i.e., each approach addresses a distinc segment or category within the site multihoming problem). Multiple solutions will incur a greater management overhead, however, and the adopted solutions should attempt to cover as many multihoming scenarios and goals as possible.
6.IPv6Header
An Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) data packet comprises of two main parts: the header and the payload. The first 40 bytes/octets (40x8 = 320 bits) of an IPv6 packet comprise of the header (see Figure 1) that contains the following fields:

Source address (128 bits) The 128-bit source address field contains the IPv6 address of the originating node of the packet. It is the address of the originator of the IPv6 packet.
Destination address (128 bits) The 128-bit contains the destination address of the recipient node of the IPv6 packet. It is the address of the intended recipient of the IPv6 packet.
Version/IP version (4-bits) The 4-bit version field contains the number 6. It indicates the version of the IPv6 protocol. This field is the same size as the IPv4 version field that contains the number 4. However, this field has a limited use because IPv4 and IPv6 packets are not distinguished based on the value in the version field but by the protocol type present in the layer 2 envelope.
Packet priority/Traffic class (8 bits) The 8-bit Priority field in the IPv6 header can assume different values to enable the source node to differentiate between the packets generated by it by associating different delivery priorities to them. This field is subsequently used by the originating node and the routers to identify the data packets that belong to the same traffic class and distinguish between packets with different priorities.
Flow Label/QoS management (20 bits) The 20-bit flow label field in the IPv6 header can be used by a source to label a set of packets belonging to the same flow. A flow is uniquely identified by the combination of the source address and of a non-zero Flow label. Multiple active flows may exist from a source to a destination as well as traffic that are not associated with any flow (Flow label = 0).
Payload length in bytes(16 bits) The 16-bit payload length field contains the length of the data field in octets/bits following the IPv6 packet header. The 16-bit Payload length field puts an upper limit on the maximum packet payload to 64 kilobytes. In case a higher packet payload is required, a Jumbo payload extension header is provided in the IPv6 protocol. A Jumbo payload (Jumbogram) is indicated by the value zero in the Payload Length field. Jumbograms are frequently used in supercomputer communication using the IPv6 protocol to transmit heavy data payload.
Next Header (8 bits) The 8-bit Next Header field identifies the type of header immediately following the IPv6 header and located at the beginning of the data field (payload) of the IPv6 packet. This field usually specifies the transport layer protocol used by a packet's payload. The two most common kinds of Next Headers are TCP (6) and UDP (17), but many other headers are also possible. The format adopted for this field is the one proposed for IPv4 by RFC 1700. In case of IPv6 protocol, the Next Header field is similar to the IPv4 Protocol field.
Time To Live (TTL)/Hop Limit (8 bits) The 8-bit Hop Limit field is decremented by one, by each node (typically a router) that forwards a packet. If the Hop Limit field is decremented to zero, the packet is discarded. The main function of this field is to identify and to discard packets that are stuck in an indefinite loop due to any routing information errors. The 8-bit field also puts an upper limit on the maximum number of links between two IPv6 nodes. In this way, an IPv6 data packet is allowed a maximum of 255 hops before it is eventually discarded. An IPv6 data packet can pas through a maximum of 254 routers before being discarded.
In case of IPv6 protocol, the fields for handling fragmentation do not form a part of the basic header. They are put into a separate extension header. Moreover, fragmentation is exclusively handled by the sending host. Routers are not employed in the Fragmentation process.
7. IPv6 Addressing:
7.1 The IPv6 Address Space
The most obvious distinguishing feature of IPv6 is its use of much larger addresses. The size of an address in IPv6 is 128 bits, which is four times the larger than an IPv4 address. A 32-bit address space allows for 232 or 4,294,967,296 possible addresses. A 128-bit address space allows for 2128 or 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 (or 3.4^1038 or 340 undecillion) possible addresses.

