Internet Access via TV cable Network
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pritam
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#1
01-02-2010, 10:03 AM


hi
Im pritam

My Topic is internet access via TV cable network

Can u end me ppt,doc,pdf & information etc


Very Nice site....
Thank You!
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#2
01-02-2010, 08:35 PM

Demand for the high-speed (or broad band) internet access for fast web browsing and more effective telecommuting. India has a cable penetration of 80 million homes, offering a vast network for leveraging the internet access. Cable TV has a strong reach to the homes and therefore offering the Internet through cable could be a scope for furthering the growth of internet usage in the homes. The cable is an alternative medium for delivering the Internet services in the US, there are already a million homes with cable modems, enabling the high-speed internet access over cable. In India, we are in the initial stages. We are experiencing innumerable local problems in Mumbai, Bangalore and Delhi, along with an acute shortage of international Internet connectivity. Accessing the Internet on the public switched telephone networks (PSTN) still has a lot of problems. Such as drops outs its takes along time to download or upload large files one has to pay both for the Internet connectivity as well as for telephone usages during that period. Since it is technically possible to offer higher bandwidth by their cable, home as well as corporate users may make like it. Many people cannot afford a PC At their premises. Hardware obsolescence in the main problem to the home user who cannot afford to upgrade his PC every year and Cable TV based ISP solution s offer an economic alternative. A cable modem transmits digital data down your coaxial cable line in much the same way as it currently transmits television signals. When data is sent to you (as when you download a file or mail) digital data is modulated and placed on a 6 MHz television carrier signal. Two popular technologies used to do this are QPSK (up to 10 Mbps) and QAM64 (up to 36 Mbps). This signal can be put in 6 MHz channels alongside TV signals without destroying signal cable channel signal and a spectrum of frequencies will have to be dedicated to carry data from the user to the Internet. Sending data requires a frequency spectrum between 5 and 40 MHz In addition to this, one-way amplifiers used for boosting cable signals along the network will have to be replaced by two-way amplifiers that will be smart enough to pick out input and output signals and amplify the correct frequency range for each. and the cable company should have an IP Router that will take care of accurate reception of all signals from outside and of routing signals to the Internet. and Internet is a network of networks in which various computers connect each other through out the world. The connection to other computers is possible with the help of ISP (Internet Service Provider). Each Internet users depend dialup connections to connect to Internet. This has many disadvantages like very poor speed, may time cut downs etc. To solve this problem, Internet data can be transferred through Cable networks wired to the user computer. Internet via Cable networks has Various advantages like High availability, High bandwidth to low cost, high speed data access, always on connectivity etc. The huge growth in the number of Internet users every year has resulted in the traffic congestion on the net resulting in slower and expensive Internet access. As cable TV has a strong reach to homes, it is the best medium for providing the Internet to house - holds with faster access at feasible rates. There is a higher demand from residential and business customers, especially in the last few years, for access to the Internet, corporate intranets and various online information services. The Internet revolution is sweeping the country with a burgeoning number of the Internet users. As more and more people are being attracted towards the Internet, traffic congestion on the Net is continuously increasing due to limited bandwidths resulting in slower and expensive Internet access. The number of household getting on the Internet has increased exponentially in the recent past. First time internet users are amazed at the internet's richness of content and personalization, never before offered by any other medium. But this initial awe last only till they experienced the slow speed of internet content deliver. Hence the popular reference "World Wide Wait"(not World Wide Web)

read more
ceenetworkshops/lectures2001/Richard%20Perlman/Cable%20Modems/sld002.htm
catv.de/netzwerk/catv/download/ELSA%20Cable%20Modem_UK.pdf
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#3
13-04-2010, 11:38 AM


Presented By:
NETWORLD INTEROP
courtesy:ceenet.org


read full presentation from
ceenetworkshops/lectures2002/Richard_Perlman/Cable%20Modems-2002.ppt

