Intel Modern Processors full report
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17-08-2010, 06:43 PM



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INTRODUCTION


Intel was founded in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore (a chemist and physicist) and Robert Noyce (a physicist and co-inventor of the integrated circuit) when they left Fairchild Semiconductor. A number of other Fairchild employees also went on to participate in other Silicon Valley companies. Intel's third employee was Andy Grove, (a chemical engineer), who ran the company through much of the 1980s and the high-growth 1990s. Grove is now remembered as the company's key business and strategic leader. By the end of the 1990s, Intel was one of the largest and most successful businesses in the world.

OVERVIEW


Intel has grown through several distinct phases. At its founding, Intel was distinguished simply by its ability to make semiconductors, and its primary product were static random access memory (SRAM) chips. Intel's business grew during the 1970s as it expanded and improved its manufacturing processes and produced a wider range of products, still dominated by various memory devices.
While Intel created the first microprocessor in 1971 and one of the first microcomputers in 1972, by the early 1980s its business was dominated by dynamic random access memory chips. However, increased competition from Japanese semiconductor manufacturers had by 1983 dramatically reduced the profitability of this market, and the sudden success of the IBM personal computer convinced then-CEO Grove to shift the company's focus to microprocessors, and to change fundamental aspects of that business model. By the end of the 1980s this decision had proven successful, and Intel embarked on a 10-year period of unprecedented growth as the primary (and most profitable) hardware supplier to the PC industry.
After 2000, growth in demand for high-end microprocessors slowed and competitors garnered significant market share, initially in low-end and mid-range processors but ultimately across the product range, and Intel's dominant position was reduced. In the early 2000s then-CEO Craig Barrett attempted to diversify the company's business beyond semiconductors, but few of these activities were ultimately successful. In 2005, CEO Paul Otellini reorganized the company to refocus its core processor and chipset business on platforms (enterprise, digital home, digital health, and mobility) which led to the hiring of over 20,000 new employees. In September of 2006 due to falling profits, the company announced a restructuring that resulted in layoffs of 10,500 employees or about 10 percent of its workforce by July of 2006. Its research lab located at Cambridge University was closed at the end of 2006

MODERN PROCESSOR


Any processor has the core. There are many processors with different numbers of cores. We will only discuss about the modern processor. We can consider Pentium 4 as a modern processor as 30-40% people of the world still use Pentium 4 processing solutions. Then INTEL invented the CORE MICROARCHITECTURE. The first processor based on core architecture was core duo. Then the company made CORE2 series. That is core2duo,core2quad and core2extreme. These different core2 series has different utilities. Like if you donâ„¢t want to run modern games,you donâ„¢t need to run multiple application at a time then a single core processor is enough and if you are a technology enthusiastic then core2duo(dual core) is more than enough for you



PROCESSOR LINE-UP(ANCIENT)

Intel, x86 processors
386 microprocessor
32-bit processors: the 80386 range
32-bit processors: the 80486 range
32-bit processors: the Pentium ("I")
32-BIT Pentium M(P1,P1,P3)


DUAL CORE PROCESSING SOLLATION(65 NM TECHNOGY)


Now,why would one need a dual core processing solution? If you are working on spreadsheet software and you want to surf on the net while listening to music with the download running in the background, and if your computer slows down, probably itâ„¢s the time to upgrade to the dual core.

Many applications or many modern high tech 3-D games being developed are MULTI THREADED. So if we want to run these multi threaded application flaw less then we should grab one dual core processor.

Now PENTIUM D core has virtual dual cores. It doesnâ„¢t have the physical dual cores unlike core2duo series. Core2duo comes with different frequencies of speed like all other processors.

QUAD CORE PROCESSING SOLLATION(65 NM TECHNOGY)


Name says it all. It has four physical cores. In the current time, quad core is not requires that much. Many future applications and games will be truly optimized on the quad core processors.
Lets take one example why will u need quad core in future.
There is one application/game named ALAN WAKE which is going to be released within the end of this year. Developers REMEDY say that they have optimized the game for quad core processors. Now it is optimized for the quad core processor means that the application will utilize all the four cores. Like one whole core for physics simulation, one for rendering, one for sound, one for weather cycle, and the left potential will be used for the interface.

