LGI Monitoring System full report
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Project Title:
LGI Monitoring System
Project Description:

The project and implimentation is windows based one. The main idea of this project and implimentation is to handle the all details of Loans, Grants-in-Aid and Investments. The project and implimentation has been developed to smoothen the processing of Loans and Grants-in-Aid cases in the Ministry of Finance. The purpose of the project and implimentation is computerized processing of cases in systematic manner from filling of sanctions details and their report generation for RBI (New Delhi and CAS Nagpur). Managing hundreds of thousands of LGI records is many a times a forgetful and haphazard process. Also maintaining the LGI details histories and previous records of various cases on paper or traditional diaries is incompatible with this age of machines and computers.
This software will enable an individual person who is authorized to keep track all the information which is filled. This software is passed through from three phases. In this software first DH level user will fill the sanctions details and then it will be pass to AAO for the further modification and for the security purpose. After AAO level these details will passed to PAO level for the further modifications. When these details will be passed through then the report will be generated and this report will be passed to RBI. This software system will help in automating all the processes like filling of Loans, Grants and Investments details or application will now be computerized.
Hardware Specification: Pentium IV Processor, 256 MB RAM, 20 GB HDD
Operating System: Windows XP
Tools and Technology Used: Vb.Net 8.0 and Crystal Reports, SQL Server2000
Keywords: LGI System, DH, AAO, PAO, Vb.Net Forms and Reports
NIC Division Allotted: Finance Information System
Student Trainee: Vishu Muthreja (ID. No. 10030) (July, 07 “ Dec, 07)
1.1 Introduction 2
1.2 Set Up 3
1.3 Evolution And Aim of NIC 3
1.4 Principle Objectives of NIC 3
1.5 Services 4
1.6 Projects (National Level) 4

2.1 Project Objectives 7
2.2 Project Purpose 7
2.3 Project Scope 7
2.4 Project Benefits 8
2.5 Project Lifecycle 9
2.6 Project Limitation 10

3.1 Existing System 12
3.1.1 Limitation of Manual System 12
3.2 Proposed System 12
3.2.1 Benefits of Proposed System 13
3.3 Functionality of Computerization Process 14

3.1 Introduction 18
3.2 SDLC Models 18
3.3 Our Project Need 18
3.4 Waterfall Model 19

5.1 Analysis Studies 21
5.2 User Requirements 21
5.2.1 Preliminary Studies 22
5.2.2 Analysis of Existing System 22
5.3 System Requirement 23
5.3.1 Review of Org. Documents 23
5.3.2 Onsite Observation 23
5.3.3 Conducting Interviews 24
5.4 Hardware/Software Requirements 24
5.5 Feasibility Study 25
Technical, Economic and Operational 26
5.5 Software Requirement Specifications 27

6.1 Data Flow Diagram 29
6.2 Database Design 43
6.3 Entity Relationship Diagram 59

7.1 Operating System 64
7.2 Languages 65
¢ Visual Basic.Net 65
¢ Features of SQL Server 2000 69

8.1 System Testing/Debugging 74
8.2 Types of Testing 75
8.3 Types of error encountered by tester 75
8.4 Validation Checks 76
8.4.1 Client Validation 76
8.4.2 Server Validation 77
8.5 Test Schedule 77
8.5.1 Testing Methodology 78
8.5.2 Generic (Component) Testing 78
8.5.3 Data Testing 78
8.5.4 Installation Testing 78
8.5.5 Boundary & Condition Testing 79
8.6 Test Plan 81

9.1 Definition 89
9.2 Categories 89
9.2.1 Corrective Maintenance 89
9.2.2 Adaptive Maintenance 89
9.2.3 Perfective Maintenance 89
9.3 Process 90
9.4 Models 90
9.4.1 Boehms Model 90

10.1 Screen Shots 93



Chapter- 1

1.1. Introduction

National Informatics Centre (NIC) is a premier Information Technology Organization in India committed to providing state-of-the-art solutions for the IT needs of the government of India at all levels. NIC caries the distinction of being the largest IT organization in the country and has setup a satellite based nationwide computer communication network, called NICNET with over 1400 nodes connecting the National Capital, the State Capital and District headquarters to one another.

The IT services of NIC ranges from Consultancy, Software Design and Development, Office Automation and Networking Services to Training, Video Conferencing, CAD, E-Commerce, Multimedia and Internet Services including Web-Site Development and Hosting. NIC has a nationwide presence, with its offices spread all across the country, from Leh to Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
¢ Some system presently used in different department:
Agrictural Marketing Information Network (AGMARKNET)
Central Passport System
Community Information Centers (CICs)
Computerized Rural Information Systems Project (CRISP)
Court Information System (COURTIS)
Department of Agriculture Network (DACNET)
Examination Results Portal
India Image
Land Records Information System (LRIS)
National Hazardous Waste Information System (NHWIS)
Public Grievance Redress and Monitoring System (PGRAMS)
Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI)
Training & Video Conferencing

1.2. Profile

The organizational set up of NIC encompasses its Headquarters at New Delhi, State Units in all the 28 State capitals and 7 Union Territory Headquarters and District centers in almost all the Districts of India. The Organization employs a large pool of efficient technical manpower.
At the NIC Headquarters, a large number of Application Divisions exist which provide total Informatics Support to the Ministries and Departments of the Central Government. NIC computer cells are located in almost all the Ministry Bhawans of the Central Government and Apex Offices including the Prime Ministerâ„¢s Office, the Rashtrapati Bhawan and the Parliament House.

1.3. Evolution and Aim of NIC

National Informatics Centre was set up in March 1975 by the Government of India to play a promotional role in creating awareness and for developing and implementing computer based information systems for decision support in the ministries and departments of the Central Government. The last decade has witnessed NIC emerge as an agent of change which has quietly changed the work culture and the process of decision making information, has led to gradual but qualitative transformation of the workplace.

