Mechanical Engineering Seminar Abstract And Report 1
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Posts: 3,048
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#1
15-02-2009, 02:26 PM


Oil Drilling

Introduction
Oil and natural gas furnish about three-fourths of our energy needs, fueling our homes, work places, factories and transportation systems. Using variety of methods, on land and at sea, small crews of specialized workers search for geologic formations that are likely to contain oil and gas. Seismic prospecting - a technique based on measuring the time it takes sound waves to travel through underground formations and return to surface-has revolutionized oil and gas exploration.

After finding the presence of oil beneath the ground, the most important conventional technique known as Rotary Drilling is employed and oil is extracted from the oil well. Advanced techniques like Horizontal Directional Drilling and Drilling with Laser can also be employed in Oil drilling.
Airbag
Airbag

Introduction
For years, the trusty seatbelts provided the sole form of passive restraints in our car. There were debates about their safety, especially related to children, but over time, much of the country adopted mandatory seat-belt laws. Statistics have show that seat-belts have saved thousands of lives that might have been lost in collisions.

Airbags have been under development for many years. The first commercial airbags appeared in automobiles in the 1980s.They are a proven safety device that save a growing number of lives, and prevent a large number of head and chest injuries. They are reducing driver deaths by 14 percent and passenger bags reduce deaths by about 11 percent.

People who use seat-belts think they do not need airbags. But they do. Airbags and lap/shoulder belts work together as a system, and one without the other isn t as effective. Deaths are 12 percent lower among drivers with belts and 9 percent lower among belted passengers.

Since model year, all new cars have been required to have airbags on both driver and passenger sides. Light trucks came under the rule in 1999.Newer than steering-wheel-mounted or dashboard-mounted bags are seat-mounted door-mounted and window airbags. Airbags are subject of serious government and industry researches and tests.

Airbags can cause some unintended adverse effects. Nearly all of these are minor injuries like bruises and abrasions that are more than offset by the lives airbags are saving.

You can eliminate this risk, and position is what counts. Serious inflation injuries occur primarily because of peoples position when airbags first begin inflating.

Before looking at the specifics, let s review our knowledge of the laws of motion. We know that moving objects have momentum. Unless an outside force acts on an object the object will continue to move in its present speed and direction. Cars consist of several objects including the vehicle itself, loose object in the car and of course the passengers itself. If these objects are not restrained, they will continue moving at whatever speed the car is traveling at, even if the car is stopped by collision.

Stopping an objects momentum requires force acting over a period of time. When a car crashes the force required to stop an object is very great because the car s momentum has changed instantly while the passengers has not. The goal of any supplement restraint system is to help stop the passengers while doing as little damage to him or her as possible.

What an airbag want to do is to slow down the passenger s speed to zero with little or no damage .The constraints that it has to work are huge .The airbag has the space between the passenger and the steering wheel or dashboard and a fraction of a second to work with. Even that tiny amount of space and time is valuable.
Heat Pipe
Heat Pipe

Introduction
A heat pipe is a simple device that can quickly transfer heat from one point to another. They are often referred to as the superconductors of heat as they possess an extra ordinary heat transfer capacity & rate with almost no heat loss[6].The idea of heat pipes was first suggested by R.S.Gaugler in1942. However, it was not until 1962, when G.M.Grover invented it, that its remarkable properties were appreciated & serious development began. Initialy Grover was interested in the development of high temperature heat pipe employing liquid metal working fluids. Shortly after Grover s publication work was started on liquid metal heat pipes buy Dunn at Harwell and Neu and Busse at Ispra Interest in heat pipe concept developed rapidly both for space and terrestrial applications. Working fluids used were melts, water, ammonia, acetone, alcohol, nitrogen and helium. At the same time theory of heat pipe become better understood; the most important contribution to this theoretical understanding was the paper by Cotter in 1965.in 1969 Cheung lists 80 references; in 1970 Chishlom in his book cites 149 references, and by 1976 the Nel Heat pipe Bibliography contained 544 references.