45 NM:

Intel has recently launched the 45 nm micro architecture based dual core and quad core processors with K-10 materials. They are more efficient. They deliver better speed, better performance, better reliability.

NEED OF A DUAL CORE


Dual core processors are meant to perform multiple tasks or applications.If we want to run more than one application flawlessly, we need a dual core processor.
For example, for a graphics based application, we can utilize these two cores for rendering, processing, sound, graphics and more.
Better Performance (more than x2 performance when compared to single core P-IV).
Power Saver (Especially Intel Core series).
Multi task solution.
We can run multithreaded application smoothly.

OVERCLOCKING


Overclocking is the process of forcing a computer component to run at a higher clock rate than it was designed for or was designated by the manufacturer
Its usually practiced by personal computer enthusiasts in order to increase the performance of their computers. Some of them purchase low-end computer components which they then overclock to higher clocks
It is done through manipulating the CPU multiplier and the motherboard's front side bus (FSB) speed until a maximum stable operating frequency is reached.
CPU multipliers, bus dividers, voltages, thermal loads, cooling techniques and several other factors can affect it.
The one who overclocks his processor ,must be aware of voltage Handling otherwise he may have the risk of damaging the component that he is ocâ„¢ing.
Intel core2duo and core2quad has enough head room for the overclocking
For example I have overclocked my Intel core2duo E6550 which has a factory shipped clock 2.33 GHz to 2.8 GHz to increase the over all performance of my personal computer.
Enthusiastic over clockers overclock their processors to their limits to get the top notch speed and performance
Cooling is a very necessary thing in overclocking as the processor would




heat up because of the higher core clock.
BUT, the one who overclocks the processor and in case if he damages it, he will not get the warranty for that particular processor as the warranty is void after overclocking

FRONT SIDE BUS


A front side bus (FSB) is an electrical pathway on a computerâ„¢s motherboard, which connects the various hardware components to the main microprocessor, or central processing unit (CPU). If you think of the CPU as the brain of the computer, and the memory, hard disk and other components as organs, the front side bus would be akin to the main nervous system than links the organs to the brain.

The front side bus is bi-directional, meaning data can flow both ways, allowing components to send and receive data from the CPU. Since so much data passes through the front side bus, a computerâ„¢s overall performance will be dependent, in part, on the speed of the FSB. Speed depends on how wide the front side bus is, its frequency, and the amount of data it can process per clock tick of the CPU.

The front side busâ„¢ width is determined by bit-size. A 32-bit FSB is twice as wide as a 16-bit front side bus. Frequency is indicated by the FSBâ„¢s megahertz (MHz). All else being equal, a 400 MHz front side bus will be faster than a 300 MHz FSB. Also considered is how many data transfers per tick the front side bus can deliver.


CACHE MEMORY


Cache memory is random access memory (RAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM. As the microprocessor processes data, it looks first in the cache memory and if it finds the data there (from a previous reading of data), it does not have to do the more time-consuming reading of data from larger memory.

Cache memory is sometimes described in levels of closeness and accessibility to the microprocessor. An L1 cache is on the same chip as the microprocessor. (For example, the PowerPC 601 processor has a 32 kilobyte level-1 cache built into its chip.) L2 is usually a separate static RAM (SRAM) chip. The main RAM is usually a dynamic RAM (DRAM) chip.

In addition to cache memory, one can think of RAM itself as a cache of memory for hard disk storage since all of RAM's contents come from the hard disk initially when you turn your computer on and load the operating system (you are loading it into RAM) and later as you start new applications and access new data. RAM can also contain a special area called a disk cache that contains the data most recently read in from the hard disk.

SOCKET


Socket 8 - Intel Pentium Pro
Slot 1 - Intel Celeron, Pentium II, Pentium III
Socket 370 - Intel Pentium III, Celeron; Cyrix III; VIA C3
Socket 423 - Intel Pentium 4 and Celeron processors (Willamette core)
Socket 478 - Intel Pentium 4, Celeron, Pentium 4 Extreme Edition, Pentium M Socket N (Northwood, Prescott, and Willamette cores)
Socket B (LGA 1366 ) - a new socket for future Intel CPUs incorporating the integrated memory controller and Intel QuickPath Interconnect.
Socket T (also known as Socket 775 or LGA 775) - Intel Pentium 4, Pentium D, Celeron D, Pentium Extreme Edition, Core 2 Duo, Core 2 Extreme, Celeron, Xeon 3000 series, Core 2 Quad (Northwood, Prescott, Conroe, Kentsfield, and Cedar Mill cores)
Socket H (LGA 715) - a future replacement for the current Socket T (LGA 775), without integrated memory controller and newer point-to-point processor interconnect.