1.4. Principle Objective of NIC

¢ Development of computerized information systems in various sectors of the
economy for planning, project and implimentation monitoring and division support.
¢ Promotion of information culture at District, State and Nation level.
¢ Improvement of the analytical capability and presentation of information utilized for Central, state and district level planning
¢ Development of modeling, forecasting and simulation techniques that is required for planning and decision support
¢ Establishment of a computer-communication network for insuring ready access of information across the nation and enabling optimal use of resources
¢ Provide gateways for accessing international databases for those working in districts, states and center

1.5. Services

NIC is providing various services through NICNET to the Central Government, State Government as well as Public sectors. Some users from the Government and all the users of Public Sector using NICNET services are to be paid the connectivity charges of the respective services provided to them. The services that are currently active under this category can be listed below -:
¢ Software Design and Development
¢ Networking (NICNET SERVICES)
¢ Internet Services
¢ WWW Services
¢ Email, Dial-Up and ISDN Line
¢ SCPC Vsat
¢ RF-Link
¢ FTDMA Vsat


NIC has conceptualized, developed and implemented a very large number of project and implimentations for various Central and State Government Ministries, Departments and Organizations. Many of these project and implimentations are continuing project and implimentations being carried out by various divisions of NIC at New Delhi Headquarters and State/District centers throughout the country. We present here some of the most noteworthy project and implimentations to offer the viewers/citizens a glimpse of the multifaceted, diverse activities of NIC, touching upon all spheres of e-governance and thereby influencing the lives of millions of citizens of India.
¢ Agricultural Marketing Information Network (AGMARKNET)
¢ Central Passport System
¢ Community Information Centres (CICs)
¢ Computerized Rural Information Systems Project (CRISP)
¢ Court Information System (COURTIS)
¢ Department of Agriculture Network (DACNET)
¢ Examination Results
¢ India Image
¢ Land Records Information System (LRIS)
¢ National Hazardous Waste Information System (NHWIS)
¢ Public Grievance Redress and Monitoring System (PGRAMS)
¢ Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI)
¢ Training
¢ Video Conferencing

Chapter- 2

2. Introduction of the Project
2.1. Project Objective

¢ Elimination of Human errors in processes.
¢ Increase the reporting and querying capabilities.
¢ Effective monitoring of Budget Vs Expenditure.
¢ Generation of inputs in compatible form for CONTACT (ORA).
¢ Integration with PAO-2000 software.
¢ Centralized database for storing and monitoring of loans, grants-in-aid and investments to State Governments/UTs.
¢ Historical Data Maintenance.

2.2. Project Purpose

The main purpose of this project and implimentation is to give all details about the Loans, Grants and Investments who has done by the Central Government to the State Governments and Union Territories. In this project and implimentation three types of users are provided for authentication. This project and implimentation will also maintain the Data Security and Integrity through the software.

2.3. Project Scope

The PAO attached to the Principal Accounts Office is responsible for the disbursement of such Loans, Grant-in-aid and Investment to the State Governments / UTs. He has to perform a varied number of accounting functions / tasks. The sanctions for loans, grants-in-aid and investments are issued to him from the Department of Economic Affairs: (Budget Division, NS-II Section, FCD, PF-I). The major accounting tasks to be performed thereon are:
1) Check of Sanctions with respect to availability of funds.
2) Advice preparation which is sent to RBI for payment to State Governments/ UTs.
3) Receipt of clearance Memo from RBI.
4) Preparation of Repayment schedule for State Governments/UTs.
5) Receipt of State/UT Accountant General Advice indicating repayments.
6) Challan preparation for repayments received from Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir and Union Territories (with legislature).
7) Accounting Adjustment through Transfer Entry (after advice generation, receipt of clearance memo and Advice from State Governments/UTs).
8) Maintenance of important registers and broadsheets viz. Inter-Government Advice register, Repayment and Payment Broadsheets, Loan register, etc.
The present software will be a module of PAO-2000 working at different Pay and Accounts Offices. Hence the accounting adjustments made through Transfer Entries will be automatically reflected in the consolidated monthly accounts booklet for CONTACT-ORA software.

2.4. Project Benefits

¢ Capture of sanctions at the origin thereby validation of data at the lowest level.
¢ Effective monitoring of Budget Vs Expenditure.
¢ A reduction in data entry efforts.
¢ Speedy and accurate reporting of accounts pertaining to Loans, Grant-in-aid and Investment.
¢ Elimination of Human errors in processes.
¢ Improve efficiency, performance and facilitate decision making process.
¢ Speed up information flow State Governments and the Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance.
¢ Provide accurate and fast calculation of loan breakups, viz. calculation of yearly and monthly repayment schedules.
¢ GUI based software for better user interface and adaptability.
¢ Provide different access levels on the basis of post to enhance security of the system.
¢ Historical Data Maintenance
2.5. Project Lifecycle

2.6. Project Limitation

¢ Documentation: It is time consuming and requires expertise in creating good documentation from view point of top administrators users
¢ Manuals: Various manuals are to be prepared such as user manuals, system manuals etc. It needs time, human labor and are subject to change drastically as the technology changes
¢ Online Help: One needs to provide online help to various users so that all the features of the software can be properly understood by the user

Chapter- 3
3. Component Assigned


At present the finance division does not have any automated system to manage the data of Loans, Grants and Investments. They have to rely on manual system which is time consuming.
They have to create and maintain all the data masters for loans, grants and investments and any addition, deletion or modification to any data or retrieval of data requires lot of time and effort.
Apart from administrative task being cumbersome, manual system of registration is also long and error-prone.
In the manual handling of data filled by dealing hand users, administration has to keep the forms in order and check manually all the fields filled by the users to ensure that each field is correctly entered. It is tedious process as one has to inform the users to fill the correct information. There is no provision to prevent incorrect data entry in form and the data masters.
3.1.1 Limitations of the Manual System:
Slow Speed and very time consuming.
No efficient method for searching the record of the particular state.
Storage of bulky files is a problem.
Maintenance and updating data is difficult.


After studying the existing manual system, the need for a change was recognized and system development life cycle initiated. We proposed a new system in which all the details of states are handled by a computerized system rather than a manual system.
The DH (Dealing Hand) users fills all the data entries in the forms, which will be further verify by the second hand user which is AAO. The DH user would access LGI StateGovt/UT modules, Data entry modules. The AAO users would access to the LGI StateGovt/UT modules, User master, Data entry modules. The DH users enters the data
as per requirement which is further send to the AAO. The AAO level user verify all the data which is send by the DH user. If everything will ok then AAO sends this data to PAO level. If everything is not ok then AAO level sends back all the information to the DH user. The PAO level further would access to all the master modules, all report modules of the system and would be able to access information about any user accounts. He/She can set the accessibility permissions for different master, reports, budget, windows, and LGI StateGovt/UT modules.
All the entries and storage of data will be done into computer based records and there will be no need to maintain larger bulkier files for participant records and administrative work. The main objective of the proposed system is that users can fill the forms easily and any work of maintaining data can be done on the click of a few buttons rather than going through a number of files.
For security purpose, proper username/password would be provided to PAO modules. Data in masters could be accessed and manipulated by authorized users only.
For speeding up the search process, various reports will be generated for the administrative user.
3.2.1 Benefits of the Proposed System:

How the PROPOSED system is better than the EXISTING system
User Friendly System: Filling the information about states loans, grants and investments form manually takes more time and is more prone to incorrect entries, while filling the form online is much easier. Also the users can view and get the printed copy of the data filled by him. Modification of data filled by a user is also much easier and takes much less time.
Also the administrative work is made very easy. The storage, retrieval and maintenance of data in database are much easier. In the automated system, it is very easy for the administrative user to search for any kind of information as various reports will been generated.
Complete Security of Data: Data in masters can be accessed and manipulated by authorized users only. Proper username/password has been provided to administrative modules for security purpose.
Faster response: Filling the information form about states online takes very less time than filling it manually. Also the work of maintaining data can be done on the click of a few buttons rather than going through a number of files.
Data integrity: Constraints have been enforced in the proposed system. The codes are automatically generated by the system.