With IPv6, it is even harder to conceive that the IPv6 address space will be consumed. To help put this number in perspective, a 128-bit address space provides 655,570,793,348,866,943,898,599 (6.5^1023) addresses for every square meter of the Earthâ„¢s surface.
It is important to remember that the decision to make the IPv6 address 128 bits in length was not so that every square meter of the Earth could have 6.5^1023 addresses. Rather, the relatively large size of the IPv6 address is designed to be subdivided into hierarchical routing domains that reflect the topology of the modern-day Internet. The use of 128 bits allows for multiple levels of hierarchy and flexibility in designing hierarchical addressing and routing that is currently lacking on the IPv4-based Internet.
The IPv6 addressing architecture is described in RFC 4291.
7.2 IPv6 Address Syntax
IPv4 addresses are represented in dotted-decimal format. This 32-bit address is divided along 8-bit boundaries. Each set of 8 bits is converted to its decimal equivalent and separated by periods. For IPv6, the 128-bit address is divided along 16-bit boundaries, and each 16-bit block is converted to a 4-digit hexadecimal number and separated by colons. The resulting representation is called colon-hexadecimal.
The following is an IPv6 address in binary form:
00100000000000010000110110111000000000000000000000101111001110110000001010101010000000001111111111111110001010001001110000
The 128-bit address is divided along 16-bit boundaries:
0010000000000001 0000110110111000 0000000000000000 0010111100111011 0000001010101010 0000000011111111 1111111000101000 1001110001011010
Each 16-bit block is converted to hexadecimal and delimited with colons. The result is:
2001:0DB8:0000:2F3B:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A
IPv6 representation can be further simplified by removing the leading zeros within each 16-bit block. However, each block must have at least a single digit. With leading zero suppression, the address representation becomes:
2001Big GrinB8:0:2F3B:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A
7.3 Compressing Zeros
Some types of addresses contain long sequences of zeros. To further simplify the representation of IPv6 addresses, a contiguous sequence of 16-bit blocks set to 0 in the colon hexadecimal format can be compressed to ::, known as double-colon.
For example, the link-local address of FE80:0:0:0:2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2 can be compressed to FE80::2AA:FF:FE9A:4CA2. The multicast address FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 can be compressed to FF02::2.
Zero compression can only be used to compress a single contiguous series of 16-bit blocks expressed in colon hexadecimal notation. You cannot use zero compression to include part of a 16-bit block. For example, you cannot express FF02:30:0:0:0:0:0:5 as FF02:3::5. The correct representation is FF02:30::5.
To determine how many 0 bits are represented by the ::, you can count the number of blocks in the compressed address, subtract this number from 8, and then multiply the result by 16. For example, in the address FF02::2, there are two blocks (the FF02 block and the 2 block.) The number of bits expressed by the :: is 96 (96 = (8 “ 2)16).
Zero compression can only be used once in a given address. Otherwise, you could not determine the number of 0 bits represented by each instance of ::.
7.4 Prefixes
The prefix is the part of the address that indicates the bits that have fixed values or are the bits of the subnet prefix. Prefixes for IPv6 subnets, routes, and address ranges are expressed in the same way as Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation for IPv4. An IPv6 prefix is written in address/prefix-length notation. For example, 21DABig Grin3::/48 and 21DABig Grin3:0:2F3B::/64 are IPv6 address prefixes.
Note IPv4 implementations commonly use a dotted decimal representation of the network prefix known as the subnet mask. A subnet mask is not used for IPv6. Only the prefix length notation is supported.
8. IPv6 vs. IPv4
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), sometimes called the "next generation" IP protocol (IPng), is designed by the IETF to replace the current version Internet Protocol, IP Version 4 ("IPv4"), which is now more than twenty years old. Most of today's network uses IPv4 and it is beginning to have problems, for example, the growing shortage of IPv4 addresses.
IPv6 fixes manyshortages in IPv4, including the limited number of available IPv4 addresses. It also adds many improvements to IPv4 in areas. The key benefits of introducing IPv6 are:
¢ 340 undecillion IP addresses for the whole world network devices
¢ Plug and Play configuration with or without DHCP
¢ Better network bandwidth efficiency using multicast and anycast without broadcast
¢ Better QOS support for all types of applications
¢ Native information security framework for both data and control packets
¢ Enhanced mobility with fast handover, better route optimization and hierarchical mobility
The following table compares the key characters of IPv6 vs. IPv4:
Subjects IPv4 IPv6 IPv6 Advantages
Address Space 4 Billion Addresses 2^128 79 Octillion times the IPv4 address space
Configuration Manual or use DHCP Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) with or without DHCP Lower Operation Expenses and reduce error
Broadcast / Multicast Uses both No broadcast and has different forms of multicast Better bandwidth efficiency
Anycast support Not part of the original protocol Explicit support of anycast Allows new applications in mobility, data center
Network Configuration Mostly manual and labor intensive Facilitate the re-numbering of hosts and routers Lower operation expenses and facilitate migration
QoS support ToS using DIFFServ Flow classes and flow labels More Granular control of QoS
Security Uses IPsec for Data packet protection IPsec becomes the key technology to protect data and control packets Unified framework for security and more secure computing environment
Mobility Uses Mobile IPv4 Mobile IPv6 provides fast handover, better router optimization and hierarchical mobility Better efficiency and scalability; Work with latest 3G mobile technologies and beyond.
Few in the industry would argue with the principle that IPv6 represents a major leap forward for the Internet and the users. However, given the magnitude of a migration that affects so many millions of network devices, it is clear that there will be an extended period when IPv4 and IPv6 will coexist at many levels of the Internet
IETF protocol designers have expended a substantial amount of effort to ensure that hosts and routers can be upgraded to IPv6 in a graceful, incremental manner. Transition mechanisms have been engineered to allow network administrators a large amount of flexibility in how and when they upgrade hosts and intermediate nodes. Consequently, IPv6 can be deployed in hosts first, in routers first, or, alternatively, in a limited number of adjacent or remote hosts and routers. Another assumption made by IPv6 transition designers is the likelihood that many upgraded hosts and routers will need to retain downward compatibility with IPv4 devices for an extended time period. It was also assumed that upgraded devices should have the option of retaining their IPv4 addressing. To accomplish these goals, IPv6 transition relies on several special functions that have been built into the IPv6 standards work, including dual-stack hosts and routers and tunnelling IPv6 via IPv4.
Difference Between IPv4 and IPv6
IPv4
¢ Source and destination addresses are 32 bits (4 bytes) in length.
¢ IPSec support is optional.
¢ IPv4 header does not identify packet flow for QoS handling by routers.
¢ Both routers and the sending host fragment packets.
¢ Header includes a checksum.
¢ Header includes options.
¢ Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) uses broadcast ARP Request frames to resolve an IP address to a link-layer address.
¢ Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) manages membership in local subnet groups.
¢ ICMP Router Discovery is used to determine the IPv4 address of the best default gateway, and it is optional.
¢ Broadcast addresses are used to send traffic to all nodes on a subnet.
¢ Must be configured either manually or through DHCP.
¢ Uses host address (A) resource records in Domain Name System (DNS) to map host names to IPv4 addresses.
¢ Uses pointer (PTR) resource records in the IN-ADDR.ARPA DNS domain to map IPv4 addresses to host names.
¢ Must support a 576-byte packet size (possibly fragmented).
IPv6
¢ Source and destination addresses are 128 bits (16 bytes) in length.
¢ IPSec support is required.
¢ IPv6 header contains Flow Label field, which identifies packet flow for QoS handling by router.
¢ Only the sending host fragments packets; routers do not.
¢ Header does not include a checksum.
¢ All optional data is moved to IPv6 extension headers.
¢ Multicast Neighbor Solicitation messages resolve IP addresses to link-layer addresses.
¢ Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) messages manage membership in local subnet groups.
¢ ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement messages are used to determine the IP address of the best default gateway, and they are required.
¢ IPv6 uses a link-local scope all-nodes multicast address.
¢ Does not require manual configuration or DHCP.
¢ Uses host address (AAAA) resource records in DNS to map host names to IPv6 addresses.
¢ Uses pointer (PTR) resource records in the IP6.ARPA DNS domain to map IPv6 addresses to host names.
¢ Must support a 1280-byte packet size (without fragmentation).
9. Potential Benefits and Uses of IPv6
9.1 Increased Address Space
Before delving into how IPv6 might make use of its increased address space, it is very important to reflect on some key elements of the original IPv4 architecture. All the early papers and practice on the Internet architecture stress that each computer attached to the Internet will have a globally unique IP address.
Thus, if one speaks of the IPv4 architecture, it is understood that globally unique IP addresses per host is part of that architecture. Further, the applications-level flexibility provided by globally unique addresses helps explain the ongoing vitality of applications innovation within the Internet. If, for example, a hard decision had been made at the outset of the Internet that some hosts would be clients and others would have been servers, then this would have constrained and ultimately weakened the early work on voice over IP, on person-to-person chats, and on teleconferencing. The original IPv4 address space cannot sustain the original IP addressing architecture, given the dramatic growth in the number of devices capable of performing as IP hosts, now or soon including PDAs, mobile phones, and other appliances. Given this growth in the number of hosts, we must either expand the number of addresses or change the architecture. IPv6 implements the former option, while the widespread deployment of NATs as the solution implements the latter. We therefore argue that the deployment of IPv6 is architecturally conservative, in that it maintains the essence of the Internet architecture in the presence of an increasing number of hosts, while NAT deployment is architecturally radical, in that it changes the essence of the
Internet architecture. By taking this architecturally conservative approach, IPv6 retains the ability of the Internet to enjoy its classic strength of applications innovation. While it is difficult to predict exactly what forms future applications innovation might take, a few examples will help.
¢The new generation of SIP-based interpersonal communications applications, including voice over IP, innovative forms of messaging, presence, and conferencing, make effective use of central servers to allow users to locate each other, but then also makes effective use of direct host-to-host communications in support of the actual communications. This enables applications flexibility and allows for high performance.
¢Other conferencing applications, such as VRVS, also require direct host-to-host
communications and break when either user is placed behind a NAT.
¢The new Grid computing paradigm supports high-speed distributed computing by allowing flexible patterns of computer-to-computer communications. The performance of such systems would be crippled were it required for servers to be involved in these computer-to-computer communications. The point to be stressed, however, is the difficulty of anticipating such applications.
NATs, the widespread deployment of NATs is architecturally radical and interferes with application innovation by removing the ability of one host to initiate direct communication with another host. Instead, all applications must be ediated by a central server with a global IP address. Apart from this major negative impact on application innovation, there are other negative impacts on performance and network management. The performance problems stem from the need to change the IP address and port numbers within the IP header and the TCP headers of packets. The resulting complexity will be a difficult-to-diagnose source of performance problems.
More dangerously, however, NATs destroy both global addressability and end-to-end transparency, another key Internet architectural principle. According to the principle of end-to-end transparency, all the routers and switches between a pair of communicating hosts simply pass IP packets along and do not modify their contents (apart from decrementing the TTL
field of the IP header at each hop along the path). This principle is key to the support for new applications, and it also eases the task of debugging an application between a pair of hosts. When NAT and other middleboxes modify the contents of the packets, it becomes more difficult for applications developers to understand how to get new applications (those not known when the given middlebox was designed) to work. NAT boxes also break a number of tools, such as ping and traceroute, that depend on adherence to the classic Internet architecture and which are key to diagnosing network problems. Both expert ISP engineers and ordinary users have their time wasted trying to debug network problems either caused by the NAT boxes or made more difficult to diagnose by the NAT boxes.
Finally, note that NATs are deployed in a wonderfully incremental manner. This is a kind of strength, but it also makes it difficult to project and implimentation the picture that will emerge if continued reliance on them continues. If IPv6 is not deployed so that our reliance on NATs as the solution to address scaling problems increases, we will begin to cascade NATs behind NATs and may eventually find ourselves one day in a situation like that reported by an ISP engineer from India who recently stated that they connected customers by cascading NATs five deep. The progressive difficulty of diagnosing performance and other network problems in this context will be severe.
9.2 Purported Security Improvements
While significant, IPv6's strengths in improving security should not be overstated or hyped. Careful distinction needs to be made with respect to several points.
IPsec is important for security. This work will be key to scalable secure communications as the Internet continues to grow and as we continue to rely on it more and more.
IPsec is important both for pure host-to-host and for support by gateways in a variety of ways.
IPv6 was designed to support IPsec and complete implementations of IPv6 will include IPsec.
When no NATs are in the path, IPv4 can also provide quite good support for IPsec. Thus, statements of the form IPv4 supports IPsec almost as well as IPv6 does are correct.
But when NATs present in the path, IPv4 will not be able to support IPsec well. Although we expect NATs to be less important in the IPv6 infrastructure, IPv6 NATs are conceivable and, when actually present, they would also defeat support for IPsec. Thus, the key issue is not so much IPv4 vs IPv6 per se, but rather classic IP vs NATted IP.
9.3 End User Applications
IPv6 provides somewhat better support for changing the address blocks assigned to a set of hosts and, thus, will improve the ease with which address assignment within a site can be maintained. This will result in eventual reduced operational costs and better performance for end hosts with more appropriate address assignments. IP mobility is quite a bit cleaner in an IPv6 context than in an IPv4 context. The number of steps involved is similar, but once achieved the path is more direct than with IPv4. This will help improve end-to-end performance in mobile contexts and will also remove sources of instability in these mobile IP contexts.
The IP header in an IPv6 packet contains a flow field that can help provide improved support QoS. There are many uncertainties here, however, and this advantage should not be overstated.
The basic problems are common to both IPv4 and IPv6. Again, in either case, the presence of NATs would complicate deployment of QoS and thus this adds to the broader notion of transparent and globally addressable IP (whether v4 or v6) as far stronger than either in a NATted environment.
For any given such device or application, this statement might possibly be true. Generally, though, two patterns emerge:
The value of the device or application is reduced, since its usefulness requires such aworkaround
The workaround generally involves adding yet another middlebox or proxy server, thus increasing the complexity and/or cost and also usually reducing the performance and robustness of the application.
Thus, while it's hard to argue a negative, the apology for NATs here is very weak. The specific problems mentioned will have the general effect of inhibiting the development and deployment and use of the devices and applications referred to.
9.4 Network Evolution
Taken positively, this assertion is true. That is, without undercutting the value of the 'other capabilities' (such as somewhat stronger support for IPsec, IP mobility, address renumbering, and QoS), the deep value of permitting the Internet to grow while retaining the strengths of global addressability and end-to-end transparency at the core of the classic IP architecture must not be underestimated. The real issue is not IPv4 vs IPv6, but IP with transparency vs IP with NATs along almost all paths.
9.5 Other Benefits and Uses
As with other points in section II, the issue is not IPv4 vs IPv6, but rather transparent IP vs NATted IP. With classic IP with end-to-end transparency and global addressability, SIP-based VoIP will be able to benefit from servers for the purpose of allowing users to identify and connect to each other, but then, when the actual voice packets begin to flow, those voice packets can go directly from source to destination without needing to go through an intermediate server. And, in this setting, once the voice packets begin to flow, any instability in that intermediate server will not cause the voice flow to fail. Thus, both performance and robustness will benefit. Again, this would be true for either IPv4 or IPv6, provided that no NATs are in the path between the two endpoints. But, of course, the widespread deployment of VoIP would require just the kind of massive increase in the number of IP devices that the limited 32-bit IPv4 address space cannot support. Thus, this becomes a case for IPv6.
Without giving a complete answer (which would be beyond my scope of expertise), I would point out that VoIP using the IEEE 802.11b 'WiFi' protocols are being experimented on at least one Internet2 member campus, and experience with that will likely help us over time to judge the answers. Note that, even apart from any issues of VoIP, university campuses are ideal places for deploying 802.11b/g in support of laptop and PDA uses. As IPv6 support in these environments begins to emerge, it appears very likely that various forms of VoIP will be explored on our campuses.
Finally, it should be stressed that IPv6 is likely to be important internationally. Moreover, since our international colleagues, especially in the Asia/Pacific and the European regions, suffer from address shortage much more than we do, they are moving forward on IPv6 technology development and on IPv6 deployment at a vigorous rate. To the degree that strong IPv6 infrastructure, IPv6-based applications, and content reachable via IPv6 infrastructure is of value in the United States, this should motivate our work on IPv6. It should be noted, at least in passing, that IPv6 developers all over the world have benefitted greatly from IPv6 software development done overseas.
10. Migration
The current IP-based network will gradually migrate from IPv4 to IPv6. Signalling interworking will need to be supported between the IPv6 network and the existing IPv4 network. Mapping of signalling between IPv6 and IPv4 is required. From the deployment point of view, there are three stages of evolution scenarios:
¢ First stage (stage 1): IPv4 ocean and IPv6 island;
¢ Second stage (stage 2): IPv6 ocean and IPv4 island;
¢ Third stage (stage 3): IPv6 ocean and IPv6 island.
There are several migration mechanisms from the IPv4 protocol to IPv6 protocol. The most discussed techniques are:
I. Dual stack “ to allow IPv4 and IPv6 to coexist in the same devices and networks;
II. Tunnelling “ to avoid order dependencies when upgrading hosts, routers or regions;
III. Translation “ to allow IPv6 only devices to communicate with IPv4 only devices.
Most of these techniques can be combined in a migration scenario to permit a smooth transition from IPv4 to IPv6. In the following subsections these three techniques are described briefly.
I. Dual Stack Technique
In this method it is proposed to implement two protocols stacks in the same device. The protocol stack used for each link depends on the device used at the other end of the link. Figure 4 shows this arrangement.