¢ Internet Access via Cable TV
¢ Changes in the Cable Network

¢ The cable network was designed to deliver TV signals in one direction from the Head-End to

the subscribers homes
¢ To provide TV services Cable Operators had to recreate a portion of the over-the-air radio

frequency (RF) spectrum within a sealed coaxial cable line
¢ Operators had to upgrade the cable network so that signals could flow in both directions
¢ Changes in the Cable Network
¢ Cable Operators assign a spectrum of signal frequencies to the cable network
¢ One spectrum is used for the signals that move from the Head-End towards the cable

subscriber
¢ Another spectrum of signal frequencies are used for the signals that move from the cable

subscriber towards the Head-End
¢ Changes in the Cable Network
¢ By replacing existing one way amplifiers with two way amplifiers Cable Operators are able to

separate the upstream and downstream signals and amplify each direction separately in the right

frequency range
¢ Changes in the Cable Network
¢ Changes in the Cable Network
¢ What is a Cable Modem?

¢ How Fast is a Cable Modem?

¢ Cable modem speeds vary widely
“ Depends on the cable modem system
“ Cable network architecture
“ Traffic load.
¢ In the downstream direction (from the network to the computer), network speeds can be up to

27 Mbps
“ BUT, this is an aggregate amount of bandwidth that is shared by users.
¢ How Fast is a Cable Modem?
¢ Few computers will be capable of connecting at such high speeds or have exclusive access to

the network
“ A more realistic number is 1 to 3 Mbps.
¢ In the upstream direction (from computer to network), speeds can be up to 10 Mbps.
“ However, most modem producers have selected a more optimum speed between 500 Kbps and 2.5

Mbps
“ AND, many cable operators limit the upstream bandwidth to 128 or 384kbs
¢ How Fast is a Cable Modem?
¢ An asymmetric cable modem scheme is most common. The downstream channel has a much higher

bandwidth allocation (faster data rate) than the upstream,
¢ primarily because Internet applications tend to be asymmetric in nature.
¢ Activities such as World Wide Web (http) navigating and newsgroups reading (nntp) send much

more data down to the computer than to the network.
¢ How Fast is a Cable Modem?
¢ Mouse clicks (URL requests) and e-mail messages are not bandwidth intensive in the upstream

direction.
¢ Image files and streaming media (audio and video) are very bandwidth intensive in the

downstream direction.
¢ Real-world performance
¢ The theoretical performance of a Cable Modem is based upon all other devices being able to

work at the same speed and performance as the Cable Modem
¢ However, in a similar way that the actual usable bandwidth on a 10Mbps Ethernet connection

reduces to a 4Mbps, so too will the performance of a Cable Modem connection be reduced
¢ Real-world performance
¢ The Cable network itself will suffer the same problems of Internet performance as any other

Internet Service Provider (ISP)
¢ Although performance to services on the cable network itself can be amazingly fast, access

to 'the outside world' will be slowed down by the performance of other connections on the way.
¢ Real-world performance
¢ As usage on your segment grows (as more customers are added) the bandwidth must be shared by

more people
“ Adding more cable network segments is very expensive for the cable operator
¢ If you connect to a remote Internet site that itself has a connection speed equivalent to a

T1 connection (1.5Mbps), then that is as fast as the data can be served to you, no matter how fast

your receiving equipment is
¢ Who Makes Cable Modems?
¢ 3Com, Cisco Systems, Com21, General Instrument, Motorola, Nortel Networks, Phasecom,