This system would result in: -
Highly sophisticated technology.

Fast search and retrieval of information.
Presentation of the information in the desired form.
Maintenance of fast up to date reliable information.
Storage, retrieval and maintenance of data in database efficiently.
Increased Security.
3.3 Functionalities of the Computerization process.
The following aspects have been proposed to be brought under the purview of the computerization process.
3.3.1 Loan Management for State Government/Union Territories.
¢ Receipt of Sanctions.
¢ Check availability of funds
¢ Issue of Advices to RBI, Nagpur for payment to State Governments/ UTs.
¢ Preparation of Repayment schedule for State Governments/UTs.
¢ Receipt of clearance Memo from RBI.
¢ Receipt of State/UT Accountant General Advice indicating repayments.
¢ Challan preparation for repayments received from Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir and Union Territories (with legislature).
¢ Accounting Adjustment through Transfer Entry (after advice generation, receipt of clearance memo and Advice from State Governments/UTs).
¢ Updation of Loan Registers, Repayment and Payment broadsheet, etc.
3.3.2 Grants-in-aid Management for State Government/Union Territories.
¢ Receipt of Sanctions.
¢ Check availability of funds
¢ Calculation of Recovery of default against Central Dues from repayment schedule.
¢ Issue of Advices to RBI, Nagpur for payment to State Governments/ UTs with the recoveries made (if any).
¢ Receipt of clearance Memo from RBI.
¢ Accounting Adjustment through Transfer Entry (after advice generation, receipt of clearance memo).
¢ Updation of Grant-in-aid Registers Payment broadsheet, etc.
3.3.3 Investments Management for State Government/Union Territories.
¢ Receipt of Sanctions.
¢ Payment made from the Public Account hence , the check of ˜availability of funds™ not required
¢ Issue of Advices to RBI, Nagpur for investment in State Governments/ UTs securities.
¢ Receipt of clearance Memo from RBI.
¢ Receipt of ˜Invest Recover Advice™ ˜indicating repayments.
¢ Challan preparation for repayments received from Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir and Union Territories (with legislature).
¢ Accounting Adjustment through Transfer Entry (after advice generation, receipt of clearance memo and Advice from State Governments/UTs except for the Challan prepared in case of Sikkim , J&K).
¢ Updation of Repayment and Payment broadsheet.

Chapter- 4
4. System Development Life Cycle
4.1. Introduction to SDLC
The traditional development methodology called Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC) consists of a set of development activities that have a prescribed order. Once a problem for the existing Loan, Grant-In-Aid & Investment Software is recognized, a request for developing a new system is forwarded for approval. Problem in the existing Loans, Grants-in-Aid & Investment System is that it may involve manual work or is more prone to frequent crashes. It is now that our software comes into picture. If approved, a study is conducted to ensure that the proposed System is feasible. If feasible, the System Requirements are specified followed by phases of System design, System implementation, Testing, Conversion and Evaluation. A recycling of development activities may occur following System evaluation if System still requires modification or redevelopment. The term Development Cycle is used to acknowledge the importance of recycling in meeting information needs.

4.2. SDLC Models

The following 4 Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is used:
¢ Prototyping Model
¢ Waterfall Model
¢ Incremental Model
¢ Evolutionary Model
4.3. Our Project Need
According to our project and implimentation requirements, we are going to use the Waterfall Model to develop our software.
Through this model we would be able to produce well-documented maintainable software in a manner that is very predictable and easy to understand.
We are using this model because it reinforces the notion of Define before Design and
Design before Code making it systematic approach.
4.4. Waterfall Model
This is the most familiar model and consists of five phases given below “
Requirement Analysis and Specification
Implementation and Unit Testing
Operation and Maintenance
The phases always occur in this order and sequence. They must not overlap with one another. The developer must complete each phase before starting with the next one.
It is called Waterfall model because its diagrammatic representation is similar to cascades of waterfall.


Chapter- 5
5. Requirement Analysis
5.1. Analysis Study
System Analysis is a management technique, which helps us in designing a new system or improving an existing system.
An integrated LGI system is almost a necessity in Finance Ministry. Considerable economies are achieved if all parts of operations are consolidated within one software system so that:
¢ Manual files are not needed
¢ Communication between different departments is facilitated through an integrated database
¢ Functionality is improved
¢ Control is facilitated
Analysis study is presented in the form of Software Requirement Specification. Review of SRS is conducted to determine the suitability and the adequacy of the software requirement. The review addresses the following questions/issues:
¢ Are the requirements appropriate to the user needs or project and implimentation objectives
¢ Are the requirements complete
¢ Are the requirements defined unambiguously
¢ Are the requirements self-consistent
¢ Is every requirement testable

5.2. User Requirements

One must know what the problem is before it can be solved. General approaches for determining user requirements are:
¢ Preliminary investigation “ asking general questions
¢ Analysis of existing system “ getting information from existing system

5.2.1. Preliminary Investigation

For this, the need arises to understand the viewpoint of two important entities-:
Top management
In order to gather pertinent information, I interviewed the Top Management and asked the following questions:
¢ How the present system works and what are its drawbacks
¢ What is their vision about the new system and what new facilities they want from the new system
¢ How will data flow in the system
¢ Who will be authenticated to access data and his/her access rights
To find more about present systemâ„¢s working mechanism such as the ways of getting inputs and providing outputs, I interviewed the Current Users of the system by asking following question:
¢ Are they comfortable with the present system and flaws exist in it
¢ Do they feel the necessity of new system
¢ What will be their requirements from new system
¢ Are they satisfied with their role in new system
After carrying out these interviews, I drew conclusion about the Top Managementâ„¢s requirements and Users are in support of the new system.

5.2.2. Analysis of Existing System

The existing version of this software was developed in VB and released during
2004-2005 NIC Head Quarters under the supervision of Mr. Nagesh Shastri designed this version.
This version of LGI software consists of various modules such as:
¢ New entry
¢ Modification
¢ Deletion
¢ Reports

5.3. System Requirement

The techniques which were used to collect data in order to determine the system
¢ Reviewing organization documents
¢ Onsite observations
¢ Conducting interviews
5.3.1. Reviewing Organization Documents
I first learnt about the organization involved in the project and implimentation, I then, got to know how the department works and the employees were directly involved with the application. Annual manuals and reports were of great help to me.