Figure : Dual stack operation
II.Tunnelling Techniques
Tunnelling techniques are used in two phases in the migration to a fully IPv6 network. In the first phase the core of the network uses the IPv4 protocol and there are only small islands IPv6. Figure 5 shows this phase. The IPv6 protocol is encapsulated in IPv4 tunnels.

Figure : IPv4 Tunnelling with islands of IPv6 in and IPv4 core network (phase 1)
In a second phase, when many nodes in the core of the network have already changed to IPv6, the situation is reversed and
IPv4 is encapsulated in IPv6 tunnels. The following figure shows this second phase.

Figure : IPv6 Tunnelling with islands of IPv4 in and IPv6 core network (phase 2)
III. Translation Techniques
This technique uses a device, the NATPT (Network Address Translation “ Protocol Translation) that translates in both directions between IPv4 and IPv6 at the boundary between an IPv4 network and an IPv6 network. Figure 7 shows this arrangement.

Figure : The arrangement with Network Address Translation “ Protocol Translation

Conclusion
This the new IPv6 protocol suite by comparing, where possible, the IPv6 protocol suite to similar features or concepts that currently exist in IPv4. This paper discussed how IPv6 resolves IPv4 protocol design issues, the new IPv6 header and extension headers, ICMPv6 (the replacement for ICMP for IPv4), MLD (the replacement for IGMP for IPv4), IPv6 Neighbor Discovery processes that manage interaction between neighboring IPv6 nodes, IPv6 address autoconfiguration, and IPv6 routing. While not in prevalent use today, the future of the Internet will be IPv6-based. It is important to gain an understanding of this strategic protocol to begin planning for the eventual transition to IPv6.
References
google.com
yahoo.com
wikipedia.com
ipv6.com
howstuff.com


INDEX
1.Introduction ¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..6
1.1 What is IP ¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦...6
1.2Introduction to Ipv6¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.....6
1.3 What will IPv6 do ¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.........8
2.History¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..9
2.1 Background¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦......9
2.2 Brief recap¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.10
3.IPv6 features¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.....11
4.Why Ipv6 is needed¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.13
5.Goals¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦15
5.1 capabilities of Ipv6¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦...15
5.2 Additional Requirement¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..17
6.IPv6 header¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦...19
7.IPv6 adderessing¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.21
7.1 Adderess space¦..¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦.¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦21
7.2 Adderess syntax¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..21
7.3 compressing zero¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦22
7.4 Ipv6 prefixes¦¦¦¦..¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦23
8.IPv6 vs IPv4¦¦¦.¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.24
9.Potential Benefits & uses of IPv6¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦¦¦..28
9.1Incressed Address space¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.28
9.2 Security improvement¦¦¦.¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦30
9.3 End user applications¦¦.¦¦¦.¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦30
9.4 Network evolution¦¦¦.¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦...31
9.5 Other Benefits & uses¦¦.¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦....31
10. Migration¦¦.¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.......33
Conclusion¦..¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.36
References¦¦..¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦...37
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
Reply
seminar topics
Active In SP
**

Posts: 559
Joined: Mar 2010
#3
31-03-2010, 06:26 AM

A NATIONAL LEVEL TECHNICAL PAPER PRESENTATION
ON
COMPUTER NETWORK
(IPv6-THE NEXT GENERATION PROTOCOL)