Samsung, Terayon, Toshiba, Zenith
¢ And many others
¢ Cable Modem Technology
¢ It MOdulates and DEModulates signals
¢ Much more complicated than their telephone counterparts
¢ Cable modems can be part modem, part tuner, part encryption/decryption device, part bridge,

part router, part network interface card, part SNMP agent, and part Ethernet hub
¢ Cable Modem Technology
¢ Typically, a cable modem sends and receives data in two slightly different fashions
“ In the downstream direction
¢ he digital data is modulated and then placed on a typical 6 MHz television channel,

somewhere between 50 MHz and 750 MHz
¢ 64 QAM is the preferred downstream modulation technique, offering up to 27 Mbps per 6 MHz

channel
¢ This signal can be placed in a 6 MHz channel adjacent to TV signals on either side without

disturbing the cable television video signals.
¢ Cable Modem Technology
“ The upstream channel is more tricky
¢ Typically, in a two-way activated cable network, the upstream (also known as the reverse

path) is transmitted between 5 and 42 MHz
¢ This tends to be a noisy environment, with RF interference and impulse noise. Additionally,

interference is easily introduced in the home, due to loose connectors or poor cabling
¢ Since cable networks are tree and branch networks, all this noise gets added together as the

signals travel upstream, combining and increasing
¢ Due to this problem, most manufacturers use QPSK or a similar modulation scheme in the

upstream direction, because QPSK is more robust scheme than higher order modulation techniques in a

noisy environment
¢ The drawback is that QPSK is "slower" than QAM.
¢ Cable Modem Services
¢ The dominant service is high-speed Internet access
“ This enables the typical array of Internet services to be delivered at speeds far faster

than those offered by dial-up telephone modems
“ Other services will include
“ access to streaming audio and video servers, local content (community information and

services)
“ access to CD-ROM servers
“ a wide variety of other service offerings. New service ideas are being developed daily.
¢ Cost of Cable Modem Service
¢ In North America, cable operators are packaging high-speed data services much like they do

basic cable television service
¢ Typically charging $40 - $60 per month for an Internet service package
“ Includes software, unlimited Internet access, specialized content and rental of a cable

modem
¢ Cost of Cable Modem Service
¢ At the low end of this pricing scale, a very robust Internet service is available to

consumers for about the cost of a dial-up account with a local Internet service provider and a

second telephone line
¢ Even at $60 per month, cable is a far better value than ISDN.
¢ "Telco-Return" Modems
¢ Not really a cable technology
¢ Used more often with Direct Satellite video systems
¢ Satellite down link is used for fast downstream transmission
¢ A telephone modem handles upstream communication over the public telephone network.
¢ Support for Multiple PCs
¢ A cable modem can provide Intenet access to multiple PCs, if they are connected via a local

area network (LAN)
¢ Cable modems typically have an Ethernet output, so they can connect to the LAN with a

standard Ethernet hub or router
¢ Each PC must have an assigned IP address
“ The cable ISP usually sells at a premium of $5-$10 a month per PC
“ NAT (Network Address Translation) can allow multiple PCs to "hide" behind a single IP

Address
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#4
07-10-2010, 03:34 PM


.ppt   Cable Modems-2002.ppt (Size: 174.5 KB / Downloads: 230)
Internet Access via Cable TV


Changes in the Cable Network


-The cable network was designed to deliver TV signals in one direction from the Head-End to the subscribers homes
-To provide TV services Cable Operators had to recreate a portion of the over-the-air radio frequency (RF) spectrum within a sealed coaxial cable line
-Operators had to upgrade the cable network so that signals could flow in both directions

Changes in the Cable Network

-Cable Operators assign a spectrum of signal frequencies to the cable network
-One spectrum is used for the signals that move from the Head-End towards the cable subscriber
-Another spectrum of signal frequencies are used for the signals that move from the cable subscriber towards the Head-End

Changes in the Cable Network

-By replacing existing one way amplifiers with two way amplifiers Cable Operators are able to separate the upstream and downstream signals and amplify each direction separately in the right frequency range

How Fast is a Cable Modem?

-Cable modem speeds vary widely
Depends on the cable modem system
Cable network architecture
Traffic load.
-In the downstream direction (from the network to the computer), network speeds can be up to 27 Mbps
BUT, this is an aggregate amount of bandwidth that is shared by users.

