Indoor Geolocation
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17-09-2009, 01:19 AM


Indoor Geolocation

Recently, there is an increasing interest in accurate location finding techniques and location based applications for indoor areas. The Global Positioning System (GPS) and wireless enhanced 911(E-911) services also address the issue of location finding. However, these technologies cannot provide accurate indoor geolocation, which has its own independent market and unique technical challenges.

Despite extraordinary advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology, millions of square meters of indoor space are out of reach of GPS satellites. Their signals, originating high above the earth, are not designed to penetrate most construction materials, and no amount of technical wizardry is likely to help. So the greater part of the world's commerce, being conducted indoors, cannot be followed by GPS satellites.

Consider some everyday business challenges. Perpetual physical inventory is needed for manufacturing control, as well as to keep assets from being lost or pilfered. Mobile assets, such as hospital crash carts, need to be on hand in an emergency. Costly and baroque procedures presently track and find manufacturing work-in-process. Nor is the office immune: loss of valuable equipment such as laptop computers has become a serious problem, and locating people in a large office takes time and disrupts other activities.

What these systems share is a need to find and track physical assets and people that are inside buildings. The design differences between an efficient asset-tracking system and GPS arc more basic. First and foremost, control of the situation shifts from users of GPS receivers, querying the system for a fix on their position, to overhead scanners, checking up on the positions of many specially tagged objects and people. In GPS, each receiver must determine its own position in reference to a fixed infrastructure, whereas inside a building, the tracking infrastructure must keep tabs on thousands of tags.

Systems consulting for a health maintenance organization (HMO) sparked the interest in this technology. As patients' files were often impossible to find, doctors were forced to see one in five persons unaided by a medical record. Attempts to bar code the records did not solve the problem, as HMO staff frequently forgot to scan critical files when passing them between offices. Not surprisingly, the files most often misplaced concerned complicated cases with multiple caregivers. The record room employees could be found in clinical areas, most of the time, consulting lists of desperately needed records as they sifted through piles of paper. Several physicians wondered if there was anything like the GPS devices that they could use to track the records through the facility.

Accurate indoor geolocation is an important and novel emerging technology for commercial, public safety and military applications. In commercial applications for residential and nursing homes there is an increasing need for indoor geolocation systems to track people with special needs, the elderly, and children who are away from visual supervision, to locate in-demand portable equipment in hospitals, and to find specific items in warehouses. In public safety and military applications, indoor geolocation systems are needed to track inmates in prisons, and navigating policeman, firefighters and soldiers to complete their missions inside buildings. These incentives have initiated interest in modeling the radio channel for indoor geolocation, development of new technologies, and emergence of first generation indoor geolocation products. To help the growth of this emerging industry there is a need to develop a scientific framework to lay a foundation for design and performance evaluation of such systems.
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
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jithu27
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#2
13-05-2011, 07:05 AM

Pls Provide the full document for me
pls..............................................
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seminar paper
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24-02-2012, 12:41 PM

to get information about the topic indoor geolocation full report refer the link bellow

topicideashow-to-indoor-geolocation
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#4
01-06-2012, 11:04 AM

Indoor Geolocation - Science and Technology


.pdf   Indoor Geolocation - Science and Technology.pdf (Size: 100.04 KB / Downloads: 27)

ABSTRACT

This article presents an overview of the technical
aspects of the existing technologies for wireless
indoor location systems. The two major
challenges for accurate location finding in indoor
areas are the complexity of radio propagation and
the ad hoc nature of the deployed infrastructure
in these areas. Because of these difficulties a variety
of signaling techniques, overall system architectures,
and location finding algorithms are
emerging for this application.

INTRODUCTION

Recently, there is increasing interest in accurate
location finding techniques and location-based
applications for indoor areas. The Global Positioning
System (GPS) [1] and wireless enhanced 911
(E-911) services [2] also address the issue of location
finding. However, these technologies cannot
provide accurate indoor geolocation, which has its
own independent market and unique technical
challenges. In 1997, while engaged in the Defense
Advanced Research Projects Agency’s (DARPA’s)
Small Unit Operation/Situation Awareness System
(SUO/SAS) program, the lead author of this article
and his research group noticed the need for
fundamental research in accurate indoor geolocation
[3]. The follow-up initiative of the group
attracted the attention of Nokia and other Finnish
organizations to the commercial importance of
indoor geolocation. In recognition of this importance,
an NSF grant was awarded to establish a scientific
foundation in this field.

CHANNEL CHARACTERISTICS FOR
INDOOR GEOLOCATION


The indoor radio propagation channel is characterized
as site-specific, severe multipath, and low
probability for availability of a line of sight
(LOS) signal propagation path between the
transmitter and receiver [9]. The two major
sources of errors in the measurement of location
metrics in indoor environment are multipath
fading and no LOS (NLOS) conditions due to
shadow fading [3].

LOCATION SENSING TECHNIQUES

As discussed in the introduction, the location sensing
elements measure RSS, AOA, and TOA as
location metrics. The indoor radio channel suffers
from severe multipath propagation and heavy
shadow fading, so the measurements of RSS and
AOA provide less accurate metrics than does TOA
[4]. As a result, similar to GPS systems, independent
systems designed for indoor geolocation normally
employ the more accurate TOA as the
location metric. Systems using existing infrastructures
installed for wireless LANs or the third-generation
(3G) indoor systems may use RSS, AOA,
or less accurate TOA measurements to fully exploit
the existing hardware implementation designed for
traditional telecommunication applications [8]. In
indoor areas, due to obstruction by walls, ceilings,
or other objects, the DLOS propagation path is
not always the strongest; in some cases (e.g.,
NLOS), it may not even be detectable with a specific
receiver implementation [3].

CONCLUSIONS

Indoor geolocation is an emerging technology
that needs a scientific foundation. To provide
such a foundation we need to characterize the
radio propagation features that impact the performance
of the indoor geolocation systems. Two
classes of indoor geolocation systems are emerging.
The first class has its own infrastructure, uses
reliable TOA measurement using wideband,
superresolution, or UWB location sensing
approaches, and employs triangulation techniques
for positioning.
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