Mechanical Engineering Seminar Abstract And Report
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15-02-2009, 02:25 PM


Electro Discharge Machining

Introduction
The unconventional method of several specific advantages over conventional methods of machining and these promise formidable tasks to be undertaken and set a new recording in the manufacturing technology. EDM is one such machining process, which has been immense help to the manufacturing process engineers to produce intricate shapes on any conducting metal and alloy irrespective of its hardness and toughness.

CLASSIFICATION
1. Contact initiated discharge
2. Spark initiated discharge
3. Electrolytic discharge

ADVANTAGES
1. The process can be applied to all electrically conducting metal and alloyes irrespectives of their melting points, hardness, toughness, or brittleness
2. Any complicated shape that can be made on the tool can be produced on the work piece
3. Time of machining is less than conventional machining process

DISADVANTAGES
1. Power required for machining in E.D.M is very high compared to conventional process.
2. Reproduction of sharp corners is the limitation of the process.
3. Surface cracking takesplace in some materials.
Sensotronic Brake System
Sensotronic Brake System

Introduction
Energy conversion and equipment are closely related due to industrialisation and increase in population our environment is polluted vigorously. Many of the industries and fossil fuel power plant emit CO2, CO, particulate matter, heat and other poisonous gases to the atmosphere. Resulting many problems like global warming, health hazards, environmental degrading etc.

We need clean air, atmosphere and surrounding for good health and better quality of living. The energy needs are increasing due to industrial advancement higher standard of timing, increasing population etc. There is no way other than increasing the production of usable energy. But we know that every man made energy conversion has contain degrading effect on the environment. The task is to convert energy with out exceeding the limits of pollution. So every one of as has a question how to control the pollution. Various alternatives are being examined and studied about the employment of different pollution control equipment by National Environmental protection agency and environmentalist. One of the instrument which control the quantity of particulate matter is Electro-static precipitator.
Rubber Products by Calendering
Rubber Products by Calendering

Introduction
Calendering consiss of a number of rolls held in a frame work. It is an expensive piecce of equipment containing usually three rolls and products sheet with smooth surface and accurately controlled uniform thickness. The rolls are therefore carefully ground and top and bottom ones are adjustable. Vertically related to the center fixed roll. So that the thickness if the sheet can be varied. Calendering machine used in rubber industries are 3 ot 4 roll calender.

In the case of three roll calender usually the center roll is driven and upper and lower rolls are driven with the help of the center roll using gears. The three rolls are usually vertical but the modern three roll calender may have an offset top roll which assist the feeding from the feed strip. In vertical calenders pigs or dollies are used. A part from 3 roll calenders , 4 roll calender of vetical ( L inverted L , Z etc are also used. The later ones are the most modern. The vertical calenders are more easily fed manually but alternation in the secind nip affect the secind nip also. Inverted L and Z configuration calenders are used mainly for coating fabrics in both sides in one operation.

The roll used in calender machine are mode of chilled irons abnd are quite heavy and are made hollow to that stream, hot water or cold water may be circulated to maintain the correct roll temperature. Proper control of roll temperature is very important to get a good quality product to decide thickness and finish.
Super Charging
Super Charging

Introduction
The power output of an engine depends up on the amount of air indicated per unit time, the degree of utilization of this air and the thermal efficiency of the engine. The amount of air inducted per unit time can be increased by increasing the engine speed pr by increasing the engine speed or by increasing the density of air intake. The method increasing the inlet air density, called supercharging, is usually employed to increase the power output of the engine. This is done by supplying air to a pressure higher than the pressure at which the engine naturally aspirates air from the atmosphere by using a pressure boosting device called a super charger.

OBJECTS OF SUPERCHARGING
The increase in the amount of air inducted per unit time by supercharging is obtained mainly to burn a greater amount of fuel in a given engine and thus increase its power output. The objects of supercharging include one or more of the following.