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#5
26-10-2010, 12:22 PM


.ppt   Cable Modems-2002.ppt (Size: 174.5 KB / Downloads: 118)
Internet Access via Cable TV


Changes in the Cable Network

The cable network was designed to deliver TV signals in one direction from the Head-End to the subscribers homes
To provide TV services Cable Operators had to recreate a portion of the over-the-air radio frequency (RF) spectrum within a sealed coaxial cable line
Operators had to upgrade the cable network so that signals could flow in both directions

Cable Operators assign a spectrum of signal frequencies to the cable network
One spectrum is used for the signals that move from the Head-End towards the cable subscriber
Another spectrum of signal frequencies are used for the signals that move from the cable subscriber towards the Head-End


By replacing existing one way amplifiers with two way amplifiers Cable Operators are able to separate the upstream and downstream signals and amplify each direction separately in the right frequency range



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#6
11-12-2010, 05:47 PM

i am not fully satisfied.Bcz of i am doesn't having the ppt,documentation. plz forward or send me a ppt about INTERNET ACCESS VIA CABLE TV NETWORK
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#7
13-12-2010, 10:51 AM

Hello,
I read about internet via Tv cable network on the internet and found that Internet is a network of networks in which various computers connect each other through out the world. The connection to other computers is possible with the help of ISP (Internet Service Provider). Each Internet users depend dialup connections to connect to Internet. This has many disadvantages like very poor speed, may time cut downs etc. To solve the problem, Internet data can be transferred through Cable networks wired to the user computer. Different type connections used are PSTN connection, ISDN connection and Internet via Cable networks. Various advantages are High availability, High bandwidth to low cost, high speed data access, always on connectivity etc.

The huge growth in the number of Internet users every year has resulted in the traffic congestion on the
net, resulting in slower and expensivegoodyear service center coupons Internet access. I As cable TV has a strong reach to homes, it is the best medium for providing the Internet to house - holds with faster access at feasible rates.
We are witnessing an unprecedented demand from residential and business customers, especially in the last few years, for access to the Internet, corporate intranets and various online information services. The Internet revolution is sweeping the country with a burgeoning number of the Internet users. As more and more people are being attracted towards the Internet, traffic congestion on the Net is continuously increasing due to limited bandwidths resulting in slower and expensive Internet access.
The number of household getting on the Internet has increased exponentially in the recent past. First time internet users are amazed at the internet's richness of content and personalization, never before offered by any other medium. But this initial awe last only till they experienced the slow speed of internet content deliver. Hence the popular reference "World Wide Wait"(not world wide web). There is a pent-up demand for the high-speed (or broad band) internet access for fast web browsing and more effective telecommuting.
India has a cable penetration of 80 million homes, offering a vast network for leveraging the internet access. Cable TV has a strong reach to the homes and therefore offering the Internet through cable could be a scope for furthering the growth of internet usage in the homes.
The cable is an alternative medium for delivering the Internet services in the US, there are already a million homes with cable modems, enabling the high-speed internet access over cable. In India, we are in the initial stages. We are experiencing innumerable local problems in Mumbai, Bangalore and Delhi, along with an acute shortage of international Internet connectivity.
Accessing the Internet on the public switched telephone networks (PSTN) still has a lot of problems. Such as drops outs. Its takes along time to download or upload large files. One has to pay both for the Internet connectivity as well as for telephone usages during that period. Since it is technically possible to offer higher bandwidth by their cable, home as well as corporate users may make like it. Many people cannot afford a PC At their premises. Hardware obsolescence in the main problem to the home user. Who cannot afford to upgrade his PC every year? Cable TV based ISP solution s offer an economic alternative. For more study visit this website.You will easily get complete knowledge about it on uptuplus.com
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#8
04-02-2011, 09:28 AM

hey pls snd internet access via cable network
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#9
10-03-2011, 07:39 PM

can u send seminar and presentation report for internet access via cable tv network
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29-03-2011, 10:07 AM