SUBMITTED BY “
PRABHA KUARI (B.E. E&C)\ SHRI SANT GADGE BABA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
BHUSAWAL (M.S.)
ABSTRACT
In this paper we are going to represent IPv6.IPv6 is short for "Internet Protocol Version 6". IPv6 is the "next generation" protocol designed by the IETF to replace the current version Internet Protocol, IP Version 4 ("IPv4").
Most of today's internet uses IPv4, which is now nearly twenty years old. IPv4 has been remarkably resilient in spite of its age, but it is beginning to have problems. Most importantly, there is a growing shortage of IPv4 addresses, which are needed by all new machines added to the Internet.
IPv6 fixes a number of problems in IPv4, such as the limited number of available IPv4 addresses. It also adds many improvements to IPv4 in areas such as routing and network auto configuration. IPv6 is expected to gradually replace IPv4, with the two coexisting for a number of years during a transition period.
We have included addressing, routing, security issue, headers and advantages of IPv6 over IPv4.
The functionalities of the next generation Internet protocol, IPv6, have become increasingly interesting due to the current merging of the traditional cellular mobile communications and the traditional data-communications into the future wireless systems, as e.g., UMTS. IPv6 provides several enhanced functionalities requested for the future mobile systems. In this article the largest advantages in relation to mobile systems are presented. Various aspects of introducing IP throughout the entire mobile network (core, accessed terminalsâ„¢) are also presented along with an illustration of the abilities of the future wireless network.
INTRODUCTION
IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6) is the latest level of the Internet Protocol (IP) and is now included as part of IP support in many products including the major computer operating systems. IPv6 is a set of specifications from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). IPv6 was designed as an evolutionary set of improvements to the current IP Version 4. Network hosts and intermediate nodes with either IPv4 or IPv6 can handle packets formatted for either level of the Internet Protocol. Users and service providers can update to IPv6 independently without having to coordinate with each other.
In 1991, the IETF decided that the current version of IP, called IPv4, had outlived its design. The new version of IP, called either IPng (Next Generation) or IPv6 (version 6), was the result of a long and tumultuous process which came to a head in 1994, when the IETF gave a clear direction for IPv6.
The most obvious improvement in IPv6 over the IPv4 is that IP addresses are lengthened from 32 bits to 128 bits. This extension anticipates considerable future growth of the Internet and provides relief for what was perceived as an impending shortage of network addresses.
¢ IPv6 describes rules for three types of addressing: unicast (one host to one other host), anycast (one host to the nearest of multiple hosts), and multicast (one host to multiple hosts).
What Is Ipv6
IP, the Internet Protocol, is one of the pillars which supports the Internet. Almost 20 years old, first specified in a remarkably concise 45 pages in RFC 791, IP is the network-layer protocol for the Internet.
IPv6 is designed to solve the problems of IPv4. It does so by creating a new version of the protocol which serves the function of IPv4, but without the same limitations of IPv4. IPv6 is not totally different from IPv4: what you have learned in IPv4 will be valuable when you deploy IPv6. The differences between IPv6 and IPv4 are in five major areas: addressing and routing, security, network address translation, administrative workload, and support for mobile devices. IPv6 also includes an important feature: a set of possible migration and transition plans from IPv4.
Since 1994, over 30 IPv6 RFCs have been published. Changing IP means changing dozens of Internet protocols and conventions, ranging from how IP addresses are stored in DNS (domain name system) and applications, to how datagrams are sent and routed over Ethernet, PPP, Token Ring, FDDI, and every other medium, to how programmers call network functions.
The IETF, though, is not so insane as to assume that everyone is going to change everything overnight. So there are also standards and protocols and procedures for the coexistence of IPv4 and IPv6: tunneling IPv6 in IPv4, tunneling IPv4 in IPv6, running IPv4 and IPv6 on the same system (dual stack) for an extended period of time, and mixing and matching the two protocols in a variety of environments.
Why IPv6
When telling people to migrate from IPv4 to IPv6, the question you usually hear is Why. There are actually a few good reasons to move to the new version:
¢ Bigger address space
¢ Support for mobile devices
¢ Built-in security space
BIGGER ADDRESS SPACE
The bigger address space IPv6 offers is the most obvious enhancement it has over IPv4. While today™s Internet architecture is based on 32-bit wide addresses, the new version has 128-bit technology available for addressing. Thanks to the enlarged address space, workarounds like NAT don™t have to be used anymore. This allows full, unconstrained IP connectivity for today™s IP-based machines as well as upcoming mobile devices like PDAs and cell phones”all will benefit from full IP access through GPRS and UMTS.
Mobility
When mentioning mobile devices and IP, it™s important to note that a special protocol is needed to support mobility, and implementing this protocol”called Mobile IP”is one of the requirements for every IPv6 stack. Thus, if you have IPv6 going, you have support for roaming between different networks, with global notification when you leave one network and enter the other one. Support for roaming is possible with IPv4 too, but there are a number of hoops that need to be jumped in order to get things working. With IPv6, there™s no need for this, as support for mobility was one of the design requirements for IPv6. See [RFC3024] for some more information on the issues that need to be addressed with Mobile IP on IPv4.
Security
Besides support for mobility, security was another requirement for the successor to todayâ„¢s Internet Protocol version. As a result, IPv6 protocol stacks are required to include IPsec. IPsec allows authentication, encryption, and compression of IP traffic. Except for application-level protocols like SSL or SSH, all IP traffic between two nodes can be handled without adjusting any applications. The benefit of this is that all applications on a machine can benefit from encryption and authentication, and that policies can be set on a per-host (or even per-network) basis, not per application/service. An introduction to IPsec with a roadmap to the documentation can be found in [RFC2411], the core protocol is described in [RFC2401].
So whatâ„¢s In It
Even if youâ„¢ve never studied IPv6, you may know about its most famous feature: big addresses. IPv4 uses 32-bit addresses, and with the growth of the Internet, these have become a scarce and valuable commodity. Organizations have gone to great lengths to deal with the shortage and high cost of IPv4 addresses. The most visible change in IPv6 is that addresses balloon from 32-bits to 128-bits.
Feature Change
Address Space Increase from 32-bit to 128-bit address space
Management Stateless auto configuration means no more need to configure IP addresses for end systems, even via DHCP
Performance Predictable header sizes and 64-bit header alignment mean better performance from routers and bridges/switches
Multicast/Multimedia Built-in features for multicast groups, management, and new any cast groups
Mobile IP Eliminate triangular routing and simplify deployment of mobile IP-based systems
Virtual Private Networks Built-in support for ESP/AH encrypted/authenticated virtual private network protocols; built-in support for QoS tagging
Big address space
With such a huge address space, ISPs will have sufficient IP addresses to allocate enough addresses to every customer so that every IP device has a truly unique address---whether itâ„¢s behind a firewall or not. NAT (network address translation) has become a very common technique to deal with the shortage of IP addresses. Unfortunately, NAT doesnâ„¢t work very well for many Internet applications, ranging from old dependables, such as NFS and DNS, to newer applications such as group conferencing. NAT has also been an impediment for business-to-business direct network connections, requiring baroque
Easier to manage networking
A second major goal of IPv6 is to reduce the total time which people have to spend configuring and managing systems. An IPv6 system can participate in stateless autoconfiguration, where it creates a guaranteed-unique IP address by combining its LAN MAC address with a prefix provided by the network routerAlthough IPv4 is a simple protocol, it was not designed for giga-bit and tera-bit routers which need to look at millions of packets a second.
Fast accuracy
The third major goal of IPv6 is to speed up the network, both from a performance and from a deployment point of view. IPv6 embodies the lessons learned at trying to build high-speed routers for IPv4 by changing the header of the IP packet to be more regular and to streamline the work of high-speed routers moving packets across the Internet backbone. IPv6 has fixed header sizes, and little-used IPv4 fields have been removed.
A side effect of the redesign of the IP packet header is that future extensions to IPv6 are simplified: adding a new option to IP can be done without a major re-engineering of IP routers everywhere.
FACILITIES OF MULTICASTING
High-bandwidth multimedia and fault tolerance applications are the focus of the fourth major goal of IPv6. Multimedia applications can take advantage of multicast: the transmission of a single datagram to multiple receivers. Although IPv4 has some multicast capabilities, these are optional and not every router and host supports them. With IPv6, multicast is a requirement. IPv6 also defines a new kind of service, called anycast. Like multicast, anycast has groups of nodes which send and receive packets. But when a packet is sent to an anycast group in IPv6, it is only delivered to one of the members of the group. This new capability is especially appropriate in a fault-tolerant environment: web servers and DNS servers could all benefit from IPv6â„¢s anycast technology.
SECURITY PROTOCOL
The fifth major goal of IPv6 is VPNs, virtual private networks. The new IPSec security protocols, ESP (encapsulating security protocol) and AH (authentication header) are add-ons to IPv4. IPv6 builds-in and requires these protocols, which will mean that secure networks will be easier to build and deploy in an IPv6 world.
Another aspect of VPNs built into IPv6 is QoS (Quality of Service). IPv6 supports the same QoS features as IPv4, including the DiffServ indication, as well as a new 20-bit traffic flow field. Although the use of this part of IPv6 is not defined, it is provided as a solid base to build QoS protocols.
IPV6 RULE ON IPV4 HOW
1. Trillions of times more addresses will make it a mathematical certainty that in the future there will be orders of magnitude more devices with IPv6 than IPv4.
2. IPv6 is easier to configure. Neighbor discovery finds other IPv6 systems and stateless (and stateful) autoconfiguration enable more automated set up of systems.
3. IPv6 is compatible with 3G wireless (near) broadband and has other features that support greater mobility. There will be two billion mobile phones by 2006 and (at least) two addresses are required per mobile phone, so just enabling every mobile phone will require more IP addresses than are left with IPv4. Static addresses can also double battery life by not wasting power by checking whether a call is completed so the carrier can grab back the dynamic IP address, which wastes a great deal of power.
4. IPv6 supports ad hoc networking, given the features just mentioned, enabling many different people, vehicles, weapons, etc. to all become networked when brought into proximity without special programming.
5. IPv6 supports more efficient usage of broadband, both via the Jumbograms, in which packets increase from 64 KB in IPv4 to 4 GB in IPv6 (and soon 32 GB), and via the Flow Label, which enables network utilization to triple, from 27% efficiency to 81% efficiency.
6. Headers in IPv6 are leaner, with six unnecessary fields removed, and one entirely new field added, enabling more efficient routing.
7. IPSec is mandatory, bringing authentication (of users, of networks, and even of applications) to the entire IPv6 Internet and creating a trusted bubble according to Microsoft. IPv4 has no trusted bubbles.
8. Quality of Service is including in IPv6 headers, enabling premium pricing for guaranteed delivery, and prioritization of defense or other critical government Internet-based communications, even when networks are full. This is a big advance for actions against terrorist attacks or natural disasters, when virtually all communications channels are swamped and first responders and warfighters need prioritized packets to save lives.
ADDRESSING & ROUTING
IPv6 addresses have a similar structure to class B addresses.
IPV6 ADDRESSING
Internet Protocol version 6 addresses refer to interfaces. A node with two network cards has two interfaces. In IPv6 the node may have several addresses for each interface to facilitate routing. The functionality of IPv6 allows the administrator to define a nodeâ„¢s interfaceâ„¢s with multiple addresses and types of addresses. A node may be identified by any of the Unicast Address types that are assigned to any of its interfaces. The Unicast Address is further described later in this section.
Text Representation of Addresses
The preferred form to represent an IPv6 address is X:X:X:X:X:X:X:X: where each X is a hexadecimal value representing two bytes or 16 bits. The leading zeroes in an individual field may be omitted. Groups of zeroes across multiple all zero fields
IPV6 ADDRESS TYPES
There are three main types of IPv6 addresses. The address type is identified by the leading bits in the address, called the Format Prefix field.
Unicast Address
The Unicast Address identifies a single interface. The Unicast Address may be aggregated using a process that is similar to current IPv4 Class-less Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) The many types of Unicast addresses include; neutral-interconnect addresses, NSAP addresses, IPX hierarchical addresses, site-local-use address, link-local-use address, and the IPv4 capable host address. The complexity of the Unicast Address format will vary depending on what amount of information the address should provide. For example, the Provider Based Unicast Address will provide much more information than a Link-Local Unicast Address. Inherently, the provider will require much more information to locate a host.
.
Anycast Address
The Anycast Address is unique in that it may be assigned to multiple interfaces. Packets sent to Anycast Addresses are routed to only one of the listed addresses, usually the nearest one. The address may be used to refer to a set of routers that are preferable for a specific type of packet. The Anycast Address is allocated as a Unicast Address, it may use any of the Unicast formats. Multiple interfaces that are defined by a single Anycast Address must be configured to distinguish the address from a basic Unicast Address.
Multicast Addresses
The Multicast Address identifies a group of interfaces, and interfaces may belong to multiple Multicast Address groups.