The third international Heat Pipe conference held in 1978 in [5] Palo Alto, California, was sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Sixty five papers were included in the proceedings. Flowing the trend of approximately 3 year intervals the fourth International Heat Pipe Conference was held in 1981 in London the proceedings contain almost 70 papers and of particular note is the contribution made to heat pipe technology during the past 3-4 years in Japan particularly application in to electronics and energy conservation by 1977 it had become established as a most useful device in mundane applications, as well as retaining its more glamorous status in spacecraft temperature control. Seventh International Heat Pipe Conference was held in China in 1992.

The technology of heat pipe is based on thermodynamic cycle of evaporation and condensation. It consists of a sealed aluminum or copper container whose inner surfaces have a capillary wicking material [2]. The wick provides the capillary driving force to return the condensate to the evaporator. The quality and type of wick usually determines the performance of the heat pipe.
Valvetronic Engine Technology
Valvetronic Engine Technology

Introduction
One of the latest and interesting innovations in the field is the Valvetronic Engine Technology from BMW. The 316ti compact is the first production car in the world featuring an engine controlled by VALVETRONIC air supply. Accordingly, the VALVETRONIC engine no longer requires a throttle butterfly, which has quite literally restricted the free ventilation of the internal combustion engine ever since its invention.

Now VALVETRONIC replaces this conventional function by infinitely variable intake valve lift, offering a quantum leap in technology quite comparable to the changeover from the carburetor to fuel injection. And at the same time clearly proves the outstanding competence and innovative power of BMW s engineers, VALVETRONIC going back to a BMW patent and manufactured exclusively on BMW s own machines and facilities.
Sensotronic brake control
Sensotronic brake control

Introduction
Recently, automotive industry pays more attention on the improvement of the safety and comfort of their vehicle models. The new car model of Mercedes- Benz SL 500 justifies this, by incorporating the new technological innovations like Active body suspension (ABS), Electronic Stability Program (ESP), Sensotronic brake control (SBC) etc. Sensotronic brake control is an innovative electro hydraulic brake system which gives maximum safety and comfort on braking.

This Seminar illustrates mechanism and performance characteristic of Sensotronic brake control with the aid of the theory and mechanism of a common hydraulic brake system. In SBC, various factors while braking such as wheel speed, braking force for each wheel, steering angle etc are senses by electronic means. With electronic impulses are used to pass drivers braking commands onto a micro computer, which processes various sensor signal simultaneously, and depends on particular driving situation, calculates optimum pressure for each wheel. As a result SBC offers even greater active safety then conventional braking systems when braking in a corner and slippery surface
Tyre Threading
Tyre Threading

Introduction
One of the most important parts of an automobile is the wheel and tyre. The importance of wheels and tyres in the automobile is obvious. Without the engine the car may be towed, but even that is not possible without the wheels and tyres. The wheel along with the tyre has to take the vehicle load, provide a cushioning effect and cope with the steering control. A tyre is a cushion provided with an automobile wheel. It consists of mainly the outer tyre and the inner tube. The air inside the tube carries the entire load and provides the cushion.

The functions of a tyre are 1. To support the vehicle load 2. To provide cushion against shocks 3. To transmit driving and braking forces on the road 4. To provide cornering power for smooth steering The thread design is one major factor aspect of tyre design. It determines the terrain adaptability of the tyre. The safety of the vehicle and the occupants depend a lot on the health of the tyre and its design In conventional petrol engines, when the accelerator pedal is pressed, the throttle butterfly opens to allow fresh air to come in. The fuel injection system measures the mass of air entering and injects the required amount of fuel.
Tip Tronic Gear transmission
Tip Tronic Gear transmission

Introduction
The gear has been around almost as long as the car itself. In the yearly days where crash boxes and you have double de-clutch to get a gear. Nowadays the changing in from one gear to another is very smooth indeed and the clutch is light and responsive. Tip Tronic transmission is the latest innovation in the field of automatic power transmission systems, which combines the both worlds of transmissions, manual and automatic. In this mode tiptronic offers a choice of five different gear patterns ranging from economy to sport Porsche introduced tiptronic transmission in their sports cars.
Thermoacoustic Refrigerator
Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Introduction
In 1987 an international group of scientists and Government Officials established the Montreal protocol, an agreement to control the use and release of CFC and to schedule a time frame for eliminating their production. This agreement is a historic step in the on going process of building consensus regarding environmental impact of CFC. Both the Montreal protocol and provisions for 1990 clean Air Act specify schedules for phasing out CFC production by year 2000. This forced a new wave of research and development in refrigeration technologies. Existing technologies are being adapted to new chemicals, processes are being refined to become more energy efficient, and innovative approaches to refrigeration are being tested
Telematics
Telematics