.ppt   technical seminar.ppt (Size: 177 KB / Downloads: 87)
Changes in the Cable Network
• The cable network was designed to deliver TV signals in one direction from the Head-End to the subscribers homes
• To provide TV services Cable Operators had to recreate a portion of the over-the-air radio frequency (RF) spectrum within a sealed coaxial cable line
• Operators had to upgrade the cable network so that signals could flow in both directions
• Cable Operators assign a spectrum of signal frequencies to the cable network
• One spectrum is used for the signals that move from the Head-End towards the cable subscriber
• Another spectrum of signal frequencies are used for the signals that move from the cable subscriber towards the Head-End
• By replacing existing one way amplifiers with two way amplifiers Cable Operators are able to separate the upstream and downstream signals and amplify each direction separately in the right frequency range
How Fast is a Cable Modem?
• Cable modem speeds vary widely
– Depends on the cable modem system
– Cable network architecture
– Traffic load.
• In the downstream direction (from the network to the computer), network speeds can be up to 27 Mbps
– BUT, this is an aggregate amount of bandwidth that is shared by users.
• Few computers will be capable of connecting at such high speeds or have exclusive access to the network
– A more realistic number is 1 to 3 Mbps.
• In the upstream direction (from computer to network), speeds can be up to 10 Mbps.
– However, most modem producers have selected a more optimum speed between 500 Kbps and 2.5 Mbps
– AND, many cable operators limit the upstream bandwidth to 128 or 384kbs
• An asymmetric cable modem scheme is most common. The downstream channel has a much higher bandwidth allocation (faster data rate) than the upstream,
• primarily because Internet applications tend to be asymmetric in nature.
• Activities such as World Wide Web (http) navigating and newsgroups reading (nntp) send much more data down to the computer than to the network.
• Mouse clicks (URL requests) and e-mail messages are not bandwidth intensive in the upstream direction.
• Image files and streaming media (audio and video) are very bandwidth intensive in the downstream direction.
Real-world performance
• The theoretical performance of a Cable Modem is based upon all other devices being able to work at the same speed and performance as the Cable Modem
• However, in a similar way that the actual usable bandwidth on a 10Mbps Ethernet connection reduces to a 4Mbps, so too will the performance of a Cable Modem connection be reduced
• The Cable network itself will suffer the same problems of Internet performance as any other Internet Service Provider (ISP)
• Although performance to services on the cable network itself can be amazingly fast, access to 'the outside world' will be slowed down by the performance of other connections on the way.
• As usage on your segment grows (as more customers are added) the bandwidth must be shared by more people
• Adding more cable network segments is very expensive for the cable operator
• If you connect to a remote Internet site that itself has a connection speed equivalent to a T1 connection (1.5Mbps), then that is as fast as the data can be served to you, no matter how fast your receiving equipment is
Who Makes Cable Modems?
• 3Com, Cisco Systems, Com21, General Instrument, Motorola, Nortel Networks, Phasecom, Samsung, Terayon, Toshiba, Zenith
• And many others
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#11
11-04-2011, 11:04 AM

Submitted by
Ankur Desai
Anisha Nayak
Anish Kumar


.pptx   51048938-Internet-Access-via-Cable-TV-Network.pptx (Size: 702.81 KB / Downloads: 141)
Internet Access via Cable TV Network
Different ways of Internet Access