INFORMATION QUAD CORE


We can figure out from its name that it has 4 cores
Quad core processing technology was being used in the servers before it came to home desktop users.
Now, dual core range is widely available in the market, so is it really needed to go for a quad core instead ? The answer is yes if you want to be future proof. Quad core is the future.
These processors can run 4 different threads simultaneously.
They are not only for running multiple application but they are also for multi threaded application which are truly optimized for quad core processors, which utilizes all four cores of it
At this time, there is hardly a few applications optimized for quad core, most of the applications are optimized for dual core processing solution.


PROCESSOR CORES
DETAIL WITH MICRO ARCHITECTURE AND CODE NAME


Conroe: (Core 2 Duo)_
The first Intel Core 2 Duo branded processor cores, code-named Conroe (Intel product code 80557), were launched on July 27, 2006, at Fragapalooza, a yearly gaming event in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. These processors were fabricated on 300 mm wafers using a 65 nm manufacturing process, and intended for desktop computers, as a replacement for the Pentium 4 and Pentium D branded CPUs. Intel has claimed that Conroe provides 40% more performance at 40% less power compared to the Pentium D. All Conroe processors are manufactured with 4 MB L2 cache; however, due to manufacturing defects or possibly for marketing purposes, the E6300 and E6400 versions based on this core have half their cache disabled, leaving them with only 2 MB of usable L2 cache. These Conroe-based E6300 and E6400 CPUs have the B2 stepping.
The lower end E6300 (1.86 GHz) and E6400 (2.13 GHz), both with a 1066 MT/s FSB, were released on July 27, 2006. Traditionally, CPUs of the same family with less cache simply have the unavailable cache disabled, since this allows parts that fail quality control to be sold at a lower rating. When yields improve, they may be replaced with versions that only have the cache amount needed on the die, to bring down manufacturing cost. At launch time, Intel's prices for the Core 2 Duo E6300 and E6400 processors were US$183 and US$224 each in quantities of 1000. Conroe CPUs have improved capabilities over previous models with similar processor speeds. According to reviews, the larger 4 MB L2 cache vs. the smaller 2 MB L2 cache at the same frequency and FSB can provide a 0“9% performance gain with certain applications and 0“16% performance gain with certain games. The higher end Conroe processors are the E6600 (2.4 GHz) and E6700 (2.67 GHz) Core 2 Duo models. The family has a 1066 MT/s front side bus, 4 MB shared L2 cache, and 65 watts TDP. These processors have been tested against AMD's then-current top performing processors (Athlon 64 FX Series), which were, until this latest Intel release, the fastest CPUs available. Conroe chips also experience much lower heat output compared to their predecessors ” a benefit of the new 65 nm technology and the much more efficient microarchitecture. At launch time, Intel's prices for the Core 2 Duo E6600 and E6700 processors were US$316 and US$530, respectively, each in quantities of 1000.
E6320 and E6420 Conroe CPUs at 1.86 and 2.13 GHz respectively were launched on April 22, 2007 featuring a full 4 MB of cache and are considered Conroes.
Intel released four additional Core 2 Duo Processors on July 22, 2007. The release coincided with that of the Intel Bearlake (x3x) chipsets. The new processors are named Core 2 Duo E6540, E6550, E6750, and E6850. Processors with a number ending in "50" have a 1333 MT/s FSB. The processors all have 4 MB of L2 cache. Their clock frequency is similar to that of the already released processors with the same first two digits (E6600, E6700, X6800).[11] An additional model, the E6540, was launched with specifications similar to the E6550 but lacking Intel Trusted Execution Technology and vPro support. These processors are slated to compete with AMD's Stars processor line and are therefore priced below corresponding processors with a 1066 MT/s FSB. Intel has stated that the E6300 and the E6400 are Conroe CPUs with the cache disabled. Allendale core CPUs are the E4XX0 series of CPUs.
Conroe XE: (Core 2 Extreme)
The Core 2 Extreme was officially released on July 29, 2006. However some retailers appeared to have released it on July 13, 2006, though at a higher premium. The less powerful E6x00 models of Core 2 Duo were scheduled for simultaneous release with the X6800, which are both available at this time. It is powered by the Conroe XE core and replaces the dual-core Pentium Extreme Edition processors. Core 2 Extreme has a clock speed of 2.93 GHz and a 1066 MHz FSB, although it was initially expected to be released with a 3.33 GHz and 1333 MHz. The TDP for this family is 75“80 watts. With SpeedStep enabled, the average temperature of the CPU when idle is essentially that of the ambient atmosphere.[13]
At launch time, Intel's price for the Core 2 Extreme X6800 was US$999 each in quantities of 1000. Like the desktop Core 2 Duo, it has 4 MiB of shared L2 cache available. This means that the only major difference between the regular Core 2 Duo and Core 2 Extreme is the clock speed and unlocked multiplier, usual advantages of the "Extreme Edition." The unlocked upward multiplier is of use to enthusiasts as it allows the user to set the clockspeed higher than shipping frequency without modifying the FSB unlike mainstream Core 2 Duo models which are downward unlocked only.