1. To increase the power output for a given weight and bulk of the engine. This is important for aircraft, marine and automotive engines where weight and space are important.
2. To compensate for the loss of power due to altitude. This mainly relates to aircraft engines which lose power at an approximate rate of one percent 100 meters altitude. This is also relevant for others engines which are used at high altitudes.
Pyrometers
Pyrometers

Introduction
The Technique of measuring high temperature is known as pyrometry and the instrument employed is called pyrometer. Pyrometer is specialized type of thermometer used to measure high temperatures in the production and heat treatment of metal and alloys. Ordinary temperatures can be measured by ordinary thermometer, instead pyrometer is employed for measuring higher temperature. Any metallic surface when heated emits radiation of different wavelengths which are not visible at low temperatures but at about 5400C radiations are in shorter wavelength and are visible to eye and from colour judgement is made as to probable temperature, the colour scale is roughly as follows.

Dark red - 5400C
Red - 7000C
Bright red - 3500C
Orange - 9000C
Yellow - 10100C
White - 12050C and above

The Technique of measuring high temperature is known as pyrometry and the instrument employed is called pyrometer. Pyrometer is specialized type of thermometer used to measure high temperatures in the production and heat treatment of metal and alloys. Ordinary temperatures can be measured by ordinary thermometer, instead pyrometer is employed for measuring higher temperature. Any metallic surface when heated emits radiation of different wavelengths which are not visible at low temperatures but at about 5400C radiations are in shorter wavelength and are visible to eye and from colour judgement is made as to probable temperature, the colour scale is roughly as follows.

Dark red - 5400C
Red - 7000C
Bright red - 3500C
Orange - 9000C
Yellow - 10100C
White - 12050C and above


When a substance receives heat, change in pressure, electric resistance, radiation, thermoelectric e.m.f and or colour may takeplace. Any of these change can be used for measurement of temperature. Inorder to exercise provision control over the heat treatment and melting operation in the industry temperaturemeasuring device known as pyrometers are used. Also accurate measurement of temperature of Furnaces, molten metals and other heated materials.
Stealth Technology
Stealth Technology

Introduction
Stealth means low observable . The very basic idea of Stealth Technology in the military is to blend in with the background. It was during the World War II RADAR was first used in the warfront as an early Warning system against fleets of bombers.From then onwards the quest for a technology which could cheat the radar system arised. Engineers began looking at ways to make planes harder to track. The result of the quest ended in the most sophisticated technology- The Stealth Technology.

Stealth Technology is used in the construction of mobile military systems such as aircrafts, tanks and ships to significantly reduce their detection by an enemy, primarily by an enemy RADAR. The low observability unique characteristics gives it the unique ability to penetrate an enemy s most sophisticated defences and threaten its most valued and heavily defended targets.
Testing of Welds
Testing of Welds

Introduction
Welded joints in a welded structure are expected to possess certain service-related capabilities. Welded joints are generally required to carry loading of various types in which the weld is subjected to stress of either a simple or complex character. More over a finished weld is not always as good or as bad as it may appear to be on its surface. It is therefore necessary to find out how satisfactory or sound the weld is. For this purpose certain weld inspection and testing procedures have been discovered and standardized to estimate the expected performance of the welded structures.

The examination and test applied to welded joints range from relatively simple ones such as visual inspection of the surface of the weld which provides some information on the quality of the workmanship and presence or absence of surface defects to the more elaborate procedures carried out for the purpose of obtaining some knowledge of the behavior of the welded joint under operating conditions.
Electronic Gasoline Injection
Electronic Gasoline Injection

Introduction
Among rapidly changing new technologies concerning vehicles, the basics of fuel systems are still important and play us great a role as ever. The purpose of the fuel system in vehicle is to provide a vaporized mixture of fuel and air to the engine for combustion. The ratio of fuel air must always be maintained in correct proportion, regardless of the speed and the load on the engine. But due to the varying conditions of temperatures engine speed and load on the engine the required perfection in carbonation is difficult to attain Electronic Fuel Injection system makes it possible to obtain the appropriate air fuel ratio in accordance with the condition of the engine concerned.

In electronic fuel injection (FFI) system the controller is an electronic control module (E.C.M) or electronic control unit (E.C.U). It is also called on board computer because it is on board the car. (Also called Electronic Control Module).

Various components of the engine and fuel system send electric signals to the E.C.M. The E.C.M continuously calculates how much fuel to inject. It then opens the fuel injectors so the proper amount of fuel sprays out to produce the desired air fuel ratio. Sensors that report to the E.C.M include.