5.3.2. Onsite Observations

It is a process of recognizing and observing people, objects and their occurrence to obtain the information. The major objective of the Onsite Observation is to get as close as possible to real system being studied.
Here, I observed the activities of the system directly. I saw the office environment, workload on the system and on the users. The physical layout of the current system along with the location and movement of staff was analyzed. In this way, the information about the present workflow, objects and people was gathered.
This helped me to understand various procedures & processes, which were to be developed in the new system.

5.3.3 Conducting Interviews

Written documents and onsite observation just tell that how the system should operate. They do not include enough details to allow a decision to be made about the merits of system proposal and do not present the user views about the current system.
I conducted interviews of the staff, which were directly involved with the application. Also the regular users of the application were interviewed. Based on their viewpoints, crystal clear system requirements were jolted down.

5.4. Hardware/ Software Requirement

Hardware Interface:
Server Machine:
Minimum p-3, 256 MB RAM, 40 GB Hard Disk
Client Machine:
Minimum p-3, 256 MB RAM, 20 GB Hard Disk
132 columns High Speed Dot Matrix Printer with local language support

Communication Interface

The software may either be installed on a client/server-based setup with a Local Area Network (using the Ethernet interface, one to one connection & TCP/IP protocols) or on a stand-alone machine whereby client and server components reside on the same machine.
A printer shall be used frequently. For this purpose, Dot Matrix printer is the minimum requirement. A line printer should prove to be more efficient.
Authenticated Reports can be generated using a Laser Printer. The software shall be independent of printer type. However dot matrix printer shall provide reports.

Software Requirements

¢ Windows OS: Version 2000 and above; Source: Microsoft for Server
¢ Windows OS: Version 2000 or XP; Source: Microsoft for Client
¢ VB.NET: Version 8.0 and above; Source: Microsoft
¢ SQL Servers: Version 2000 and above; Source: Microsoft

5.5. Feasibility Study

Feasibility Study is the test of the system proposal according to its workability, impact on the current system, ability to meet the needs of the current users and effective use of the resources.
Its main objective is not to solve the problem, but to acquire its scope. It focuses on following:

¢ Meet user requirements
¢ Best utilization of available resources
¢ Develop a cost effective system
Develop a technically feasible system
There are three aspects in the feasibility study:
¢ Technical Feasibility
¢ Economical Feasibility
¢ Operational Feasibility

Technical Feasibility:

Issues to be studied are, whether the work for the project and implimentation will be done with current equipment, existing S/W technology and available personnel If the new technology is required, then what is the likelihood that it can be developed
This LGI software is technically feasible. The primary technical requirement includes the availability of Windows 2000 or higher version of operating systems installed in the network. SQL Server is also required which was already installed. To develop programs VB.NET 8.0 was required which was also available. Reliability, access power and data security was also available. Thus, through all the ends technical feasibility was met.

Economical Feasibility:

Issues to be studied are, whether the new system is cost effective or not The benefits in the form of reduced cost
This LGI software is economically feasible. As the hardware was installed from quite beginning, the cost on project and implimentation of hardware is low. Similarly, the software loaded for this project and implimentation was used for many other applications. The software cost was under budget. As student trainees were developing the application, there were no major personnel costs associated. Moreover, the technical requirements were already available so there was no further expenditure for buying software packages.

Operational Feasibility:

Issues to be studied are, is there sufficient support for management and users Is the current method acceptable to users Will the proposed system cause any harm
This LGI software is operationally feasible. This application provides the necessary information to the user such as how to enter the information regarding different operations performed on the database. The application was planned in such a way that no prior knowledge was required to go through the various operations. The user just needed to have the basic knowledge of computers.
5.6. Software Requirements Specification
Among all the documents produced during a software development life cycle, writing the SRS document is probably the toughest. One reason behind this difficulty is that the SRS document is expected to cater to the needs of a wide variety of audience. Different people need the SRS document for very different purposes. Some of the important categories of users of the SRS document and their needs are as follows:
¢ Users, customers and marketing personnel.
¢ Software developers.
¢ Test engineers.
¢ User documentation writers.
¢ Project managers.
¢ Maintenance engineers

Characteristics of a Good SRS Document

Some of the identified desirable qualities of the SRS documents are following:-
Concise: The SRS document should be concise and at the same time unambiguous.
Structured: The SRS document should be well structured.
Black-box view: It should only specify what the system should do and refrain from stating how to do.
Conceptual integrity: The SRS document should exhibit conceptual integrity so that the reader can easily understand the contents.
Response to undesired events: The document should characterize acceptable responses to undesired events.
Verifiable: All requirements of the system as documented in SRS document should be verifiable. This means that it should be possible to determine whether or not requirements have been met in an implementation.

Chapter- 6
6 System Design
The Technique of Data flow diagramming
This section describes in detail the data flow diagramming technique. It is intended to serve as a handbook to guide the reader in developing data flow diagramming skills.
Data Flow Diagramming is a means of representing a system at any level of detail with a graphic network of symbols showing data flows, data stores, data processes, and data sources/destinations.
The purpose of data flow diagrams is to provide a semantic bridge between users and system developers.
The diagrams are:
Graphical, eliminating thousands of words;
Logical representations, modeling WHAT a system does, rather than physical models showing HOW it does it;
Hierarchical, showing systems at any level of detail; and Jargon less, allowing user understanding and reviewing.
The goal of data flow diagramming is to have a commonly understood model of a system. The diagrams are the basis of structured systems analysis. Data flow diagrams are supported by other techniques of structured systems analysis such as data structure diagrams, data dictionaries, and procedure-representing techniques such as decision tables, decision trees, and structured English.
The objective of Data flow diagrams is avoiding the cost of user/developer misunderstanding of a system, resulting in a need to redo systems or in not using the system.
Having to start documentation from scratch when the physical system changes since the logical system, WHAT gets done, often remains the same when technology changes.
It helps in removing inefficiencies of system because a system gets "computerized" before it gets "systematized". Also helps enabling to evaluate system project and implimentation boundaries or degree of automation, resulting in a project and implimentation of inappropriate scope.
DFD Symbols:
In the DFD, there are four symbols shown in figure below:
1) A Square defines a source (originator) or destination of data pipeline through which information flows.
2) An Arrow identifies data flow data in motion. It is a pipeline through which information flows.
3) A Circle or a "bubble" (some people use an oval bubble) represents a process that transforms incoming data flow into outgoing data flow.
4) An Open rectangle is a data store - data at rest, or a temporary repository of data.
Basic Symbols and their Meaning
Process Notations
Data Store Notations
External Entity Notations
Data flow Notations