Conroe L: (Conroe-L Celeron)
The Conroe-L Celeron is a single-core processor built on the Intel Core microarchitecture and is clocked much lower than the Cedar Mill Celerons, but still outperforms them. It is based on the 65 nm Conroe-L core,[26] and uses a 400-series model number sequence.[27] The FSB was increased from 533 MHz to 800 MHz in this generation, and the TDP was decreased from 65W to 35W. Traditionally with Celerons, it does not have Intel VT-x instruction support or SpeedStep. All Conroe-L models are single-core processors for the value segment of the market, much like the AMD K8-based Sempron. The product line was launched on June 5, 2007.
On October 21, 2007, Intel presented a new processor for its Intel Essential Series. The full name of the processor is a Celeron 220 and is soldered on the D201GLY2 motherboard. With 1.2 GHz and a 512 KB second level cache it has a TDP of 19 Watt and can be cooled passively. The Celeron 220 is the successor of the Celeron 215 which is based on a Yonah core and used on the D201GLY motherboard. This processor is exclusively used on the mini-ITX boards targeted to the sub-value market segment.
Allendale: (Core 2 Duo desktop)
There was contention about the previously available low-end Core 2 Duo desktop processors (E6300, at 1.86 GHz and E6400, at 2.13 GHz, both with 2 MiB L2 cache), whether they are specimens of the Allendale core. Prior to Q1 2007, all E6300 and E6400 processors released were Conroe (4 MiB L2 cache) cores with half their L2 cache disabled. The Allendale core, manufactured with 2 MiB L2 cache in total, offers a smaller die size and therefore greater yields.
Quoted from The Tech Report:
You'll find plenty of sources that will tell you the code name for these 2 MB Core 2 Duo processors is "Allendale," but Intel says otherwise. These CPUs are still code-named "Conroe," which makes sense since they're the same physical chips with half of their L2 cache disabled. Intel may well be cooking up a chip code-named Allendale with 2 MB of L2 cache natively, but this is not that chip.[15]
Another difference between the premium E6000 series (Conroe core) and the E4000 series (Allendale core) is the front side bus clock rating. The E4000 series are rated to run on a quad-pumped 200 MHz front side bus ("800 MT/s") while the E6000 series are rated to run on a quad-pumped 266 MHz front side bus ("1066 MT/s"). The E4000 series also lack support for Intel VT-x instructions.
The currently available Core 2 Duo E4300 only uses an Allendale core, released on January 21, 2007. The Allendale processors use a smaller mask with only 2 MiB of cache, thereby increasing the number of chips per wafer. Allendale processors are produced in the LGA775 form factor, on the 65 nm process node. E6300 and E6400 CPUs have been made from both the 4 MB Conroe die and the 2 MB L2 Allendale die. The steppings of the chip differs depending on the die used- the Conroe-based E6300 and E6400 are stepping B2 and the Allendale-based E6300 and E6400 are stepping L2. Initial list price per processor in quantities of one thousand for the E4300 was US$163. A standard OEM price was US$175, orUS$189 for a retail package. Price cuts were enacted on April 22, 2007, when