1. Engine speed
2. Throttle position
3. Intake manifold vacuum or manifold absolute pressure (MAP)
4. Engine coolant temperature
5. Amount and temperature of air entering engine
6. Amount of oxygen in exhaust gas
7. Atmospheric pressure

The ECM continuously receives all this information or data. The ECM checks this data with other data stored in look up tables in its memory. Then ECM decides when to open the injectors and for how long. The opening and closing of an injector to remain open is the injector pulse width. Suppose if more fuel is needed then the ECM increases the pulse width.
Ball Piston machines
Ball Piston machines

Introduction
From the day machines with reciprocating piston has come into existence efforts have been undertaken to improve the efficiency of the machines .The main drawbacks of reciprocating machines are the considerably large number of moving parts due to the presence of valves , greater inertial loads which reduces dynamic balance and leakage and friction due to the presence of piston rings . The invention urges has reached on Rotary machines.

One main advantage to be gained with a rotary machine is reduction of inertial loads and better dynamic balance. The Wankel rotary engine has been the most successful example to date , but sealing problems contributed to its decline . There , came the ideas of ball piston machines . In the compressor and pump arena, reduction of reciprocating mass in positive displacement machines has always been an objective, and has been achieved most effectively by lobe, gear, sliding vane, liquid ring, and screw compressors and pumps , but at the cost of hardware complexity or higher losses. Lobe, gear, and screw machines have relatively complex rotating element shapes and friction losses. Sliding vane machines have sealing and friction issues . Liquid ring compressors have fluid turbulence losses.

The new design concept of the Ball Piston Engine uses a different approach that has many advantages, including low part count and simplicity of design , very low friction , low heat loss, high power to weight ratio , perfect dynamic balance , and cycle thermodynamic tailoring capability.
Magnetic Bearing
Magnetic Bearing

Introduction
A bearing is a machine element which support another moving machine element. It permits relative motion between the contact surfaces of the members, while carrying a load. Two main types of bearing are sliding contact bearing and rolling contact bearing. In these types of bearings, by relative motion between the contact surfaces, a certain amount of power wasted in overcome frictional resistance and thus cause rapid wear. Fluid added to the space between the bearing and Journal to overcome these difficulties, a new bearing introduced ie Magnetic Bearings.

Magnetic bearings are designed to support rotating and linear moving machinery elements without contact with rotor thus accomplished by electro-magnet (bearing) will attract a ferromagnetic material (rotor) using this principle rotor can be suspended in magnetic field which is generated by bearing. There are three components that make up magnetic bearing, those are actuators, sensors and control system. The main advantage of magnet bearing are, no lubrication, free abrasions, free of wear maintenance good thermal isolation of the rotor and stator and small bearing loss.
Intelligent Vehicles and Automated Highways
Intelligent Vehicles and Automated Highways

Introduction
Growing traffic congestion is choking most of the world s overloaded roads. Intelligent vehicles and automated highways could solve this problem. Anyone who drives to work in any metropolitan areas knows that highway traffic congestion is getting worse. Average travel speed on a crowded commuter corridors near large cities drop to about 36 miles per hour at rush hour, leading annually to some 5 billion collective hours of delay and estimated productivity loses of about 50 billion dollars nationwide. Meanwhile the cars. trucks and buses caught in chronic traffic janis waste vast amounts of fi!el as they emit copious quantities of exhaust. Although the public may be loathe to face it, the unimpeded mobility of the automobile is threatened by traffic choked roadways.

The traditional solution has been to construct more and larger roadways, but that is no longer seen as viable option by transportation planners due to high fmanéial, social and environmental costs of such giant project and implimentations. Only other method was the efficient use of the existing road network using advanced road technology. But the diverse group that comprise the countries transportation community such as federal, state and local govermnent agencies, industries, academia, trade associations and consumer and public-interest groups where always on intense debate as to what form that system should take.