For the successful running of server and application, there is a need of always running SQL server, application server.
For the project and implimentation the following relations are in the database

6.2.1. Master Module Tables:-

1 Ms_UserMst:-
Primary Key: Employee
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
Employee Has the Id of the employee Int(4) Y
UserName Name of the Employee Varchar(15) N
Password Has the Password of Employee Varchar(100) N
Status Status of Employees Varchar(6) N
2 Ms_Func_Mst:-
Primary Key: Func_Hd
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
Parent Root of the Functional Head Varchar2(13) Y
Func_Hd Thirteen digits functional head Varchar2(13) Y
Func_Desc Description of the Functional Head Varchar2(100) Y
3 Ms_Obj_Mst:-
Primary Key: Obj_Hd
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
Obj_Hd Two digits Object Head char(2) Y
Obj_Desc Description of the Object Head Varchar2(50) Y
4 Ms_Cat_Mst:-
Primary Key: Category
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
Category Unique code of Category char(1) Y
Cat_Desc Description of the Category Varchar2(100) Y
Cat_Type Type of the Category char(1) Y
Dr_Cr Show Debit or Credit Char(1) Y
5 Ms_Grant_Mst:-
Primary Key: Grant_No
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
FinYear Has the Financial Year char(9) Y
Grant_No Has the Unique Grant number char(3) Y
Grant_Desc Description of the Grant Head Varchar2(100) Y
6 Ms_Grant_Mst:-
Primary Key: Category
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
Func_Hd Thirteen digits functional head Varchar2(13) Y
Obj_Hd Description of the Object Head char(2) Y
Category Unique code of Category Varchar2(9) Y
7 Ms_Alter_FuncObjCat_Code:-
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
Func_Hd Thirteen digits functional head Varchar2(13) Y
Obj_Hd Description of the Object Head char(2) Y
Category Unique code of Category Varchar2(9) Y
Code Combinational code of Functional, Object and Category Head Char(4) Y
FinYear Has Financial Year Char(9) Y
8 Ms_LAG_IssuAuth_Mst:-
Primary Key: IssuAuth_cd
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
IssuAuth_cd Unique Issue Authority Code tinyint(1) Y
IssuAuth_Name Name of the Issuing Authority Varchar2(50) Y
Deptt Specify the Deptt char(1) N
Desc_Of_Sanction Has Description Varchar2(250) N
9 Ms_LAG_StateUT_Mst:-
Primary Key: State_cd
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
State_cd Has the unique codes of all states Char(3) Y
State_Name Has the Name of all states Varchar2(150) Y
State_Type Has the type of state Char(2) Y
Func_Hd Has the detail of Functional Head Char(13) N
Obj_Hd Has the detail of Object Head Char(2) N
Catg Has the detail of Category Char(1) N
Func_Hd_R Has the detail of Functional Head Char(13) N
Obj_Hd_R Has the detail of Object Head Char(2) N
Catg_R Has the detail of Category Char(1) N
Trans_through Has the code about transaction Char(1) N
Payment_through Describe the Payment code Char(1) N
Bankbranch_Desc Describe the branch of bank Varchar2(250) N
6.2.2. Dealing Hand Module Tables:-
10 LAG_Sanc_Mst:-
Primary Key: Sanc_id
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
Sanc_id Unique id of sanction Int(4) Y
Sanc_No Has the Name of sanction Varchar(10) Y
Sanc_Date Describe the sanction date Datetime(8) Y
Sanc_Ref_Lett_No Has the letter reference of sanction Varchar(20) N
Sanc_Subject Describe the sanction subject Varchar2(150) Y
Sanc_Type Describe the type of sanction Char(1) Y
IssuAuth_cd Unique Issue Authority Code Tinyint(1) Y
Sanc_Amt Describe the sanction amount Numeric(9) Y
Fin_Yr Describe the Financial Year Char(9) Y
Acc_Mnth Describe the Accounting month Char(2) Y
Catg Describe the Category Char(1) Y
Sanc_Remark Describe the sanction remark Varchar2(200) N
WriteOff_Func_Hd Describe the Functional Head Char(13) N
WriteOff_Obj_Hd Describe the Object head Char(2) N
DH_Flag Describe the Dealing Hand Flag Char(1) N
AAO_Flag Describe the AAO Level Flag Char(1) N
PAO_Flag Describe the PAO Level Flag Char(1) N
DH_Return_Reason Specify the DH return reason of Sanction Varchar2(750) N
AAO_Return_Reason Specify the AAO return reason of Sanction Varchar2(750) N
PAO_Return_Reason Specify the PAO return reason of Sanction Varchar2(750) N
DH_Decision_Date Describe the DH decision date Datetime(8) N
AAO_Decision_Date Describe the AAO decision date Datetime(8) N
PAO_Decision_Date Describe the PAO decision date Datetime(8) N
DH_Decision_Login Describe the DH decision login ID Int(4) N
AAO_Decision_Login Describe the AAO decision login ID Int(4) N
PAO_Decision_Login Describe the PAO decision login ID Int(4) N
Payable_Date Specify the Payable Date of Sanction Datetime(8) N
11 LAG_GrantInAid_Mst:-
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
GrantIn_Id Has the unique code of grants Int(4) Y
GrantInAid_No Has the No of Grants Varchar(10) Y
Sanc_Id Unique Id of Sanction Int(4) Y
State_Cd Has the unique codes of all states Char(3) Y
Grant_No Describe the Grant Code Char(3) Y
Func_Hd Describe the Functional Head Char(13) Y
Obj_Hd Describe the Object Head Char(2) Y
Catg Describe the category Char(1) Y
GrantinAid_Amount Describe the Grant Amount Numeric(9) N
Budget_Override Describe the Budget Details Char(1) N
GrantInAid_Remark Describe the Grant Remark Varchar(200) N
Te_id Describe Te code Int(4) N
WAM_Recov_Amt Describe the recovery amount Numeric(9) N
12 LAG_Loan_Mst:-
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
Loan_Id Has the unique code of Loan Int(4) Y
Loan_No Has the No of Loan char(10) Y
Pr_Loan_Id Unique Pr Id of Loan Int(4) N
Sanc_Id Unique id of sanction Int(4) N
Autt_Lett Describe the Authority Letter Varchar(25) N
State_cd Has the unique codes of all states Char(3) Y
Grant_No Describe the Grant No Char(3) Y
Func_Hd Describe the Functional Head Char(13) Y
Obj_Hd Describe the Object Head Char(3) Y
Catg Describe the category Char(1) Y
Loan_Amount Describe the Loan Amount Numeric(9) Y
Close_Bal Describe the closing balance Numeric(9) Y
Budget_Override Describe the Budget Details Char(1) N
Rate_Of_Int Describe the interest rate for Loan Decimal(9) N