E4400 was released at $133 and the E4300 dropped to $113. Allendale processors with half their L2 cache disabled were released in mid-June 2007 under the Pentium Dual-Core brand name. The working cache memory was reduced by half again when the Allendale core was released under Intel's Celeron brand; the Celeron E1200 has a 512k L2 cache shared between its two cores.
On July 22, 2007, an E4500 Allendale was launched, phasing out the E4300 model. This was accompanied by a price cut for the E4400 model.

Merom: (Core 2 Duo mobile)
Merom, the first mobile version of the Core 2, was officially released on July 27, 2006 but quietly began shipping to PC manufacturers in mid-July alongside Conroe. Merom became Intel's premier line of mobile processors, with mostly the same features of Conroe, but with more emphasis on low power consumption to enhance notebook battery life. Merom-based Core 2 Duo provides 20% more performance yet maintains the same battery life as the Yonah-based Core Duo. Merom is the first Intel mobile processor to feature Intel 64 architecture.
The first version of Merom is "drop-in" compatible with Napa platform for Core Duo, requiring at most a motherboard BIOS update. It has a similar thermal envelope of 34 W and the same 667 MT/s FSB rate.[18] The Merom die features 4 MiB L2 cache, half of which is deactivated in the T5xx0 CPUs. A native 2 MB L2 version of the Merom core, called Merom-2M, was rolled out in early 2007.
US$189 for a retail package. Price cuts were enacted on April 22, 2007, when the


Versions of the Core 2 Duo use this core.
A second wave of Merom processors featuring an 800 MT/s FSB and using the new Socket P was launched on May 9, 2007. These chips are part of Santa Rosa platform. Low voltage versions were also released on May 9, 2007.
The first Core 2 Solo processors were launched in Q3 2007 and consisted of the U2100 and U2200, which run at 1.06 and 1.2 GHz, respectively. They both feature a 533 MHz FSB and are part of Intel's ULW family, running at only 5 W. Like the rest of the Core 2 family, they are 64-bit compatible. They were released with compatibility with the Napa platform rather than the newer Santa Rosa platform due to power consumption concerns.
Merom is the Hebrew word for a higher plane of existence or a level of heaven, BaMerom means "in the heavens". The name was chosen by the Intel team in Haifa, Israel, who designed this processor.
See the Merom section of "List of Intel Core 2 microprocessors" for a list of Intel processors.

Merom XE:
The Core 2 Extreme Mobile processor, based on the Merom XE core, is a laptop CPU designed for ultra-high end laptops. It was released in two models, the X7900 and the X7800. These feature an 800 MHz FSB. The X7800, introduced on
features a 44 W TDP and requires the new Intel Centrino (Santa Rosa) platform. The X7900, introduced on August 22, 2007, is clocked at 2.8 GHz.
The X7900 processor is currently used in the top-end iMacs, released in August 2007.

Wolfdale:
Wolfdale is the codename for the E8000 series of Core 2 Duo desktop processors, which are similar to the Penryn and Yorkfield XE dies and succeeding the Conroe dies. Released on January 20, 2008, the chips are manufactured using a 45 nanometer process and feature two processor cores sharing 6 MB of level-two (L2) cache, operating at 2.66 GHz, 3.0 GHz, and 3.16 GHz, also utilizing an FSB of 1333 MHz. The processor includes the SSE4.1 media extensions.