It was needed to better meet the seemingly unsatisfiable demand or the freedom and mobility provided by cars and other vehicles. For this it was necessary to find ways to operate the existing system more efficiently and effectively. One approach would be to develop automated highways that features a lane or a set of lanes on which vehicles equipped with specialised sensors and wireless communication systems could travel under perhaps in small convoys or platoons. Vehicles could be temporarily linked together in communication networks, which would allow the continuous exchange of information about speed, acceleration, braking, obstacles and so forth. Small networks of computers installed in vehicles and along selected roadways could closely co-ordinate vehicles and harmonise the traffic flow maximising highway capacity and passenger safety.
Liquid Hydrogen as an Aviation Fuel
Liquid Hydrogen as an Aviation Fuel

Introduction
Fossil fuels are getting exhausted paving way for an energy crisis. So an alternate fuel that is a beneficiary and relevant substitute for the present day fuel are to be acknowledged. One such fuel is liquid hydrogen.

. A very supportive study of various considerations and modification of different aircraft technologies that incorporate this new generation fuel is made. Liquid hydrogen is a safe fuel as they are less susceptible to damage. These along with many other advantageous reasons add up for the convenient common usage of liquid hydrogen

An ordinary turbo jet engine can be modified to work on LH2.LH2 was supplied to the engine by a single stage, engine driven by a centrifugal pump, which is operated with a slight net positive suction head to prevent cavitations prior to injection into the combustion chamber, the LH2 was passed through a counter flow heat exchanger where it was warmed by air bed from the compressor discharge. An axial, tube type injection used, which is as short as about one fourth the length of those required for conventional hydro carbon fuels. The hydrogen is pumped to 600 psi and while passing through heat exchanger it was heated to about 1800F. The hot hydrogen gas was then expanded through 18 turbine stages, which were divided into two sections of 6 and 12 stages each, arranged so as to balance the thrust loads.

Hydrogen gas from the turbine exhaust passed through injectors into an annular combustion chamber where it is mixed with air discharged from the fan and burned at about 2000F. The combustion gases then flows through the heat exchanger to provide the energy required by the hydrogen to drive the turbine. Excess hydrogen, not burned upstream of the heat exchanger was bypassed to an afterburner just downstream of heat exchanger. A convergent divergent nozzle completes the Model 304 Engine Cycle.
Moulds in Casting of Plastics and Thermoforming
Moulds in Casting of Plastics and Thermoforming

Introduction
Plastics today are larger serving as substitute material in the field of tooling and prototype parts but are being used as engineering materials in their own lights and in many applications, they are doing better job then any other material could do, some authorities claim that the rapid advancement of plastic tooling would have been impossible without the versatility of the epoxyresin. Plastic tooling offers several advantages over conventional metal tooling. These includes:
1. Lowest cost
2. Less time.
3. Light weight, easily handled and used.
4. Easy modification for design changes and rework.
Camless engine with elctromechanical valve actuator
Camless engine with elctromechanical valve actuator

Introduction
The cam has been an integral part of the IC engine from its invention. The cam controls the breathing channels of the IC engines, that is, the valves through which the fuel air mixture (in SI engines) or air (in CI engines) is supplied and exhaust driven out.

Besieged by demands for better fuel economy, more power, and less pollution, motor engineers around the world are pursuing a radical camless design that promises to deliver the internal-combustion engine s biggest efficiency improvement in years. The aim of all this effort is liberation from a constraint that has handcuffed performance since the birth of the internal-combustion engine more than a century ago. Camless engine technology is soon to be a reality for commercial vehicles. In the camless valvetrain, the valve motion is controlled directly by a valve actuator - there s no camshaft or connecting mechanisms. Precise electronic circuit controls the operation of the mechanism, thus bringing in more flexibility and accuracy in opening and closing the valves. The seminar and presentation looks at the working of the electronically controlled camless engine with electro-mechanical valve actuator, its general features and benefits over conventional engine.

The engines powering today s vehicles, whether they burn gasoline or diesel fuel, rely on a system of valves to admit fuel and air to the cylinders and to let exhaust gases escape after combustion. Rotating steel camshafts with precision-machined egg-shaped lobes, or cams, are the hard-tooled brains of the system. They push open the valves at the proper time and guide their closure, typically through an arrangement of pushrods, rocker arms, and other hardware. Stiff springs return the valves to their closed position.
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
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sn1467
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Posts: 4
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28-03-2009, 09:49 AM

(15-02-2009, 02:25 PM)remshad_m Wrote: Electro Discharge Machining

Introduction
The unconventional method of several specific advantages over conventional methods of machining and these promise formidable tasks to be undertaken and set a new recording in the manufacturing technology. EDM is one such machining process, which has been immense help to the manufacturing process engineers to produce intricate shapes on any conducting metal and alloy irrespective of its hardness and toughness.