 Dial-up connection
 ISDN
 DSL (ADSL and SDSL)
 Cable TV Network
 Wireless Network (Wimax, Wifi, EVDO, HSDPA and UMTS)
 T1 and T3 lines
 Optical Fibre line
 Satellite
Cable TV Network
 Cable TV Network is made up of coaxial cable lines that bring television signals to TV.
 Each television channel is given a 6-megahertz channel on the cable.
 Cable TV Networks are high bandwidth networks i.e. 550 to 750 MHz by their very nature of design.
 These networks were traditionally built as one way networks carrying 60-100 Cable TV channels downstream i.e. from Headend to the Subscriber.
Working of Cable Internet
 Internet over cable is a technology and service that uses the existing cable TV networks to bring Internet data to PC at a very high speed.
 Instead of getting an Internet connection through your telephone wire, you get a connection through your cable network (the same place your cable TV Connection comes from).
 Internet delivery over Cable TV requires a two-way network since information of selected website, etc. has to be transmitted to the Headend, from where it would be directed to the website of interest.
 Higher frequencies flow toward the subscriber and the lower frequencies go in the other direction.
 The television and the Internet transmission take place simultaneously on the same cable but at different frequencies.
 When a cable company offers Internet access over the cable, Internet information can use the same cables because the cable modem system puts downstream data (data sent from the Internet to an individual computer) into a 6-MHz channel. On the cable, the data looks just like a TV channel. So Internet downstream data takes up the same amount of cable space as any single channel of programming.
 One downstream channel can handle hundreds of cable modems.
 Upstream data (information sent from an individual back to the Internet ) requires even less of the cable's bandwidth, just 2 MHz, since the assumption is that most people download far more information than they upload
 Hence setting up of a robust two-way Cable TV network is the first requisite before deploying Cable Modems on a Cable TV network. This is done by upgrades to the amplifiers in the cable distribution network etc.
Cable Network
 Equipments Required
 Putting both upstream and downstream data on the cable television system requires two types of equipment:
1. A cable modem at the customer end
2. A cable modem termination system (CMTS) at the cable provider's end
Cable Modem
 For Cable Internet access on PC, a Cable Modem is required at user’s end.
 A cable modem is an external device that connects to the computer to provide high-speed data access via cable TV networks.
 It has two connections; one to the TV cable wire and the other to a computer.
 A Cable Modem sends and receives data to and from the Internet by using the existing coaxial cable network.
 The modem translates cable signals the same way a telephone modem translates signals from a telephone line.
 Cable modems translate radio frequency (RF) signals to and from the cable plant into Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol spoken by all computers connected to the Internet.
 At the customer premise, a high quality two way splitter is installed on the Cable TV line, with one output connected to the Cable Modem and the second output connected to the TV.
Demodulator:
The most common demodulators have four functions.
 A Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) demodulator takes a radio-frequency signal that has had information encoded in it by varying both the amplitude and phase of the wave, and turns it into a simple signal that can be processed by the analog-to-digital (A/D) converter.
 The A/D converter takes the signal, which varies in voltage, and turns it into a series of digital 1s and 0s.
 An Error correction module then checks the received information against a known standard, so that problems in transmission can be found and fixed.
 MPEG Synchroniser: The network frames, or groups of data, are in MPEG format, so an MPEG synchronizer is used to make sure the data groups stay in line and in order.
Cable Modem
Modulator:

 In cable modems that use the cable system for upstream traffic, a modulator is used to convert the digital computer network data into radio-frequency signals for transmission. It consists of:
1. A section to insert information used for error correction on the receiving end
2. A QAM modulator
3. A digital-to-analog (D/A) converter
MAC:
 The MAC sits between the upstream and downstream portions of the cable modem, and acts as the interface between the hardware and software portions of the various network protocols. All computer network devices have MACs.
CPU:
 In the case of a cable modem the tasks are more complex than those of a normal network interface card. For this reason, in most cases, some of the MAC functions will be assigned to central processing unit (CPU).
Cable Modem Terminating System
 The Internet signals are in the digital domain and these need to be interfaced to the Analog Cable TV Network. This interface is termed Cable Modem Termination System (CMTS) and typically serves 2000 – 3000 Cable Modems and is connected to a high-speed data link. A typical CMTS consists of an Input interface, Router, Cable Modem card and a powerful Microprocessor.
 At the cable provider's head-end, the CMTS provides many of the same functions provided by the DSLAM in a DSL system.
 The CMTS takes the traffic coming in from a group of customers on a single channel and routes it to an Internet service provider (ISP) for connection to the Internet.
 At the head-end, the cable providers will have, or lease space for a third-party ISP to have, servers for accounting and logging, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) for assigning and administering the IP addresses of all the cable system's users.
 The downstream information flows to all connected users, just like in an Ethernet network -- it's up to the individual network connection to decide whether a particular block of data is intended for it or not.
 On the upstream side, information is sent from the user to the CMTS -- other users don't see that data at all. The narrower upstream bandwidth is divided into slices of time, measured in milliseconds, in which users can transmit one "burst" at a time to the Internet. The division by time works well for the very short commands, queries and addresses that form the bulk of most users' traffic back to the Internet.
 A CMTS will enable as many as 1,000 users to connect to the Internet through a single 6-MHz channel. Since a single channel is capable of 30 to 40 megabits per second (Mbps) of total throughput, this means that users may see far better performance than is available with standard dial-up modems.
 As the system grows, the CMTS can be upgraded with more downstream and upstream ports.
DSL vs Cable:
 Speed (advantage - Cable): Cable boasts faster speed than DSL Internet in theory. However, cable does not always deliver on the promise in everyday practical use.
 Popularity (advantage - Both): In the US, cable Internet enjoys significantly greater popularity than DSL, although DSL has been closing the gap recently. Outside the US, DSL continues to hold the edge.
 Customer Satisfaction (advantage - DSL): US cable services generally rate lower than DSL in customer surveys.
 Security (advantage - Both): Cable and DSL implement different network security models. Historically, more concerns have existed with cable security, although cable providers have definitely taken steps to improve security over the past few years. It's likely both DSL and cable are "secure enough" for most people's needs.
Advantages of Cable Internet
 High connection speed
 Convenient – you are always connected to the internet
 Does not affect your phone line. You don’t need to switch your local phone service provider.
 Unlike ADSL, its performance doesn't depend on distance from the central cable office.
Disadvantages of Cable Intenet
 Bandwidth is shared over the same cable line. Connection speed is affected by the number of people using the internet at the same time in your neighborhood.
 Higher security risk than dialup (personal firewall is needed).
 Not available to all cable TV networks.
 Usually tied with cable TV subscription.
Conclusion
 Cable Internet access is the principal competitor to DSL and is offered at a range of prices and speeds overlapping that of DSL.
 Cable TV has a strong reach to the homes and therefore offering the Internet through cable be a scope for furthering the growth of internet usage in the homes.
 The cable is an alternative medium for delivering the Internet Services in the US, there are millions of homes with cable modems, enabling the high-speed internet access over cable.
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#12
28-07-2011, 10:01 AM