Yorkfield:
Yorkfield (codename for the Q9000 and QX9000 series) features a dual-die quad core design with two unified 6 MiB L2 caches resulting in a total amount of 12 MiB L2-Cache. They also feature 1333 MHz FSB and are compatible with the Bearlake chipset. These processors were released in late March, 2008 beginning with the Q9300 and Q9450.
Yorkfield CPUs were expected to be released in January 2008. However, the release of Yorkfield was delayed to March 15 2008. Initially this delay was attributed to an error found in the Yorkfield chip, but later reports claimed that the delay was necessary in order to ensure compatibility with the 4-layer print-circuit
boards utilized by many mainstream motherboards. At the Intel Developer Forum 2007, a Yorkfield processor was compared with a Kentsfield processor

List Of Processors With Specs


Pentium D
Dual-core microprocessor
No Hyper-Threading
800(4x200) MHz front side bus
Smithfield - 90 nm process technology (2.66“3.2 GHz)
Introduced May 26, 2005
2.66“3.2 GHz (model numbers 805-840)
Number of Transistors 230 million
1 MB x 2 (non-shared, 2 MB total) L2 cache
Cache coherency between cores requires communication over the FSB
Performance increase of 60% over similarly clocked Prescott
2.66 GHz (533 MHz FSB) Pentium D 805 introduced December 2005
Contains 2x Prescott dies in one package
Presler - 65 nm process technology (2.8“3.6 GHz)
Introduced January 16, 2006
2.8“3.6 GHz (model numbers 915-960)
Number of Transistors 376 million
2 MB x 2 (non-shared, 4 MB total) L2 cache
Contains 2x Cedar Mill dies in one package
Pentium Extreme Edition
Dual-core microprocessor
Enabled Hyper-Threading
800(4x200) MHz front side bus
Smithfield - 90 nm process technology (3.2 GHz)
Variants
Pentium 840 EE - 3.20 GHz (2 x 1 MB L2)
Presler - 65 nm process technology (3.46, 3.73)
2 MB x 2 (non-shared, 4 MB total) L2 cache
Variants
Pentium 955 EE - 3.46 GHz
Pentium 965 EE - 3.73 GHz

64-bit processors: Intel64 - Intel Core microarchitecture

Intel Core 2
Conroe - 65 nm process technology
Desktop CPU (SMP support restricted to 2 CPUs)
Two CPUs on one die
Introduced July 27, 2006
SSSE3 SIMD instructions
Number of Transistors 291 Million
Intel Virtualization Technology, multiple OS support
LaGrande Technology, enhanced security hardware extensions
Execute Disable Bit
EIST (Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology)
iAMT2 (Intel Active Management Technology), remotely manage computers
LGA775
Variants
Core 2 Duo E6850 - 3.00 GHz (4 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo E6800 - 2.93 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo E6750 - 2.67 GHz (4 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo E6700 - 2.67 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo E6600 - 2.40 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo E6550 - 2.33 GHz (4 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo E6420 - 2.13 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo E6400 - 2.13 GHz (2 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo E6320 - 1.86 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo E6300 - 1.86 GHz (2 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB)
Conroe XE - 65 nm process technology
Desktop Extreme Edition CPU (SMP support restricted to 2 CPUs)
Introduced July 27, 2006
same features as Conroe
LGA775
Variants
Core 2 Extreme X6800 - 2.93 GHz (4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB)
Allendale - 65 nm process technology
Desktop CPU (SMP support restricted to 2 CPUs)
Two CPUs on one die
Introduced January 21, 2007
SSSE3 SIMD instructions
Number of Transistors 167 Million
LaGrande Technology, enhanced security hardware extensions
Execute Disable Bit
EIST (Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology)
iAMT2 (Intel Active Management Technology), remotely manage computers
LGA775
Variants
Core 2 Duo E4600 - 2.40 GHz (2 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB)