Introduction
The word Telematics is an amalgamation of the German words Telekomunikaton (telecommunication) and infomatik (information). It is the blending of computers and wireless telecommunications technologies, ostensibly the goal of efficiently conveying information over vast networks to improve a host of business functions or government-related public services. The most notable example of Telematics may be the Internet itself, since it depends on a number of computer networks connected globally through telecommunication backbones. Telematics is the combination of telecommunications and new information technology. It has both a hardware component, such as cabling, computers, digitalisation and application components, and incorporates services provided by this new combination of telecommunication and information technology.

Telematics gives four new types of opportunity in the field of of information Access to large quantities of information Access to information of higher quality Access to information over any distance, including global distances Very rapid access to information These new opportunities can be exploited to create new processes, new products and synergies where a combination of inputs produces a bigger and better result than would be expected from looking at the sum of the individual parts. All of the Telematics-based services can be used to enhance the role of the city in the global economy of the future. At the same tune they can also be used to create a better quality of life for those living and working there.

Telematics provides potential for reducing the number of kilometres driven by vehicles in urban areas by providing improved access to and quality of, public transport by providing information on congestion and by regulating the private car in the inner city. In addition to environmental gains, Telematics can also produce efficiency gains by reducing traffic congestion. The term telematics has evolved to refer to automobile systems that combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking and other wireless communications for automatic roadside assistance and remote diagnostics. Telematics, a word coined from telecommunications and informatics (meaning information processing), describes a broad field of different technologies to assist in the management of traffic needs, road transport and travel information and planning) and traffic control. With respect to automobiles, telematics refers to the convergence of wireless systems global positioning, and onboard automotive electronics.
Space shuttles
Space shuttles

Introduction
Previously, all ventures in to space were achieved with giant rockets which, after a certain amount of time , were directed back in to the earth s atmosphere to be reduced to a cinder by the enormous heat of re entry -after the crew and their capsule had been ejected virtually all of that tremendously expensive equipment was destroyed after only one use. The shuttle, however, to quote to a National Aeronautics And Space Administration officials , is the first craft to be launched like a rocket, haul like a truck and land like an aero plane .

It goes in to the orbit round the earth taking in to the space scientists, artificial satellites, complete laboratories and equipment then returns to its base ready to repeat the exercise time and time again. But the development of such a bold project and implimentation has not come cheaply. The programme has already cost many billions of dollars and whole new manufacturing process have had to pioneered. New systems in aviation- Avionics - have been developed: shuttle s computers can handle all her manoeuvres with out human assistance ,even the most hazardous re-entry. Today four space shuttles are being used namely 1. Columbia 2. Discovery 3. Atlantis 4. Endeavour
Radar Guns and Laser radar Guns
Radar Guns and Laser radar Guns

Introduction
This is the age of speed. We can see people zipping down the highways at unimaginable speed. Long before the invention of radar guns in 1970 s and laser speed guns in 1990 s the police had a very tedious job in detecting those vehicles which where driven at over speed. The radar gun emits microwaves and works on the principle of radar where as the laser gun emits infrared rays and gives more accurate readings than the radar gun. The invention of the radar guns and the laser guns have proved to be a great blessing to the police patrol in determining the speed of vehicles.
Emission Control on IC Engine
Emission Control on IC Engine

Introduction
The pollusion problems in our country are increasing day by day. Euro 2000 norms came to reduce the pollusion problems. Now a day LPG vehicles are more preferred due to this reason.