CLASSIFICATION
1. Contact initiated discharge
2. Spark initiated discharge
3. Electrolytic discharge

ADVANTAGES
1. The process can be applied to all electrically conducting metal and alloyes irrespectives of their melting points, hardness, toughness, or brittleness
2. Any complicated shape that can be made on the tool can be produced on the work piece
3. Time of machining is less than conventional machining process

DISADVANTAGES
1. Power required for machining in E.D.M is very high compared to conventional process.
2. Reproduction of sharp corners is the limitation of the process.
3. Surface cracking takesplace in some materials.
Sensotronic Brake System
Sensotronic Brake System

Introduction
Energy conversion and equipment are closely related due to industrialisation and increase in population our environment is polluted vigorously. Many of the industries and fossil fuel power plant emit CO2, CO, particulate matter, heat and other poisonous gases to the atmosphere. Resulting many problems like global warming, health hazards, environmental degrading etc.

We need clean air, atmosphere and surrounding for good health and better quality of living. The energy needs are increasing due to industrial advancement higher standard of timing, increasing population etc. There is no way other than increasing the production of usable energy. But we know that every man made energy conversion has contain degrading effect on the environment. The task is to convert energy with out exceeding the limits of pollution. So every one of as has a question how to control the pollution. Various alternatives are being examined and studied about the employment of different pollution control equipment by National Environmental protection agency and environmentalist. One of the instrument which control the quantity of particulate matter is Electro-static precipitator.
Rubber Products by Calendering
Rubber Products by Calendering

Introduction
Calendering consiss of a number of rolls held in a frame work. It is an expensive piecce of equipment containing usually three rolls and products sheet with smooth surface and accurately controlled uniform thickness. The rolls are therefore carefully ground and top and bottom ones are adjustable. Vertically related to the center fixed roll. So that the thickness if the sheet can be varied. Calendering machine used in rubber industries are 3 ot 4 roll calender.

In the case of three roll calender usually the center roll is driven and upper and lower rolls are driven with the help of the center roll using gears. The three rolls are usually vertical but the modern three roll calender may have an offset top roll which assist the feeding from the feed strip. In vertical calenders pigs or dollies are used. A part from 3 roll calenders , 4 roll calender of vetical ( L inverted L , Z etc are also used. The later ones are the most modern. The vertical calenders are more easily fed manually but alternation in the secind nip affect the secind nip also. Inverted L and Z configuration calenders are used mainly for coating fabrics in both sides in one operation.

The roll used in calender machine are mode of chilled irons abnd are quite heavy and are made hollow to that stream, hot water or cold water may be circulated to maintain the correct roll temperature. Proper control of roll temperature is very important to get a good quality product to decide thickness and finish.
Super Charging
Super Charging

Introduction
The power output of an engine depends up on the amount of air indicated per unit time, the degree of utilization of this air and the thermal efficiency of the engine. The amount of air inducted per unit time can be increased by increasing the engine speed pr by increasing the engine speed or by increasing the density of air intake. The method increasing the inlet air density, called supercharging, is usually employed to increase the power output of the engine. This is done by supplying air to a pressure higher than the pressure at which the engine naturally aspirates air from the atmosphere by using a pressure boosting device called a super charger.

OBJECTS OF SUPERCHARGING
The increase in the amount of air inducted per unit time by supercharging is obtained mainly to burn a greater amount of fuel in a given engine and thus increase its power output. The objects of supercharging include one or more of the following.