Period_of_Loan Describe the period of Loan Tinyint(1) N
Grace_Period Describe the grace period of Loan Tinyint(1) N
Grace_Amount Describe the grace amount Numeric(9) N
No_Gracel_Installment Describe the no of gracel installments Numeric(9) N
Penal_Ineterst_Rate Describe the penal interest rate for Loan Decimal(5) N
Repay_Comm_Date Describe the repayment date Datetime(8) N
Loan_Remark Describe the Loan Remark Varchar(200) N
Te_Id Describe Te code Int(4) N
Write_off_flag Describe the flag Char(1) N
Loan_Settled_Amt Describe the loan settled amount Char(1) N
Parent_List Describe the Parent List Varchar(250) N
Loan_type Describe the Loan type Char(1) Y
Loan_Round_Prc Describe the Precision for loan Tinyint(1) Y
Func_hd_Int Describe the int functional head Char(13) N
Obj_Hd_Int Describe the int Object head Char(2) N
Catg_Int Describe the int Category Char(1) N
Settled_Amt Describe the settled loan Amount Numeric(9) N
Settled_Sanc_Id Describe the settled Sanction Id Int(4) N
Start_Month Describe the starting month of Loan Int(4) N
Installments Describe the installment months Nvarchar(50) N
Opening_Bal Describe the Opening Balance Numeric(9) N
13 LAG_Investment_Mst:-
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
Invest_Id Has the unique code of investments Int(4) Y
Invest_No Has the No of Investments Char(10) Y
Sanc_Id Unique Id of Sanction Int(4) Y
State_Cd Has the unique codes of all states Char(3) N
Grant_No Describe the Grant Code Char(3) N
Func_Hd Describe the Functional Head Char(13) Y
Obj_Hd Describe the Object Head Char(2) Y
Catg Describe the category Char(1) Y
Invest_Amount Describe the Investment Amount Numeric(9) Y
Budget_Override Describe the Budget Details Char(1) N
Invest_Remark Describe the Investment Remark Varchar(200) N
Te_id Describe Te code Int(4) N
Func_Hd_Int Describe the int functional head Char(13) N
Obj_Hd_Int Describe the int Object head Char(2) N
Catg Describe the int Category Char(1) N
14 LAG_RBI_Advice_Mst:-
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
Advice_Id Has the unique code of Advice Int(4) Y
IGA_No Has the IGA No of Advice Varchar(10) Y
Advice_Date Describe the Advice Date Datetime(8) N
Acc_Mnth Describe the Account Month for advice Char(2) Y
Advice_Ref_lett_no Has the letter reference of Advice Varchar(20) N
Sanc_Id Unique Id of Sanction Int(4) Y
CrAmt Describe the Credited Amount Numeric(9) Y
DbAmt Describe the Debit Amount Numeric(9) Y
Advice_Remark Describe the Advice Remark Varchar(200) N
DH_Flag Describe the Dealing Hand Flag Char(1) N
AAO_Flag Describe the AAO level Flag Char(1) N
PAO_Flag Describe the PAO Level Flag Char(1) N
PAO_Decision_Date Describe the PAO Decision date functional head Datetime(8) N
PAO_Decision_Login_Id Describe the PAO decision login ID Int(4) N
15 LAG_RBI_Advice_Recovery_Dtls:-
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
Advice_Id Has the unique code of Advice Int(4) Y
State_cd Has the unique codes of all states char(3) Y
Payable_Amt Describe the Payable Amount Numeric(9) N
Recovery_Amt Describe the Account which has to recover Numeric(9) N
Qual_Default_Ded Describe the ded. Numeric(9) N
Default_Deduction Describe the deduction Char(1) N
Penal_int Describe the penal ineterst Cahr(1) N
State_Remark Describe the State Remark Varchar(200) N
WAM_Recovery_Amt Describe the Amount to recover Numeric(9) N
16 Sys_Config:-
Name Description Data Type
Not Null
pao_cd Describe the PAO code Char(6) N
pao_descp Specify the PAO Description Varchar(50) N
prao_cd Describe the PRAO code Char(3) N
prao_descp Specify the PRAO Description Varchar(50) N
IncpVoucherAllow Describe the INCPVoucher Char(1) N
IncpScrollCrAllow Describe the credit Char(1) N
IncpChallanAllow Describe the challan Char(1) N
IncpScrollPayAllow Describe the Payment Allow Char(1) N
IncpBillAllow Describe the Bill Status Char(1) N
IncpSchdAllow Describe the Short Head Char(1) N
PSBFinYear Describe the PSB Financial Year Char(9) N
PSBMonth Describe the PSB Month Tinyint(1) N
PSB_Rcpt_OB Describe the PSB Receipt Money(8) N
PSB_Pay_OB Describe the PSB Payment Money(8) N
IncpGpfGenInfAllow Describe the GPF Char(1) N
AutomationDate Describe the Automation Date Datetime(8) N
MidYrBakLogClr Describe the Mid Year Char(1) N
RBIPrAOCd Describe the PAO Code to RBI Char(3) N
RBIPrAODescp Describe the PAO Description to RBI Varchar(200) N
Pao_rpt_allow Describe the PAO Receipt Char(1) N
An entity relationship diagram is a graphical representation of an organizationâ„¢s data storage requirements. Entity relationship diagrams are abstractions of the real world, which simplify the problem to be solved while retaining its essential features. Entity relationship diagrams are used to identify the data that must be captured, stored and retrieved in order to support the business activities performed by an organization; and identify the data required to derive and report on the performance measures that an organization should be monitoring
Entity relationship diagrams have three different components:
An entity is an object that exists and is distinguishable from other objects. An entity may be concrete (a person or a book, for example) or abstract (like a holiday or a concept). In short, anything, which an organization needs to store data about Entities, represents collections of things
Entities are further described by their attributes (sometimes called data elements). These are the smallest units of data that can be described in a meaningful manner.
A relationship is an association between several entities. There are potentially three types of relationship, which can exist between two different entities:
One-to-One Relationships
This type of relationship takes place when a single occurrence of an entity is related to just one occurrence of a second entity.
One-to-Many Relationships
This type of relationship takes place when a single occurrence of an entity is related to many occurrences of a second entity.
Many-to-Many Relationships
This type of relationship takes place when many occurrences of an entity are related to many occurrences of a second entity.
Dependency of tables shown by Entity Relationship Diagram