Atmospheric pollusion from automobiles mainly occured from the fuel tank, the carburattor, the crank case and the exhaust system. One of the main method to reduce pollusion from engine is to introduce positive crankcase ventilation valve (PCV valve) in between the crankcase and intake manifold.

Other methods to reduce pollusion from different parts are 1. Closed crankcase ventilation 2 Fuel tank and carburattor ventilation 3. Re-designing the engine a. Combustion chamber b. Cooling system c. Fuel supply system d. Ignition system 4. Treating the exhaust gases to reduce pollutants 5. Exhaust gas analysis
Abresive Jet Machine
Abresive Jet Machine

Introduction
It is a newly developed technology used in industrial countries. This is adopted for machining operations.

Features In this machine a high velocity of abrasive stream is used for machining. The abrasive particle have a vibration of about 50 hertz is mixed with high pressure gas or air in the mixing chamber. Then the stream is emerges through a small nozzle mounted on a fixture to the work piece. Variable in abrasive jet machine The variables that influence the rate of metal removal and accuracy of machining in this process are :

1. Carrier gas 2. Shape of cut 3. Nozzle design 4. Work material 5. Type of abrasive 6. Stand of distance 7. Size of abrasive grain 8. Velocity of the abrasive jets 9. Mean of abrasive particle/unit volume of the carrier gas

Advantages

1. Ability to cut fragile, brittle or heat sensitive material without damage. 2. Ability to cut intricate holes in material of any hardness 3. Low capital cost

Disadvantages

1. Slow material removal rate 2. Stray cutting and hence accuracy is not good. 3. Embedding of abrasive in the work piece. 4. Abrasive powder cannot be refused.
Green Engine
Green Engine

Introduction
This seminar and presentation representing the Green engine effect. That is for increasing the efficiency of the engine and avoiding excessive pollution a new method adopting, a ceramic coating [non-metallic solid coating]is done on the parts like piston and crown of the engine used in automobiles

Factors affecting the efficiency Incomplete combustion Carbon deposition Thermal shocking Pollution control For avoiding these factors we adopt the method of ceramic coating on the engine Features of ceramic coating We conduct various process in this coating 1. Physical vapour deposition 2. Chemical vapour deposition 3. Ion plating 4. Spattering 5. HAIPAP

Advantages

1. This prevents he deposition of carbon over the cylinder head and piston 2. It acts as a thermal barrier which reduces the amount of heat leakage 3. It help complete combustion of fuels 4. It avoids thermal shocking 5. All the factors above contribute increases the efficiency up to 9% and reduction in pollution in a wide rate

Limitations

1. Additional reactions takes place due to coating. 2. High expense for coating.
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
Reply
sn1467
Active In SP
**

Posts: 4
Joined: Mar 2009
#2
28-03-2009, 09:49 AM

(15-02-2009, 02:26 PM)remshad_m Wrote: Oil Drilling

Introduction
Oil and natural gas furnish about three-fourths of our energy needs, fueling our homes, work places, factories and transportation systems. Using variety of methods, on land and at sea, small crews of specialized workers search for geologic formations that are likely to contain oil and gas. Seismic prospecting - a technique based on measuring the time it takes sound waves to travel through underground formations and return to surface-has revolutionized oil and gas exploration.

After finding the presence of oil beneath the ground, the most important conventional technique known as Rotary Drilling is employed and oil is extracted from the oil well. Advanced techniques like Horizontal Directional Drilling and Drilling with Laser can also be employed in Oil drilling.
Airbag
Airbag

Introduction
For years, the trusty seatbelts provided the sole form of passive restraints in our car. There were debates about their safety, especially related to children, but over time, much of the country adopted mandatory seat-belt laws. Statistics have show that seat-belts have saved thousands of lives that might have been lost in collisions.

Airbags have been under development for many years. The first commercial airbags appeared in automobiles in the 1980s.They are a proven safety device that save a growing number of lives, and prevent a large number of head and chest injuries. They are reducing driver deaths by 14 percent and passenger bags reduce deaths by about 11 percent.

People who use seat-belts think they do not need airbags. But they do. Airbags and lap/shoulder belts work together as a system, and one without the other isn t as effective. Deaths are 12 percent lower among drivers with belts and 9 percent lower among belted passengers.

