Knowledge Representation for Power SystemModelling
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09-10-2010, 04:43 PM

Knowledge Representation for Power SystemModelling

Modelling power systems is an area of ongoing interest in the transmission management and control systems community. Continuing development is driven by two forces. The traditional tasks of model maintenance and management must be achieved with fewer resources. At the same time, model exchange and coordination has become a priority. The latter force arises from the disaggregation of utility functions and the introduction of power markets. This paper begins by identifying some of the power system modelling tasks that have become important, but are ill served by current tools and techniques. Among these are model versioning and version control, migration of models between different schema, the transformation of models for different purposes or applications, and the merging of models from different sources. These tasks are typically handled by semi-manual methods or heavily customized software. The paper then describes the application of knowledge representation to power system modelling. In particular, the power of this approach to provide generic solutions to the foregoing problems is explored. Knowledge representation is contrasted with more common data representations and put into context with current industry initiatives, EPRI CIM, UMS DAF and XML/CIM. Finally, the feasibility of using knowledge representation for power system models is illustrated with a case study from a major Australian distribution utility. Keywords: power system modelling, knowledge representation, electronic data interchange, data models, power system control, transmission control, data management, data communication, software standards I.
Models are essential to the operation of modern power systems. Simulation of the power system is necessary for both planning and operations and depends on appropriate models. In the operations arena models are typically more comprehensive than those used for planning. Operational models support analysis of incoming SCADA data as well as simulation of expected and unexpected operational scenarios. An operational power system model is a relatively complex set of information, involving between 100 and 1000 different classes of information. Moreover, these models are closely tied to telemetry models and loosely tied to a range of other information throughout the utility. Creation, maintenance and verification of models are significant activities for most transmission operators. The disaggregation of utility functions and the introduction of power markets in many national power systems has increased the model maintenance burden. For example, the split between Regional Transmission Operators (RTO’s) and Independent System Operators (ISO’s) in the United States means that many overlapping models must be created and coordinated with each other where previously there was a single model. This introduces new problems of model information exchange, and exacerbates old problems of version control and verification. Distribution authorities also face new modelling tasks with the increasing deployment of Distribution Management Systems (DMS). While the DMS capabilities vary from system to system, all require models of the sub-transmission and feeder network that an earlier generation of control systems did not. In the distribution environment, model maintenance solutions developed for Energy Management Systems (EMS) are rarely suitable. Unlike most main transmission systems, a typical distribution system is subject to constant expansion and rearrangement. In this context, it is worth revisiting the traditional modelling approaches to find improvements. As an aim, new techniques should enable existing teams to meet the greater challenges they now face. The best techniques would relieve the tedious and error prone aspects of the task, freeing maintainers to apply their judgment and experience to network and control system problems.

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