Chapter- 7
7 Implementation
Software Interfaces uses in the software are:
¢ Operating System: Windows XP Professional
¢ VB.NET Version 8.0
¢ Microsoft SQL server 2000

7.1. Operating System
Windows XP is a line of operating system developed by Microsoft for use on general purpose computer system, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. The letters "XP" stand for eXPerience.
Windows XP is known for its improved stability and efficiency over the 9x versions of Microsoft Windows. It presents a significantly redesigned graphical user interface, a change Microsoft promoted as more user-friendly than previous versions of Windows. New software management capabilities were introduced to avoid the DLL hell that plagued older consumer-oriented 9x versions of Windows. It is also the first version of Windows to use product activation to combat software piracy, a restriction that did not sit well with some users and privacy advocates.
Windows XP Features:
¢ Built on the new Windows engine
Windows XP Professional will provide a dependable computing experience for . all business users.
¢ Windows File Protection
By safeguarding system files, Windows XP Professional mitigates many of the
Most common system failures encountered in earlier versions of Windows.
¢ Windows Installer
Will help minimize user downtime and increase system stability.
¢ Smart card support
Smart cards enhance software-only solutions such as client authentication,
Interactive logon, code signing, and secure e-mail.
¢ Windows Firewall
Reduces the risk of network and Internet-based attacks.
¢ Remote Desktop
Allows users to access all of their data and applications housed on their desktop
Computers from another computer running Windows 95 or later that is connected to their machine via a network.
7.2. Introduction to VB.NET
Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET) is a reengineering of this venerable language, which departs in significant ways from earlier versions of Visual Basic. VB.NET has a number of features that help it retain backwards compatibility with Visual Basic 6 (VB6). Other features have been added specifically to adapt Visual Basic to object-oriented programming and to the .NET platform.
VB.NET provides support in the language to find bugs early in the development process. This makes for code that is easier to maintain and programs that are more reliable. VB.NET does not support many features available in other languages (e.g., pointers) that make for unsafe code.
The goal of VB.NET is to provide a simple, safe, object-oriented, Internet-centric, high-performance language for .NET development. VB.NET is simple because there are relatively few keywords. This makes it easy to learn and easy to adapt to your specific needs.
VB.NET is considered safe because it provides support in the language to find bugs early in the development process. This makes for code that is easier to maintain and programs that are more reliable.
VB.NET provides full support for object-oriented programming. This book will explain not only how to write object-oriented programs, but will explain why object-oriented programming has become so popular. The short answer is this: programs are becoming increasingly complex, and object-oriented programming techniques help you manage that complexity.
VB.NET was developed for .NET, and .NET was designed for developing web and web-aware programs. The Internet is a primary resource in most .NET applications.
Finally, VB.NET was designed for professional high-performance programming.
Features of VB.NET
Visual Basic.NET has many new and improved language features such as inheritance, interfaces, and overloading that make it a powerful object-oriented programming language. As a Visual Basic developer, we can now create multithreaded scalable applications using explicit multithreading. Other new language features in Visual Basic .NET include structured exception handling, custom attributes, and common language specification (CLS) compliance.
¢ Common Language Specification
The CLS is a set of rules that standardizes such things as data types and how objects are exposed and interoperate. Visual Basic .NET adds several features that take advantage of the CLS. Any CLS-compliant language can use the classes, objects, and components you create in Visual Basic .NET. And you, as a Visual Basic user, can access classes, components, and objects from other CLS-compliant programming languages without worrying about language-specific differences such as data types. CLS features used by Visual Basic .NET programs include assemblies, namespaces, and attributes. These are the new features to be stated briefly:
¢ Inheritance
Visual Basic .NET supports inheritance by allowing you to define classes that serve as the basis for derived classes. Derived classes inherit and can extend the properties and methods of the base class. They can also override inherited methods with new implementations. All classes created with Visual Basic .NET are inheritable by default. Because the forms you design are really classes, you can use inheritance to define new forms based on existing ones.
¢ Exception Handling
Visual Basic .NET supports structured exception handling, using an enhanced version of the Try¦Catch¦Finally syntax supported by other languages such as C++.
Structured exception handling combines a modern control structure (similar to Select Case or While) with exceptions, protected blocks of code, and filters. Structured exception handling makes it easy to create and maintain programs with robust, comprehensive error handlers.
¢ Overloading
Overloading is the ability to define properties, methods, or procedures that have the same name but use different data types. Overloaded procedures allow you to provide as many implementations as necessary to handle different kinds of data, while giving the appearance of a single, versatile procedure.
¢ Overriding Properties and Methods
The Overrides keyword allows derived objects to override characteristics inherited from parent objects. Overridden members have the same arguments as the members inherited from the base class, but different implementations. A memberâ„¢s new implementation can call the original implementation in the parent class by preceding the member name with MyBase.
¢ Constructors and Destructors
Constructors are procedures that control initialization of new instances of a class. Conversely, destructors are methods that free system resources when a class leaves scope or is set to Nothing. Visual Basic .NET supports constructors and destructors using the Sub New and Sub Finalize procedures.
¢ Data Types
Visual Basic .NET introduces three new data types. The Char data type is an unsigned 16-bit quantity used to store Unicode characters. It is equivalent to the .NET Framework System. Char data type. The Short data type, a signed 16-bit integer, was named Integer in earlier versions of Visual Basic. The Decimal data type is a 96-bit signed integer scaled by a variable power of 10. In earlier versions of Visual Basic, it was available only within a Variant.
¢ Interfaces
Interfaces describe the properties and methods of classes, but unlike classes, do not provide implementations. The Interface statement allows you to declare interfaces, while the Implements statement lets you write code that puts the items described in the interface into practice.
¢ Delegates
Delegates objects that can call the methods of objects on your behalf are sometimes described as type-safe, object-oriented function pointers. You can use delegates to let procedures specify an event handler method that runs when an event occurs. You can also use delegates with multithreaded applications. For details, see Delegates and the AddressOf Operator.
¢ Shared Members
Shared members are properties, procedures, and fields that are shared by all instances of a class. Shared data members are useful when multiple objects need to use information that is common to all. Shared class methods can be used without first creating an object from a class.
¢ References
References allow you to use objects defined in other assemblies. In Visual Basic .NET, references point to assemblies instead of type libraries. For details, see References and the Imports Statement. Namespaces prevent naming conflicts by organizing classes, interfaces, and methods into hierarchies.
¢ Assemblies
Assemblies replace and extend the capabilities of type libraries by, describing all the required files for a particular component or application. An assembly can contain one or more namespaces.
¢ Attributes
Attributes enable you to provide additional information about program elements. For example, you can use an attribute to specify which methods in a class should be exposed when the class is used as a XML Web service. Multithreading
Visual Basic .NET allows you to write applications that can perform multiple tasks independently. A task that has the potential of holding up other tasks can execute on a separate thread, a process known as multithreading. By causing complicated tasks to run on threads that are separate from your user interface, multithreading makes your applications more responsive to user input.
7.3. Introduction to Microsoft SQL Server 2000
Microsoft SQL Server is a Structured Query Language (SQL) based, client/server relational database. Relational databases are the most effective among the different way to organize data in database. Relational database systems are am application of mathematical set theory to the problem of effectively organizing data. In a relational database data is collected into tables (called relations in relational theory).
Microsoft SQL Server (version 7.0) offers broad availability of solution tailored for business operations, data warehousing, electronic commerce and mobile computing. It provides a comprehensive platform that makes it easy to design, build, manage and use data warehousing solutions, which enable organizations to make effective business decisions based on timely and accurate information.
Features of SQL Server 2000
Microsoft® SQL Server„¢ 2000 features include:
¢ Internet Integration.
The SQL Server 2000 database engine includes integrated XML support. It also has the scalability, availability, and security features required to operate as the data storage component of the largest Web sites. The SQL Server 2000 programming model is integrated with the Windows DNA architecture for developing Web applications, and SQL Server 2000 supports features such as English Query and the Microsoft Search Service to incorporate user-friendly queries and powerful search capabilities in Web applications.
¢ Scalability and Availability.
The same database engine can be used across platforms ranging from laptop computers running Microsoft Windows® 98 through large, multiprocessor servers running Microsoft Windows 2000 Data Center Edition. SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition supports features such as federated servers, indexed views, and large memory support that allow it to scale to the performance levels required by the largest Web sites.
¢ Enterprise-Level Database Features.
The SQL Server 2000 relational database engine supports the features required to support demanding data processing environments. The database engine protects data integrity while minimizing the overhead of managing thousands of users concurrently modifying the database. SQL Server 2000 distributed queries allow you to reference data from multiple sources as if it were a part of a SQL Server 2000 database, while at the same time, the distributed transaction support protects the integrity of any updates of the distributed data. Replication allows you to also maintain multiple copies of data, while ensuring that the separate copies remain synchronized. You can replicate a set of data to multiple, mobile, disconnected users, have them work autonomously, and then merge their modifications back to the publisher.
¢ Ease of installation, deployment, and use.
SQL Server 2000 includes a set of administrative and development tools that improve upon the process of installing, deploying, managing, and using SQL Server across several sites. SQL Server 2000 also supports a standards-based programming model integrated with the Windows DNA, making the use of SQL Server databases and data warehouses a seamless part of building powerful and scalable systems. These features allow you to rapidly deliver SQL Server applications that customers can implement with a minimum of installation and administrative overhead.
¢ Data warehousing.
SQL Server 2000 includes tools for extracting and analyzing summary data for online analytical processing. SQL Server also includes tools for visually designing databases and analyzing data using English-based questions.
¢ Online Restore:
With SQL Server 2000, database administrators are able to perform a Restore operation while an instance of SQL server is running. Online restore improves the availability of SQL Server, because only the data being restored is unavailable. The rest of the database remains online and available.
¢ Fast Recovery:
A new fast recovery option improves availability of SQL server database. Administrator can reconnect to a recovering database after the transaction Log has been rolled forward.
SQL Server Enterprise Manager
Microsoft® Management Console (MMC) is a tool that presents a common interface for managing different server applications in a Microsoft Windows® network. Server applications provide a component called an MMC snap-in that presents MMC users with a user interface for managing the server application. SQL Server Enterprise Manager is the Microsoft SQL Server„¢ MMC snap-in.
SQL Server Enterprise Manager is the primary administrative tool for SQL Server and provides an MMC-compliant user interface that allows users to:
¢ Define groups of SQL Server instances.
¢ Register individual servers in a group.
¢ Configure all SQL Server options for each registered server.
¢ Create and administer all SQL Server databases, objects, logins, users, and
permissions in each registered server.
¢ Define and execute all SQL Server administrative tasks on each registered server.
¢ Design and test SQL statements, batches, and scripts interactively by invoking SQL
Query Analyzer.
¢ Invoke the various wizards defined for SQL Server.
Overview of the SQL Server Tools
Microsoft® SQL Server„¢ 2000 includes many graphical and command prompt utilities that allow users, programmers, and administrators to:
Administer and configure SQL Server.
Determine the catalog information in a copy of SQL Server.
Design and test queries for retrieving data.
Copy, import, export, and transform data.
Provide diagnostic information.
Start and stop SQL Server.
In addition to these utilities, SQL Server contains several wizards to walk administrators and programmers through the steps needed to perform more complex administrative tasks.