Since model year, all new cars have been required to have airbags on both driver and passenger sides. Light trucks came under the rule in 1999.Newer than steering-wheel-mounted or dashboard-mounted bags are seat-mounted door-mounted and window airbags. Airbags are subject of serious government and industry researches and tests.

Airbags can cause some unintended adverse effects. Nearly all of these are minor injuries like bruises and abrasions that are more than offset by the lives airbags are saving.

You can eliminate this risk, and position is what counts. Serious inflation injuries occur primarily because of peoples position when airbags first begin inflating.

Before looking at the specifics, let s review our knowledge of the laws of motion. We know that moving objects have momentum. Unless an outside force acts on an object the object will continue to move in its present speed and direction. Cars consist of several objects including the vehicle itself, loose object in the car and of course the passengers itself. If these objects are not restrained, they will continue moving at whatever speed the car is traveling at, even if the car is stopped by collision.

Stopping an objects momentum requires force acting over a period of time. When a car crashes the force required to stop an object is very great because the car s momentum has changed instantly while the passengers has not. The goal of any supplement restraint system is to help stop the passengers while doing as little damage to him or her as possible.

What an airbag want to do is to slow down the passenger s speed to zero with little or no damage .The constraints that it has to work are huge .The airbag has the space between the passenger and the steering wheel or dashboard and a fraction of a second to work with. Even that tiny amount of space and time is valuable.
Heat Pipe
Heat Pipe

Introduction
A heat pipe is a simple device that can quickly transfer heat from one point to another. They are often referred to as the superconductors of heat as they possess an extra ordinary heat transfer capacity & rate with almost no heat loss[6].The idea of heat pipes was first suggested by R.S.Gaugler in1942. However, it was not until 1962, when G.M.Grover invented it, that its remarkable properties were appreciated & serious development began. Initialy Grover was interested in the development of high temperature heat pipe employing liquid metal working fluids. Shortly after Grover s publication work was started on liquid metal heat pipes buy Dunn at Harwell and Neu and Busse at Ispra Interest in heat pipe concept developed rapidly both for space and terrestrial applications. Working fluids used were melts, water, ammonia, acetone, alcohol, nitrogen and helium. At the same time theory of heat pipe become better understood; the most important contribution to this theoretical understanding was the paper by Cotter in 1965.in 1969 Cheung lists 80 references; in 1970 Chishlom in his book cites 149 references, and by 1976 the Nel Heat pipe Bibliography contained 544 references.

The third international Heat Pipe conference held in 1978 in [5] Palo Alto, California, was sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Sixty five papers were included in the proceedings. Flowing the trend of approximately 3 year intervals the fourth International Heat Pipe Conference was held in 1981 in London the proceedings contain almost 70 papers and of particular note is the contribution made to heat pipe technology during the past 3-4 years in Japan particularly application in to electronics and energy conservation by 1977 it had become established as a most useful device in mundane applications, as well as retaining its more glamorous status in spacecraft temperature control. Seventh International Heat Pipe Conference was held in China in 1992.

The technology of heat pipe is based on thermodynamic cycle of evaporation and condensation. It consists of a sealed aluminum or copper container whose inner surfaces have a capillary wicking material [2]. The wick provides the capillary driving force to return the condensate to the evaporator. The quality and type of wick usually determines the performance of the heat pipe.
Valvetronic Engine Technology
Valvetronic Engine Technology

Introduction
One of the latest and interesting innovations in the field is the Valvetronic Engine Technology from BMW. The 316ti compact is the first production car in the world featuring an engine controlled by VALVETRONIC air supply. Accordingly, the VALVETRONIC engine no longer requires a throttle butterfly, which has quite literally restricted the free ventilation of the internal combustion engine ever since its invention.