Core 2 Duo E4500 - 2.20 GHz (2 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo E4400 - 2.00 GHz (2 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo E4300 - 1.80 GHz (2 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB)
Merom - 65 nm process technology
Mobile CPU (SMP support restricted to 2 CPUs)
Introduced July 27, 2006
same features as Conroe
Socket M / Socket P
Variants
Core 2 Duo T7800 - 2.60 GHz (4 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB) (Santa Rosa platform)
Core 2 Duo T7700 - 2.40 GHz (4 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo T7600 - 2.33 GHz (4 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo T7500 - 2.20 GHz (4 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo T7400 - 2.16 GHz (4 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo T7300 - 2.00 GHz (4 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo T7250 - 2.00 GHz (2 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo T7200 - 2.00 GHz (4 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo T7100 - 1.80 GHz (2 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo T5600 - 1.83 GHz (2 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo T5550 - 1.83 GHz (2 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB, no VT)
Core 2 Duo T5500 - 1.66 GHz (2 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB, no VT)
Core 2 Duo T5470 - 1.60 GHz (2 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB, no VT)
Core 2 Duo T5450 - 1.66 GHz (2 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB, no VT)
Core 2 Duo T5300 - 1.73 GHz (2 MB L2, 533 MHz FSB, no VT)
Core 2 Duo T5270 - 1.40 GHz (2 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB, no VT)
Core 2 Duo T5250 - 1.50 GHz (2 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB, no VT)
Core 2 Duo T5200 - 1.60 GHz (2 MB L2, 533 MHz FSB, no VT)
Core 2 Duo L7500 - 1.60 GHz (4 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB) (Low Voltage)
Core 2 Duo L7400 - 1.50 GHz (4 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB) (Low Voltage)
Core 2 Duo L7300 - 1.40 GHz (4 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB) (Low Voltage)
Core 2 Duo L7200 - 1.33 GHz (4 MB L2, 667 MHz FSB) (Low Voltage)
Core 2 Duo U7700 - 1.33 GHz (2 MB L2, 533 MHz FSB) (Ultra Low Voltage)
Core 2 Duo U7600 - 1.20 GHz (2 MB L2, 533 MHz FSB) (Ultra Low Voltage)
Core 2 Duo U7500 - 1.06 GHz (2 MB L2, 533 MHz FSB) (Ultra Low Voltage)
Kentsfield - 65 nm process technology
Two dual-core cpu dies in one package.
Desktop CPU Quad Core (SMP support restricted to 4 CPUs)
Introduced December 13, 2006
same features as Conroe but with 4 CPU Cores
Number of Transistors 586 Million
Socket 775
Variants
Core 2 Extreme QX6850 - 3 GHz (2x4 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Extreme QX6800 - 2.93 GHz (2x4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) (Apr 9th 07)
Core 2 Extreme QX6700 - 2.66 GHz (2x4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) (Nov 14th 06)
Core 2 Quad Q6700 - 2.66 GHz (2x4 MB L2, 1066 MHz FSB) (Jul 22nd 07)
Wolfdale - 45 nm process technology
Die shrink of Conroe
Same features as Conroe with the addition of:-
50% more cache, 6 MB as opposed to 4 MB
Intel Trusted Execution Technology
SSE4 SIMD instructions
Number of Transistors 410 Million
Variants
Core 2 Duo E8500 - 3.16 GHz (6 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo E8400 - 3 GHz (6 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo E8200 - 2.66 GHz (6 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Duo E8190 - 2.66 GHz (6 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB, no TXT, no VT)
Yorkfield - 45 nm process technology
Quad core CPU
Die shrink of Kentsfield
Contains 2x Wolfdale dual core dies in one package
Same features as Wolfdale
Number of Transistors 820 Million
Variants
Core 2 Extreme QX9770 - 3.2 GHz (2x6 MB L2, 1600 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Extreme QX9650 - 3 GHz (2x6 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Quad Q9550 - 2.83 GHz (2x6 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Quad Q9450 - 2.66 GHz (2x6 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB)
Core 2 Quad Q9300 - 2.5 GHz (2x3 MB L2, 1333 MHz FSB)

Pentium Dual Core
Allendale - 65 nm process technology
Desktop CPU (SMP support restricted to 2 CPUs)
Two CPUs on one die
Introduced January 21, 2007
SSSE3 SIMD instructions
Number of Transistors 167 Million
LaGrande Technology, enhanced security hardware extensions
Execute Disable Bit
EIST (Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology)
iAMT2 (Intel Active Management Technology), remotely manage computers
LGA775
Variants
Intel Pentium E2220 - 2.40 GHz (1 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB)
Intel Pentium E2200 - 2.20 GHz (1 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB)
Intel Pentium E2180 - 2.00 GHz (1 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB)
Intel Pentium E2160 - 1.80 GHz (1 MB L2, 800 MHz FSB)


CORE 2 DUO SERIES
CORE 2 QUAD SERIES

.doc   MODERN PROCESSORS.doc (Size: 256 KB / Downloads: 224)

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