8 bits 4 bits 4 bits 118 bits
11111111 FLGS SCOP Group ID
Multicast Address Format
The first 8 bits identify the address as a Multicast Address. The FLGS field corresponds to either a permanent or transient Multicast Address. The 3 high-order bits are reserved for future use and are set to 0, only the lowest bit is significant at this time. If the lowest-order bit is 0, the Multicast Address has been permanently assigned by the internet numbering authority. A 1 in the lowest-order bit indicates a transient Multicast Address.
IPV6 ROUTING
Figure illustrates an example of how a mobile user would interact with a destination that can be reached through three different Internet Service Providers. In this illustration, Internet Service Providers A and B provide basic service, as one would connect to from home or office. Internet Service Provider C provides mobile Internet Service for use with mobile internet technology.
: IPv6 Mobile Routing
Suppose mobile user A was located at their home location and wanted to route a packet to stationary user E. User A could route a packet to user E and select internet provider D to make the connection. The packet from user A would contain the sequence A,D,E. User E would then reverse the sequence to reach user A through the preferred path, the return packet would travel E, D,A.
Now, lets suppose user A becomes mobile and travels to a site that is only reachable through wireless internet provider C. Through IPv6 auto-configuration, the mobile user can automatically obtain the proper IPv6 prefix from the wireless provider C. The user would then route a packet to user E in the following sequence; A, C, B, E. User E could then locate the location of user A by simply reversing the sequence. In this fashion, IPv6 routing facilitates address mobility and provider selection.
IPV6HEADER
The IPv6 Header has greatly evolved from its IPv4 predecessor. The IPv6 Header is larger but takes up a lesser percentage of the overall header space. Several fields such as the Options Field and Header Checksum have been removed and replaced with improved functions in the IPv6 Extension Header. The IPv6 Header was designed to facilitate routing efficiency.
IPv6 Header Format
The IPv4 Header was inherently inefficient as routing required the analysis of each of the IPv4 Header Fields. IPv6 introduces the Extension Header which is described by a value in the IPv6 Next Header Field. Routers can view the Next Header value and then independently and quickly decide if the Extension Header holds useful information. The Extension Headers carry much of the information that contributed to the large size of the IPv4 Header. Consequently, the IPv6 Header is relatively smaller. The Extension Header is further described in the next section.
IPv6 Extension Header
IPv6 options are placed in separate Extension Headers to facilitate routing and to provide a practical means to implement additional options. The Extension Headers are placed between the Transport Layer Header and the IPv6 Header. Several types of Extension Headers are defined for IPv6, a value in the Next Header Field identifies the type of Extension Header that follows. Every header contains its own Next Header Field to identify subsequent headers.
The Extension Headers are placed in order so that a router can stop reading the Next Header field once it reaches the last value or Extension Header that may pertain to it. In this fashion, all of the extension options do not have to be processed by each router that the packet traverses along its way to the destination. In fact, many IPv6 Extension Headers are not processed until they arrive at the destination.
The variable length Extension Header may extend beyond the 40 byte limit in IPv4 options. This flexibility allows for the practical use of security options in the Extension Headers. For example, the Authentication Extension Header may contain Algorithmic information to assure the secure IPv6 packet transfer.
Routing Headers
Routing Extension Headers are used by the source to control the routing of a packet. In this fashion, the Routing header may explicitly dictate the route from the source to the destination. The IPv6 address of each of the nodes along the path are included, and the destination then uses the reverse path for communication as well. This topic is further discussed in the IPv6 Routing section.
Fragmentation Headers
Although the IPv6 effort aims to prevent subsequent fragmentation, the Fragmentation Header allows fragmented packets to traverse the IPv6 network.
Authentication Headers
The Authentication Header uses an algorithm to ensure that the IPv6 packet has not been altered along its path. The header also ensures that the IPv6 packet has arrived from the source listed in the IP Header. The Authentication Header is further described in the IPv6 Security Issues section.
Hop-by-Hop Header
IPv6 implements an efficient method to alert routers of a packet that requires special processing. Packets that do not contain the IPv6 Hop-by-Hop Option Header are not fully processed by each router, instead they are allowed to quickly continue on their way to their destination. This method allows routers to quickly identify and fully process packets that require special route handling. Routers that recognize this Option Header examine the packets accordingly, routers that do not recognize this option ignore it. The process of IPv6 Hop-by-Hop Option Headers is fully described in the Internet Draft dated February 1998, and titled IPv6 Router Alert Option.
Security
Besides support for mobility, security was another requirement for the successor to todayâ„¢s Internet Protocol version. As a result, IPv6 protocol stacks are required to include IPsec. IPsec allows authentication, encryption, and compression of IP traffic. Except for application-level protocols like SSL or SSH, all IP traffic between two nodes can be handled without adjusting any applications. The benefit of this is that all applications on a machine can benefit from encryption and authentication, and that policies can be set on a per-host (or even per-network) basis, not per application/service. An introduction to IPsec with a roadmap to the documentation can be found in [RFC2411], the core protocol is described in [RFC2401].
IPv6 Security Issues
IPv6 offers two instruments to provide internet security. The Authentication Header and the Encapsulating Security Header. The Authentication Header is a type of Extension Header that provides security for packets. The Authentication Header contains the calculated results of the authentication algorithm. The algorithms calculation takes the entire packet into account, except for the fields that are usually modified along the transition path. Although, the IPv6 effort suggests the use of keyed MD5 for the authentication algorithm, the extension header is actually algorithm independent. MD5 is proposed to facilitate interoperability in the worldwide internet. Many different algorithms and authentication techniques are supported. It should be noted that the Authentication Header only supports authentication and integrity, not confidentiality.
The Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) Header provides both integrity and confidentiality. Depending on the algorithm used, this header security technique may also provide authentication. This extension header is also algorithm-independent and it is simpler than other similar security protocols. The ESP Header provides confidentiality and integrity by encrypting data and carrying it in the data field of the Extension Header. The user may chose to encrypt either a transport-layer segment (e.g., TCP, UDP, ICMP, IGMP) or the entire IP packet. The full encapsulation of data is necessary to provide confidentiality for the entire packet.
The packet contents may be encrypted before the authentication values are calculated, depending on which algorithm is being used. The IPv6 effort suggests the use of the following encryption schemes; Data Encryption Standard (DES), and Cipher Block Chaining (CBC).
THE ADVANTAGES OF IPV6
The massive growth of the Internet has demonstrated its value to businesses, government, professionals, academics and individuals over the last decade. Industry now relies on on a range of benefits from Internet technology and has seen significant productivity gains.
The benefits of the Internet are drawn directly from the platform of interoperability created by use of the Internet Protocol, leading to a large "network effect". That is, the benefits to a company from the Internet arise not just by the extent to which the company itself uses the Internet, but far more from the extent to which others - suppliers, customers and individuals - also use the Internet. Because IPv6 will greatly increase the size and range of devices connected to the Internet, the benefit of the network effect will increase accordingly.
The World Wide Web and other Internet applications currently use version 4 of the Internet Protocol - IPv4. IP version 6 was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force to deal with a looming shortage of addresses under IPv4. Since then, there have been numerous technical fixes to shore up IPv4 and postpone the need for a move to IPv6, as well as debate on whether IPv6 would even be required. That debate is now generally agreed to be over. The IPv4 address space is expected to run out around 2011 if there is no change to the existing rates of allocation. In practice, the only option for those building large new networks is to use IPv6.
Complexity has been introduced into the way that IP based-networks are already implemented because of address space shortage. Parts of the IPv4 address space need to be reused around the world because there are now too few addresses remaining for the size of the Internet. Some IPv4 address space has been reserved for private (not globally routable) IPv4 addresses, to help overcome these problems. These allocations have been used with network address translation to enable networks to connect to the Internet using only one globally routable IPv4 address. For example, in India, up to three levels of Network Address Translation have been observed.
IPv6 offers the potential to build a much more powerful Internet, with vastly larger scale compared to the current situation. Addresses in IPv4 have only 32 bits, allowing for only about 4 billion addresses, compared to 128-bit IPv6, with some 340 trillion, trillion, trillion addresses.
As well as increasing the address space, the IETF took the opportunity to build additional features into the IPv6 specification. IPv6 has a new feature called auto configuration. This feature allows a device to generate an IPv6 address as soon as it is given power. Using this 'link local' address, there is no immediate need for any other infrastructure to allow that device to begin communicating via IPv6 on its local network, including communications with another local host or router. If an IPv6 router is present, any IPv6-capable device can generate not only a local address, but a globally routable address, allowing access to the wider Internet.
Provision of sufficient address space will also allow re-establishment of an end-to-end architecture in the Internet. The shortage of IPv4 addresses has caused widespread use of private address spaces, which are not directly accessible from the Internet. Devices with IPv6 addresses and IPv6 connectivity can be directly reachable by their address. Such an approach gives rise to the potential to move beyond an "Internet of desktops" to an "Internet of devices" where device to device communication becomes possible. A range of other capabilities were included during the IPv6 development process, for instance mandatory support for security via IPsec (Internet Protocol Security).
While some of the new features possible in IPv6 based networks are currently possible in IPv4 based networks, the critical exception is that they do not support the scale that IPv6 does, making it difficult or impossible to use them to meet current and future business requirements. The network applications being considered as a basis for new growth in industry productivity require a vastly higher scale of implementation than IPv4 can deliver; thousands or millions of devices and/or addresses.
Comcast (a large cable operator based in the USA) moved to IPv6 because it was in need of over 100 million addresses. Simple project and implimentationions showed Comcast that the number of IP addresses that Comcast would need in order to support its future growth in terms of subscriber base, as well as to be able to leverage potential new services, exceeded those available. In fact, estimations were that within a few years, Comcast would have some 20 million video customers, an average of 2.5 set-top boxes per customer, and 2 IP addresses per box. If these estimates are correct, the company will be needing over 100 million IP addresses.
Manual intervention is the other critical element to be considered in the context of implementing large scale networks. If manual set-up is required for every device with an IP address, significant costs will be incurred. In IPv4 based networks, this requirement has been alleviated by the use of server based configuration of devices using Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) which is able to automatically allocate IP addresses to new devices on the network with the parameters set by the network administrator. However, for this approach to work, each new device must interact with a DHCP server, which in the case of large-scale networks is resource- and time-intensive. In contrast, IPv6 address allocation is done by the device itself and can occur independently of a server, or in conjunction with an IPv6 enabled router, as appropriate.
While many Internet based applications will continue to operate under IPv4, the challenges of network administration and security management continue to grow. For instance, if two companies merge and want to merge their IP based networks then there will have to be renumbering. On the Internet, if the source of malevolent activity needs to be identified, the closest identification by IP address possible under an IPv4 NAT architecture is the globally routable IPv4 address of the top level NAT server.
In the case of much larger scale future networks (such as in the Comcast example above), industry will face significant challenges. In an Australian example, Telstra is rumoured to be using Class A private address space to address NextG devices, which would limit their capacity to grow a market beyond Australia. In summary, IPv6 has significant cost advantages in current networks, and in developing the larger scale networks required by industry.
CONCLUSION
Thus we conclude by all above gaining information that IPv6 ie. Internet version 6 is advance in many matter by IPv4 i.e. Internet protocol version 4.
IPv6 fixes a number in IPv4, such as the limited no. of available IPv4 address. it also adds many improvements to IPv4 in areas such as routing and network auto configuration . IPv6 is expected to gradually replace IPv4, with the two coexisting for a no. of years during a transition period.
Even if you have never studied IPv6, you may know its most famous feature: big adders. IPv4 uses 32 bit addressees and with the growth of the internet, these have become a scarce and valuable commodity.
Here we are clear with each and every point regarding the topic IPv6.
REFERENCES
¢ google.com
¢ www .britishsearch.com
¢ www altavista.com
¢ en.wikipediawiki /ipv6
¢ ipv6sumit,inc.2006
¢ info@usipv6.com