Chapter- 8
8. Testing
System Testing / Debugging:
In a software development project and implimentation, errors can be incurred at any stage during development. There are different techniques for detecting and eliminating errors that originate in that phase. However, no technique is perfect, and it is expected that some of the errors of the earlier phases will finally manifest themselves in the code. This is particularly true because in earlier phases of software development most of the verification techniques are manual because no executable code exists. Ultimately, these remaining errors will be reflected in the code. Hence, the code developed during the coding activity is likely to have some designing errors, in addition to errors introduced during the coding activity. Behavior can be observed, testing is the phase where the errors lingering from all the previous phases must be detected. Hence, testing performs a very critical role for quality assurance and for ensuring the reliability of software.
During testing, the program to be tested is executed with a set of test cases, and the output of the program for the test cases is evaluated to determine if the program is performing as expected. Due to its approach, dynamic testing can only ascertain the presence of errors in the program: the exact nature of the errors is not usually decided by testing. Testing forms the first step in determining the errors in a program. Clearly, the success of testing to reveal errors in code depends critically on the test cases.
Testing a large system is a very complex activity, and like any complex activity it has to be broken into smaller activities. Due to this, for a project and implimentation, incremental testing is generally performed, in which components and subsystems of the system are tested separately before integrating them to be called a complete system for system testing. This form of testing, though necessary to ensure quality for a large system, introduces new issues of how to select components for testing and how to combine them to form subsystems and systems.
Types of Testing
This document describes the approach and methodologies used by the testing group to plan, organize and manage the testing of this application. The main purpose of System Testing is to check the correctness of the system for getting the correct output; we tested the program for syntax, logical errors.
In the functional testing the structure of the program is not considered. Test cases are decided solely on the basis of requirements or specifications of the program or module and the internals of the module or the program are not considered for selection of test cases. Due it its nature, functional testing is often c
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