1. To increase the power output for a given weight and bulk of the engine. This is important for aircraft, marine and automotive engines where weight and space are important.
2. To compensate for the loss of power due to altitude. This mainly relates to aircraft engines which lose power at an approximate rate of one percent 100 meters altitude. This is also relevant for others engines which are used at high altitudes.
Pyrometers
Pyrometers

Introduction
The Technique of measuring high temperature is known as pyrometry and the instrument employed is called pyrometer. Pyrometer is specialized type of thermometer used to measure high temperatures in the production and heat treatment of metal and alloys. Ordinary temperatures can be measured by ordinary thermometer, instead pyrometer is employed for measuring higher temperature. Any metallic surface when heated emits radiation of different wavelengths which are not visible at low temperatures but at about 5400C radiations are in shorter wavelength and are visible to eye and from colour judgement is made as to probable temperature, the colour scale is roughly as follows.

Dark red - 5400C
Red - 7000C
Bright red - 3500C
Orange - 9000C
Yellow - 10100C
White - 12050C and above

The Technique of measuring high temperature is known as pyrometry and the instrument employed is called pyrometer. Pyrometer is specialized type of thermometer used to measure high temperatures in the production and heat treatment of metal and alloys. Ordinary temperatures can be measured by ordinary thermometer, instead pyrometer is employed for measuring higher temperature. Any metallic surface when heated emits radiation of different wavelengths which are not visible at low temperatures but at about 5400C radiations are in shorter wavelength and are visible to eye and from colour judgement is made as to probable temperature, the colour scale is roughly as follows.

Dark red - 5400C
Red - 7000C
Bright red - 3500C
Orange - 9000C
Yellow - 10100C
White - 12050C and above


When a substance receives heat, change in pressure, electric resistance, radiation, thermoelectric e.m.f and or colour may takeplace. Any of these change can be used for measurement of temperature. Inorder to exercise provision control over the heat treatment and melting operation in the industry temperaturemeasuring device known as pyrometers are used. Also accurate measurement of temperature of Furnaces, molten metals and other heated materials.
Stealth Technology
Stealth Technology

Introduction
Stealth means low observable . The very basic idea of Stealth Technology in the military is to blend in with the background. It was during the World War II RADAR was first used in the warfront as an early Warning system against fleets of bombers.From then onwards the quest for a technology which could cheat the radar system arised. Engineers began looking at ways to make planes harder to track. The result of the quest ended in the most sophisticated technology- The Stealth Technology.

Stealth Technology is used in the construction of mobile military systems such as aircrafts, tanks and ships to significantly reduce their detection by an enemy, primarily by an enemy RADAR. The low observability unique characteristics gives it the unique ability to penetrate an enemy s most sophisticated defences and threaten its most valued and heavily defended targets.
Testing of Welds
Testing of Welds

Introduction
Welded joints in a welded structure are expected to possess certain service-related capabilities. Welded joints are generally required to carry loading of various types in which the weld is subjected to stress of either a simple or complex character. More over a finished weld is not always as good or as bad as it may appear to be on its surface. It is therefore necessary to find out how satisfactory or sound the weld is. For this purpose certain weld inspection and testing procedures have been discovered and standardized to estimate the expected performance of the welded structures.

The examination and test applied to welded joints range from relatively simple ones such as visual inspection of the surface of the weld which provides some information on the quality of the workmanship and presence or absence of surface defects to the more elaborate procedures carried out for the purpose of obtaining some knowledge of the behavior of the welded joint under operating conditions.
Electronic Gasoline Injection
Electronic Gasoline Injection

Introduction
Among rapidly changing new technologies concerning vehicles, the basics of fuel systems are still important and play us great a role as ever. The purpose of the fuel system in vehicle is to provide a vaporized mixture of fuel and air to the engine for combustion. The ratio of fuel air must always be maintained in correct proportion, regardless of the speed and the load on the engine. But due to the varying conditions of temperatures engine speed and load on the engine the required perfection in carbonation is difficult to attain Electronic Fuel Injection system makes it possible to obtain the appropriate air fuel ratio in accordance with the condition of the engine concerned.

In electronic fuel injection (FFI) system the controller is an electronic control module (E.C.M) or electronic control unit (E.C.U). It is also called on board computer because it is on board the car. (Also called Electronic Control Module).

Various components of the engine and fuel system send electric signals to the E.C.M. The E.C.M continuously calculates how much fuel to inject. It then opens the fuel injectors so the proper amount of fuel sprays out to produce the desired air fuel ratio. Sensors that report to the E.C.M include.