INDEX
1. ABSTRACT¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦....01
2. INTRODUCTION¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..02
3. BIGGER ADDRESS SPACE¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦03
4. FACILITIES OF MULTICASTING¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦¦05
5. SECURITY PROTOCOL¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦..¦05
6. IPv6 RULE ON IPv4 HOW¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦¦¦¦.05
7. ADDRESING & ROUTING¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦¦¦¦¦¦.06
8. IPv6 ADDRESSING¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦¦¦¦.¦¦...06
9. TYPES OF ADDRESSING¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦.07
10. IPv6 ROUTING¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦¦07
11. IPv6 HEADER¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦..¦¦08
12. ADVANTAGES OF IPv6¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.10
13. CONCLUSION¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦¦13
14. REFERANCES¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦¦.¦¦¦¦¦¦14


Attached Files
.doc   IPv6-THE NEXT GENERATION PROTOCOL.doc (Size: 147 KB / Downloads: 108)
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
Reply
projectsofme
Active In SP
**

Posts: 1,124
Joined: Jun 2010
#4
15-10-2010, 10:00 AM

IPv6

Refs: Chapter 10, Appendix A

IPv6 availability

Generally not part of O.S.
Available in beta for many operating systems.
Experimental IPv6 internet - may be coming to campus!
IPv6 Design Issues

Overcome IPv4 scaling problem (lack of address space)
Flexible transition mechanism.
New routing capabilities.
Quality of service
Security
Ability to add features in the future.
IPv6 Headers

Simpler header - faster processing by routers.
No optional fields - fixed size (40 bytes)
No fragmentation fields.
No checksum
Support for multiple headers
more flexible than simple “protocol” field.

IPv4 Header

VERS
HL
Fragment Offset
Fragment Length
Service
Datagram ID
FLAG
TTL
Protocol
Header Checksum
Source Address
Destination Address
Options (if any)
Data
For more information about this article,please follow the link:
googleurl?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBUQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fcs.rpi.edu%2F~hollingd%2Fnetprog99%2Flectures%2Fipv6.ppt&ei=1de3TIevJZGivgOM5PWtDQ&usg=AFQjCNHNbnxboZ_uVqNrzPyHdGEFB6U_xg
Reply
blackking
Active In SP
**

Posts: 1
Joined: Feb 2011
#5
22-02-2011, 04:01 PM

nice site for student
Reply
seminar class
Active In SP
**

Posts: 5,361
Joined: Feb 2011
#6
25-03-2011, 11:21 AM

PRESENTED BY:
ROHIT BHARAT VIBHUTE


.docx   3355.docx (Size: 1.27 MB / Downloads: 74)
ABSTRACT
In this paper we are going to represent IPv6.IPv6 is short for "Internet Protocol Version 6". IPv6 is the "next generation" protocol designed by the IETF to replace the current version Internet Protocol, IP Version 4 ("IPv4").
Most of today's internet uses IPv4, which is now nearly twenty years old. IPv4 has been remarkably resilient in spite of its age, but it is beginning to have problems. Most importantly, there is a growing shortage of IPv4 addresses, which are needed by all new machines added to the Internet.
IPv6 fixes a number of problems in IPv4, such as the limited number of available IPv4 addresses. It also adds many improvements to IPv4 in areas such as routing and network auto configuration. IPv6 is expected to gradually replace IPv4, with the two coexisting for a number of years during a transition period.
We have included addressing, routing, security issue, headers and advantages of IPv6 over IPv4.
The functionalities of the next generation Internet protocol, IPv6, have become increasingly interesting due to the current merging of the traditional cellular mobile communications and the traditional data-communications into the future wireless systems, as e.g., UMTS. IPv6 provides several enhanced functionalities requested for the future mobile systems. In this article the largest advantages in relation to mobile systems are presented. Various aspects of introducing IP throughout the entire mobile network (core, accessed terminals’) are also presented along with an illustration of the abilities of the future wireless network.
Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 What is IP?

The Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite, also referred to as TCP/IP.
IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering distinguished protocol datagram’s (packets) from the source host to the destination host solely based on their addresses. For this purpose the Internet Protocol defines addressing methods and structures for datagram encapsulation. The first major version of addressing structure, now referred to as Internet Protocol Version 4 (Ipv4) is still the dominant protocol of the Internet, although the successor, Internet Protocol Version 6 (Ipv6) is being deployed actively worldwide.
1.2 Introduction to IPv6
The current version of the Internet Protocol (known as IP version 4 or IPv4) has not been substantially changed since RFC 791 was published in 1981. IPv4 has proven to be robust, easily implemented and interoperable, and has stood the test of scaling an internetwork to a global utility the size of today's Internet. This is a tribute to its initial design.
IPv6 stands for Internet Protocol version 6. This technology is designed to replace the existing IPv4 with improved address space, service, and data. Internet Protocol version 6 is meant to allow anyone who wants to use the Internet the capability to do.
However, the initial design did not anticipate:
• The recent exponential growth of the Internet and the impending exhaustion of the IPv4 address space. IPv4 addresses have become relatively scarce, forcing some organizations to use a network address translator (NAT) to map multiple private addresses to a single public IP address. While NATs promote reuse of the private address space, they do not support standards-based network layer security or the correct mapping of all higher layer protocols and can create problems when connecting two organizations that use the private address space. Additionally, the rising prominence of Internet-connected devices and appliances assures that the public IPv4 address space will eventually be depleted.
• The growth of the Internet and the ability of Internet backbone routers to maintain large routing tables. Because of the way in which IPv4 network IDs have been and are currently allocated, there are routinely over 70,000 routes in the routing tables of Internet backbone routers. The current IPv4 Internet routing infrastructure is a combination of both flat and hierarchical routing.
• The need for simpler configuration. Most current IPv4 implementations must be configured either manually or through a state full address configuration protocol such as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). With more computers and devices using IP, there is a need for a simpler and more automatic configuration of addresses and other configuration settings that do not rely on the administration of a DHCP infrastructure.
• The need for better support for real-time delivery of data (also known a quality of service). While standards for quality of service (QOS) exist for IPv4, real-time traffic support relies on the IPv4 Type of Service (TOS) field and the identification of the payload, typically using a UDP or TCP port. Unfortunately, the IPv4 TOS field has limited functionality and has different interpretations. In addition, payload identification using a TCP and UDP port is not possible when the IPv4 packet payload is encrypted.
To address these concerns, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has developed a suite of protocols and standards known as IP version 6 (IPv6). This new version, previously named IP-The Next Generation (IP), incorporates the concepts of many proposed methods for updating the IPv4 protocol. IPv6 is intentionally designed for minimal impact on upper and lower layer protocols by avoiding the arbitrary addition of new features.
1.3 What will IPv6 do?
IPv6 is technology with a main focus on changing the structure of current IP addresses, which will allow for virtually unlimited IP addresses. The current version, IPv4 is a growing concern with the limited IP addresses, making it a fear that they will run out in the future. IPv6 will also have a goal to make the Internet a more secure place for browsers, and with the rapid number of identity theft victims, this is a key feature.
Reply
seminar class
Active In SP
**

Posts: 5,361
Joined: Feb 2011
#7
05-04-2011, 09:20 AM


.doc   36511895-ipv6.doc (Size: 307.5 KB / Downloads: 59)
INTRODUCTION
1.1 PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH

The Internet is growing extremely rapidly. The IPv4 addressing scheme, with a 32-bit address field, provides for over 4 billion possible addresses, so it might seem more than adequate to the task of addressing all of the hosts on the Internet, since there appears to be room to accommodate 40 times as many Internet hosts. Unfortunately, this is not the case. The addresses are getting used up and there arises a need for a new technology so that there can be enough addresses to be assigned to the world.
Thus to eradicate the problems faced by IPv4, a new version of IP called IPv6 has been developed. The research focuses on the implementation of IPv6 in IT industry and the problem of address space exhaustion faced by IPv4 along with other problems. Apart from this the research also throws some light on the future use of IPv6 in the industry.
1.2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The basic objectives of the research are:
 To determine how IPv6 is implemented in the IT industry.
 To determine the role of IPv6 in IT industry.
 To analyze the problem of address space exhaustion while addressing through IPv4.
 The problems associated with IPv6.
 To determine the problems that are associated in switching from IPv4 to IPv6.
 To determine how IPv6 can give solution to the problems of IPv4.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH
The scope of this research is limited to the use and implementation of IPv6 in IT industry. The role of IPv6 in eradicating the problems associated with the IPv4 addressing is taken from the viewpoint of the IT industry. The research also focuses on the problems faced by IPv6 in the present. The research also provides recommendations that can be adopted in the future to have better service and address space. The different address classes of Internet Protocol are also analyzed to understand the problem of address space exhaustion.
1.4 CHAPTER SCHEME
The chapters are arranged in a particular order that are required in the format of a report. The first chapter gives a brief introduction about the project and implimentation. It includes the purpose of the research, its objectives and its scope.
The second chapter gives the background information about the project and implimentation which includes the brief profile of the company where I did my internship and also about the topic of my research ie. IPv6.
The 3rd chapter tells about the methodology of the project and implimentation. The type of research done and the sources of data collection.
The Fourth and the fifth chapter involves the analysis of data collected from the sources and their interpretation.
The Sixth chapter enlists the limitations of the study that are retrieved from the study of the data.
Seventh chapter provides recommendations and suggestions that a firm can use to remove the limitations of the project and implimentation.
Chapter 8 is the conclusion of the whole research and is followed by references and annexures.
2.2 ABOUT THE TOPIC
THE INTERNET PROTOCOL

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the primary network protocol used on the Internet, developed in the 1970s when the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) became interested in establishing a packet-switched network that would facilitate communication between dissimilar computer systems at research institutions. With the goal of heterogeneous connectivity in mind, DARPA funded research by Stanford University and Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN). The result of this development effort was the Internet protocol suite, completed in the late 1970s. TCP/IP later was included with Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) UNIX and has since become the foundation on which the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW) are based. It is a protocol used for communicating data across a packet-switched inter network using the Internet Protocol Suite, also referred to as TCP/IP.
IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering distinguished protocol datagrams (packets) from the source host to the destination host solely based on their addresses. For this purpose the Internet Protocol defines addressing methods and structures for datagram encapsulation. IP contains addressing information and some control information that enables packets to be routed. The first major version of addressing structure, now referred to as Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) is still the dominant protocol of the Internet, although the successor Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), is being deployed actively worldwide.
IP supports unique addressing for computers on a network. Most networks use the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) standard that features IP addresses four bytes (32 bits) in length. The newer Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) standard features addresses 16 bytes (128 bits) in length.
Data on an Internet Protocol network is organized into packets. Each IP packet includes both a header (that specifies source, destination, and other information about the data) and the message data itself.
IP functions at layer 3 of the OSI model. It can therefore run on top of different data link interfaces including Ethernet and Wi-Fi.
The Internet protocols are the world’s most popular open-system protocol suite because they can be used to communicate across any set of interconnected networks and are equally well suited for LAN and WAN communications. The Internet protocols consist of a suite of communication protocols, of which the two best known are the Transmission Control protocol(TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). The Internet protocol suite not only includes lower-layer protocols (such as TCP and IP), but it also specifies common applications such as electronic mail, terminal emulation, and file transfer.
IP has two primary responsibilities:
 providing connectionless, best-effort delivery of datagrams through an inter network.
 and providing fragmentation and reassembly of datagrams to support data links with different maximum-transmission unit (MTU) sizes.
How Internet Infrastructure Works?
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet. Each computer (known as a host) on the Internet has at least one IP address that uniquely identifies it from all other computers on the Internet. When you send or receive data (for example, an e-mail note or a Web page), the message gets divided into little chunks called packets. Each of these packets contains both the sender's Internet address and the receiver's address. Any packet is sent first to a gateway computer that understands a small part of the Internet. The gateway computer reads the destination address and forwards the packet to an adjacent gateway that in turn reads the destination address and so forth across the Internet until one gateway recognizes the packet as belonging to a computer within its immediate neighborhood or domain. That gateway then forwards the packet directly to the computer whose address is specified.
Because a message is divided into a number of packets, each packet can, if necessary, be sent by a different route across the Internet. Packets can arrive in a different order than the order they were sent in. The Internet Protocol just delivers them. It's up to another protocol, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to put them back in the right order.
IP is a connectionless protocol, which means that there is no continuing connection between the end points that are communicating. Each packet that travels through the Internet is treated as an independent unit of data without any relation to any other unit of data. (The reason the packets do get put in the right order is because of TCP, the connection-oriented protocol that keeps track of the packet sequence in a message.) In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communication model, IP is in layer 3, the Networking Layer.
IP routing protocols are dynamic. Dynamic routing calls for routes to be calculated automatically at regular intervals by software in routing devices. This contrasts with static routing, where routers are established by the network administrator and do not change until the network administrator changes them.
An IP routing table, which consists of destination address/next hop pairs, is used to enable dynamic routing. An entry in this table, for example, would be interpreted as follows:
to get to network 172.31.0.0, send the packet out Ethernet interface 0 (E0).
IP routing specifies that IP datagrams travel through inter networks one hop at a time. The entire route is not known at the onset of the journey, however. Instead, at each stop, the next destination is calculated by matching the destination address within the datagram with an entry in the current node’s routing table. Each node’s involvement in the routing process is limited to forwarding packets based on internal information.
Reply
smart paper boy
Active In SP
**