Presented by:
Ankita Mor


.pptx   Internet Access via Cable TV Network.pptx (Size: 401.63 KB / Downloads: 74)
Internet Access via Cable TV Network
Need for Cable TV Networks!!
Internet is a Logical, Global Meta Network of computer networks.
The number of internet users is increasing tremendously.
The graph below shows increase in no. of active users in India from 2000-09 i.e 2-million in 2000 to 52 million in 2009
Internet was initially accessed using ADSL technology i.e telephone lines.
Many problems like slow speed ,lower bandwidth ,cost etc.
Traffic congestion on the already slow transmission lines.
Cable TV Networks:
An alternative due to economic cost, higher bandwidth and higher speed.
High penetration in almost all homes in the country.
Technology already implemented in US, but in India we are in initial stages.
Traditional Cable Networks
Started as video service provider.
CATV used to receive signals from TV stations and distribute them, via co-axial cables.
Used co-axial cable end to end.
Large number of amplifiers
are required.
Unidirectional:-from head-end
to subscriber.
Changes in Cable network
Initially designed to deliver TV signals in one direction.
To provide TV services Cable Operators had to recreate a portion of the over-the-air radio frequency (RF) spectrum within a sealed coaxial cable line.
Operators had to upgrade the network so that signals could flow in both directions.
Replaced existing one way amplifiers with two way amplifiers to separate the upstream and downstream signals and amplify each direction separately in the right frequency range.
Modern Cable Networks
Also called as hybrid fiber-coaxial(HFC) network.
Used combination of fiber-optic and co-axial cable.
Modulation and demodulation done at distribution hubs.
Less amplifiers required.
Bidirectional communication
Setup for transfer by Cable TV Network
Cable network for data transmission requires-
1.Cable modem(CM):installed on subscriber premises. Similar to ADSL technology.
2.Cable modem transmission system(CMTS):
Installed inside distribution hub
Receives data from Internet and sends it to the subscriber.
Also receives data from subscriber and passes it to Internet.
Headend: CMTS (Cable Modem Termination System)
One Headend supports @ 2000 Cable Modem Users on a single TV Channel
CMTS interfaces the CATV network to the Internet
CMTS output channel combined with TV video signals
CATV Network to Subscriber via coaxial cable
One-to-Two splitter: One signal to Set Top Box (STB), other to Cable Modem
Cable Modem
One Modem can support up to 16 users in a local-area network
PC/Ethernet Card
Cable Modem connected to PC via ethernet, USB, PCI Bus, etc
Bandwidth Distribution
Even in HFC system, last part of network is coaxial cable.
It has bandwidth ranges from 5 to 750 MHz
The cable company has divided it into three bands:
Downstream Video band:54 to 550 MHz, more than 80 channels
Downstream data band:550 to 750 MHz,33 channels
Upstream data band:5 to 42MHz,6 channels
6-MHz channels each for upstream and downstream data
Cable Modem
Upstream Communication:
The CM checks downstream channels for specific packet sent by CMTS.
The CMTS sends it to CM, allocating the upstream and downstream channels.
CM finds distance from CMTS by ranging and establishes synchronization for time sharing
CM sends packet to ISP for internet address.
CM and CMTS exchange packets for security parameters.
CM sends unique identifier to CMTS
Communication starts in allotted upstream channel.
Data rate <=12 Mbps
QPSK is used for modulation as lower frequencies more susceptible to noise and interference.
Downstream Communication:
Communication is much simpler.
64-QAM is used for modulation.
Theoretical downstream data rate is 30 Mbps ,actual limit is 10Mbps.
No contention as only one sender.
CMTS sends the packet with address of receiving CM , using downstream channel
Cable TV Services
A typical cable television system will usually contain four types of programming service. They include:
1. Basic Cable
2. Expanded Basic
3. Pay Cable Television
Video on Demand
4. Enhanced Information Services
High Speed Internet Access
High Definition Television
Digital Video Recording
Cable Telephony
Real World Performance
Is based upon other devices connected to it.
For eg:
If connection to remote Internet site itself has speed equivalent to a T1 connection (1.5Mbps), then that is as fast as the data can be served to you, no matter how fast your receiving equipment is.
As usage on your segment grows (as more customers are added) the bandwidth must be shared by more people
Adding more cable network segments is very expensive for the cable operator
Advantages
Can provide Internet access to multiple PC’s
Advanced High speed Internet access service.
No new software required
Integration of modem in the Billing system via router.
High Quality digital signal due to proper signal strength.
Reasonable cost.
Limitations
Cable connections are not available in every neighbourhood.
All Cable Companies may not provide Internet access.
It requires two-way data transfer. So cable equipment needs to be changed.
‘Always on’ feature, one needs a firewall and activation of other security features.
Cable modems connected to the head-end equipment at the cable company is like your computer being connected to a LAN hub. When using a single Ethernet card, this results in other people on your branch of the network being able to 'see' data passing to your computer.
Summary
Cable TV networks solve problems that occur in case of telephone lines for internet access.
High speed without traffic jam and with low cost.
Feasible if certain basic requirements-two way cable network and better-quality cables are met.
The cable TV networks as an alternative is worth considering.
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jayas
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#13
16-01-2012, 09:04 PM

plz forward abstract and report
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seminar addict
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Posts: 6,592
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#14
17-01-2012, 10:30 AM

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