1. Engine speed
2. Throttle position
3. Intake manifold vacuum or manifold absolute pressure (MAP)
4. Engine coolant temperature
5. Amount and temperature of air entering engine
6. Amount of oxygen in exhaust gas
7. Atmospheric pressure

The ECM continuously receives all this information or data. The ECM checks this data with other data stored in look up tables in its memory. Then ECM decides when to open the injectors and for how long. The opening and closing of an injector to remain open is the injector pulse width. Suppose if more fuel is needed then the ECM increases the pulse width.
Ball Piston machines
Ball Piston machines

Introduction
From the day machines with reciprocating piston has come into existence efforts have been undertaken to improve the efficiency of the machines .The main drawbacks of reciprocating machines are the considerably large number of moving parts due to the presence of valves , greater inertial loads which reduces dynamic balance and leakage and friction due to the presence of piston rings . The invention urges has reached on Rotary machines.

One main advantage to be gained with a rotary machine is reduction of inertial loads and better dynamic balance. The Wankel rotary engine has been the most successful example to date , but sealing problems contributed to its decline . There , came the ideas of ball piston machines . In the compressor and pump arena, reduction of reciprocating mass in positive displacement machines has always been an objective, and has been achieved most effectively by lobe, gear, sliding vane, liquid ring, and screw compressors and pumps , but at the cost of hardware complexity or higher losses. Lobe, gear, and screw machines have relatively complex rotating element shapes and friction losses. Sliding vane machines have sealing and friction issues . Liquid ring compressors have fluid turbulence losses.

The new design concept of the Ball Piston Engine uses a different approach that has many advantages, including low part count and simplicity of design , very low friction , low heat loss, high power to weight ratio , perfect dynamic balance , and cycle thermodynamic tailoring capability.
Magnetic Bearing
Magnetic Bearing

Introduction
A bearing is a machine element which support another moving machine element. It permits relative motion between the contact surfaces of the members, while carrying a load. Two main types of bearing are sliding contact bearing and rolling contact bearing. In these types of bearings, by relative motion between the contact surfaces, a certain amount of power wasted in overcome frictional resistance and thus cause rapid wear. Fluid added to the space between the bearing and Journal to overcome these difficulties, a new bearing introduced ie Magnetic Bearings.

Magnetic bearings are designed to support rotating and linear moving machinery elements without contact with rotor thus accomplished by electro-magnet (bearing) will attract a ferromagnetic material (rotor) using this principle rotor can be suspended in magnetic field which is generated by bearing. There are three components that make up magnetic bearing, those are actuators, sensors and control system. The main advantage of magnet bearing are, no lubrication, free abrasions, free of wear maintenance good thermal isolation of the rotor and stator and small bearing loss.
Intelligent Vehicles and Automated Highways
Intelligent Vehicles and Automated Highways

Introduction
Growing traffic congestion is choking most of the world s overloaded roads. Intelligent vehicles and automated highways could solve this problem. Anyone who drives to work in any metropolitan areas knows that highway traffic congestion is getting worse. Average travel speed on a crowded commuter corridors near large cities drop to about 36 miles per hour at rush hour, leading annually to some 5 billion collective hours of delay and estimated productivity loses of about 50 billion dollars nationwide. Meanwhile the cars. trucks and buses caught in chronic traffic janis waste vast amounts of fi!el as they emit copious quantities of exhaust. Although the public may be loathe to face it, the unimpeded mobility of the automobile is threatened by traffic choked roadways.

The traditional solution has been to construct more and larger roadways, but that is no longer seen as viable option by transportation planners due to high fmanéial, social and environmental costs of such giant project and implimentations. Only other method was the efficient use of the existing road network using advanced road technology. But the diverse group that comprise the countries transportation community such as federal, state and local govermnent agencies, industries, academia, trade associations and consumer and public-interest groups where always on intense debate as to what form that system should take.