Posts: 2,053
Joined: Jun 2011
#8
16-07-2011, 03:34 PM

Presented by:
Minal Mishra


.ppt   minal-IPv6.ppt (Size: 421 KB / Downloads: 51)
Agenda
IP Network Addressing
Classful IP addressing
Techniques to reduce address shortage in IPv4
Features of IPv6
Header Comparisons
Extension Headers
Conclusions
IP Network Addressing
INTERNET  world’s largest public data network, doubling in size every nine months
IPv4, defines a 32-bit address - 232 (4,294,967,296) IPv4 addresses available
The first problem is concerned with the eventual depletion of the IP address space.
Traditional model of classful addressing does not allow the address space to be used to its maximum potential.
Classful Addressing
When IP was first standardized in Sep 1981, each system attached to the IP based Internet had to be assigned a unique 32-bit address
The 32-bit IP addressing scheme involves a two level addressing hierarchy
Classful Addressing…
Divided into 5 classes
Class A 8 bits N/W id and 24 bits host id and so on B,C.
Wastage of IP addresses by assigning blocks of addresses which fall along octet boundaries
Techniques to reduce address shortage in IPv4
Subnetting
Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR)
Network Address Translation (NAT)
Subnetting
Three-level hierarchy: network, subnet, and host.
The extended-network-prefix is composed of the classful network-prefix and the subnet-number
The extended-network-prefix has traditionally been identified by the subnet mask
Subnetting Example
Classless Inter-Domain Routing
Eliminates traditional classful IP routing.
Supports the deployment of arbitrarily sized networks
Routing information is advertised with a bit mask/prefix length specifies the number of leftmost contiguous bits in the network portion of each routing table entry
Example: 192.168.0.0/21
CIDR Table Entry…
Extract the destination IP address.
Boolean AND the IP address with the subnet mask for each entry in the routing table.
The answer you get after ANDing is checked with the base address entry corresponding to the subnet mask entry with which the destination entry was Boolean ANDed.
If a match is obtained the packet is forwarded to the router with the corresponding base address
Network Address Translation
Each organization- single IP address
Within organization – each host with IP unique to the orgn., from reserved set of IP addresses
NAT Example
Features of IPv6
Larger Address Space
Aggregation-based address hierarchy
– Efficient backbone routing
Efficient and Extensible IP datagram
Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
Security (IPsec mandatory)
Mobility
Major Improvements of IPv6 Header
No option field: Replaced by extension header. Result in a fixed length, 40-byte IP header.
No header checksum: Result in fast processing.
No fragmentation at intermediate nodes: Result in fast IP forwarding.
Extension Headers
Routing – Extended routing, like IPv4 loose list of routers to visit
Fragmentation – Fragmentation and reassembly
Authentication – Integrity and authentication, security
Encapsulation – Confidentiality
Hop-by-Hop Option – Special options that require hop-by-hop processing
Destination Options – Optional information to be examined by the destination node
Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
3 ways to configure network interfaces: Manually, Stateful, Stateless
IPSAA IPv6 addr. Separated into 2 2 parts: network and interface id.
Link- local addresses: prefix FE80::0 + interface identifier (EUI-64 format)
Obtain network id through Router solicitation (RS)
Conclusion
IPv6 is NEW …
– built on the experiences learned from IPv4
– new features
– large address space
– new efficient header
– autoconfiguration
… and OLD
– still IP
– build on a solid base
– started in 1995, a lot of implementations and tests done
Reply
seminar ideas
Super Moderator
******

Posts: 10,003
Joined: Apr 2012
#9
15-05-2012, 01:31 PM

IPv6



.pdf   smith-ipv6.pdf (Size: 2.04 MB / Downloads: 15)

Early Internet History

Late 1980s
Exponential growth of the Internet
Late 1990: CLNS proposed as IP replacement
1991-1992
Running out of “class-B” network numbers
Explosive growth of the “default-free” routing table
Eventual exhaustion of 32-bit address space
Two efforts – short-term vs. long-term
More at “The Long and Windy ROAD”



Current Situation
General perception is that “IPv6 has not yet taken hold”
IPv4 Address run-out is not “headline news” yet
More discussions and run-out plans proposed
Private sector requires a business case to “migrate”
No easy Return on Investment (RoI) computation

But reality is very different from perception!
Something needs to be done to sustain the Internet growth
IPv6 or NAT or both or something else?



ISP Deployment Activities

Several Market segments
IX, Carriers, Regional ISP, Wireless
ISP have to get an IPv6 prefix from their Regional Registry
riperipencc/mem-services/registration/ipv6/ipv6allocs.html
Large carriers planning driven by customer demand:
Some running trial networks (e.g. Sprint)
Others running commercial services (e.g. NTT, FT,…)
Regional ISP focus on their specific markets
Much discussion by operators about transition
Reply
seminar ideas
Super Moderator
******

Posts: 10,003
Joined: Apr 2012
#10
23-07-2012, 10:49 AM

to get information about the topic "ipv6 the next generation proyocol" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

topicideashow-to-ipv6-the-next-generation-protocol--1843

topicideashow-to-ipv6-next-generation-ip
Reply

Important Note..!

If you are not satisfied with above reply ,..Please

ASK HERE

So that we will collect data for you and will made reply to the request....OR try below "QUICK REPLY" box to add a reply to this page

Quick Reply
Message
Type your reply to this message here.


Image Verification
Please enter the text contained within the image into the text box below it. This process is used to prevent automated spam bots.
Image Verification
(case insensitive)

Possibly Related Threads...
Thread Author Replies Views Last Post
  IEEE 802.11ac-Wi-Fi for the Mobile and Video Generation Report study tips 0 362 03-08-2013, 12:46 PM
Last Post: study tips
  TAKEOVER: A New Vertical Handover Concept for Next-Generation Heterogeneous pdf study tips 0 403 19-06-2013, 01:02 PM
Last Post: study tips
  Next Generation Web Mapping ppt study tips 0 327 30-05-2013, 12:56 PM
Last Post: study tips
  Constraint-Based Automatic Test Data Generation pdf study tips 0 373 08-05-2013, 04:43 PM
Last Post: study tips
  Next Generation 3D Internet (Post-IP) leading to 4D Mobile Internet pdf study tips 0 508 12-04-2013, 03:38 PM
Last Post: study tips
  3rd generation of mobile telecommunications technology study tips 1 481 07-03-2013, 02:08 PM
Last Post: study tips
  Rethinking of computation for future-generation, knowledge-rich speech recognition study tips 0 302 02-03-2013, 12:03 PM
Last Post: study tips
  A Presentation on Next Generation Cloud Computing Architecture study tips 0 309 27-02-2013, 01:12 PM
Last Post: study tips
  ProCurve Networking - IPv6 – The Next Generation of Networking study tips 1 414 25-02-2013, 12:30 PM
Last Post: chandra pratap
  NetSpy: Automatic Generation of Spyware Signatures for NIDS pdf study tips 0 275 25-02-2013, 10:08 AM
Last Post: study tips