It was needed to better meet the seemingly unsatisfiable demand or the freedom and mobility provided by cars and other vehicles. For this it was necessary to find ways to operate the existing system more efficiently and effectively. One approach would be to develop automated highways that features a lane or a set of lanes on which vehicles equipped with specialised sensors and wireless communication systems could travel under perhaps in small convoys or platoons. Vehicles could be temporarily linked together in communication networks, which would allow the continuous exchange of information about speed, acceleration, braking, obstacles and so forth. Small networks of computers installed in vehicles and along selected roadways could closely co-ordinate vehicles and harmonise the traffic flow maximising highway capacity and passenger safety.
Liquid Hydrogen as an Aviation Fuel
Liquid Hydrogen as an Aviation Fuel

Introduction
Fossil fuels are getting exhausted paving way for an energy crisis. So an alternate fuel that is a beneficiary and relevant substitute for the present day fuel are to be acknowledged. One such fuel is liquid hydrogen.

. A very supportive study of various considerations and modification of different aircraft technologies that incorporate this new generation fuel is made. Liquid hydrogen is a safe fuel as they are less susceptible to damage. These along with many other advantageous reasons add up for the convenient common usage of liquid hydrogen

An ordinary turbo jet engine can be modified to work on LH2.LH2 was supplied to the engine by a single stage, engine driven by a centrifugal pump, which is operated with a slight net positive suction head to prevent cavitations prior to injection into the combustion chamber, the LH2 was passed through a counter flow heat exchanger where it was warmed by air bed from the compressor discharge. An axial, tube type injection used, which is as short as about one fourth the length of those required for conventional hydro carbon fuels. The hydrogen is pumped to 600 psi and while passing through heat exchanger it was heated to about 1800F. The hot hydrogen gas was then expanded through 18 turbine stages, which were divided into two sections of 6 and 12 stages each, arranged so as to balance the thrust loads.

Hydrogen gas from the turbine exhaust passed through injectors into an annular combustion chamber where it is mixed with air discharged from the fan and burned at about 2000F. The combustion gases then flows through the heat exchanger to provide the energy required by the hydrogen to drive the turbine. Excess hydrogen, not burned upstream of the heat exchanger was bypassed to an afterburner just downstream of heat exchanger. A convergent divergent nozzle completes the Model 304 Engine Cycle.
Moulds in Casting of Plastics and Thermoforming
Moulds in Casting of Plastics and Thermoforming

Introduction
Plastics today are larger serving as substitute material in the field of tooling and prototype parts but are being used as engineering materials in their own lights and in many applications, they are doing better job then any other material could do, some authorities claim that the rapid advancement of plastic tooling would have been impossible without the versatility of the epoxyresin. Plastic tooling offers several advantages over conventional metal tooling. These includes:
1. Lowest cost
2. Less time.
3. Light weight, easily handled and used.
4. Easy modification for design changes and rework.
Camless engine with elctromechanical valve actuator
Camless engine with elctromechanical valve actuator

Introduction
The cam has been an integral part of the IC engine from its invention. The cam controls the breathing channels of the IC engines, that is, the valves through which the fuel air mixture (in SI engines) or air (in CI engines) is supplied and exhaust driven out.

Besieged by demands for better fuel economy, more power, and less pollution, motor engineers around the world are pursuing a radical camless design that promises to deliver the internal-combustion engine s biggest efficiency improvement in years. The aim of all this effort is liberation from a constraint that has handcuffed performance since the birth of the internal-combustion engine more than a century ago. Camless engine technology is soon to be a reality for commercial vehicles. In the camless valvetrain, the valve motion is controlled directly by a valve actuator - there s no camshaft or connecting mechanisms. Precise electronic circuit controls the operation of the mechanism, thus bringing in more flexibility and accuracy in opening and closing the valves. The seminar and presentation looks at the working of the electronically controlled camless engine with electro-mechanical valve actuator, its general features and benefits over conventional engine.

The engines powering today s vehicles, whether they burn gasoline or diesel fuel, rely on a system of valves to admit fuel and air to the cylinders and to let exhaust gases escape after combustion. Rotating steel camshafts with precision-machined egg-shaped lobes, or cams, are the hard-tooled brains of the system. They push open the valves at the proper time and guide their closure, typically through an arrangement of pushrods, rocker arms, and other hardware. Stiff springs return the valves to their closed position.
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