Now VALVETRONIC replaces this conventional function by infinitely variable intake valve lift, offering a quantum leap in technology quite comparable to the changeover from the carburetor to fuel injection. And at the same time clearly proves the outstanding competence and innovative power of BMW s engineers, VALVETRONIC going back to a BMW patent and manufactured exclusively on BMW s own machines and facilities.
Sensotronic brake control
Sensotronic brake control

Introduction
Recently, automotive industry pays more attention on the improvement of the safety and comfort of their vehicle models. The new car model of Mercedes- Benz SL 500 justifies this, by incorporating the new technological innovations like Active body suspension (ABS), Electronic Stability Program (ESP), Sensotronic brake control (SBC) etc. Sensotronic brake control is an innovative electro hydraulic brake system which gives maximum safety and comfort on braking.

This Seminar illustrates mechanism and performance characteristic of Sensotronic brake control with the aid of the theory and mechanism of a common hydraulic brake system. In SBC, various factors while braking such as wheel speed, braking force for each wheel, steering angle etc are senses by electronic means. With electronic impulses are used to pass drivers braking commands onto a micro computer, which processes various sensor signal simultaneously, and depends on particular driving situation, calculates optimum pressure for each wheel. As a result SBC offers even greater active safety then conventional braking systems when braking in a corner and slippery surface
Tyre Threading
Tyre Threading

Introduction
One of the most important parts of an automobile is the wheel and tyre. The importance of wheels and tyres in the automobile is obvious. Without the engine the car may be towed, but even that is not possible without the wheels and tyres. The wheel along with the tyre has to take the vehicle load, provide a cushioning effect and cope with the steering control. A tyre is a cushion provided with an automobile wheel. It consists of mainly the outer tyre and the inner tube. The air inside the tube carries the entire load and provides the cushion.

The functions of a tyre are 1. To support the vehicle load 2. To provide cushion against shocks 3. To transmit driving and braking forces on the road 4. To provide cornering power for smooth steering The thread design is one major factor aspect of tyre design. It determines the terrain adaptability of the tyre. The safety of the vehicle and the occupants depend a lot on the health of the tyre and its design In conventional petrol engines, when the accelerator pedal is pressed, the throttle butterfly opens to allow fresh air to come in. The fuel injection system measures the mass of air entering and injects the required amount of fuel.
Tip Tronic Gear transmission
Tip Tronic Gear transmission

Introduction
The gear has been around almost as long as the car itself. In the yearly days where crash boxes and you have double de-clutch to get a gear. Nowadays the changing in from one gear to another is very smooth indeed and the clutch is light and responsive. Tip Tronic transmission is the latest innovation in the field of automatic power transmission systems, which combines the both worlds of transmissions, manual and automatic. In this mode tiptronic offers a choice of five different gear patterns ranging from economy to sport Porsche introduced tiptronic transmission in their sports cars.
Thermoacoustic Refrigerator
Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Introduction
In 1987 an international group of scientists and Government Officials established the Montreal protocol, an agreement to control the use and release of CFC and to schedule a time frame for eliminating their production. This agreement is a historic step in the on going process of building consensus regarding environmental impact of CFC. Both the Montreal protocol and provisions for 1990 clean Air Act specify schedules for phasing out CFC production by year 2000. This forced a new wave of research and development in refrigeration technologies. Existing technologies are being adapted to new chemicals, processes are being refined to become more energy efficient, and innovative approaches to refrigeration are being tested
Telematics
Telematics

Introduction
The word Telematics is an amalgamation of the German words Telekomunikaton (telecommunication) and infomatik (information). It is the blending of computers and wireless telecommunications technologies, ostensibly the goal of efficiently conveying information over vast networks to improve a host of business functions or government-related public services. The most notable example of Telematics may be the Internet itself, since it depends on a number of computer networks connected globally through telecommunication backbones. Telematics is the combination of telecommunications and new information technology. It has both a hardware component, such as cabling, computers, digitalisation and application components, and incorporates services provided by this new combination of telecommunication and information technology.

Telematics gives four new types of opportunity in the field of of information Access to large quantities of information Access to information of higher quality Access to information over any distance, including global distances Very rapid access to information These new opportunities can be exploited to create new processes, new products and synergies where a combination of inputs produces a bigger and better result than would be expected from looking at the sum of the individual parts. All of the Telematics-based services can be used to enhance the role of the city in the global economy of the future. At the same tune they can also be used to create a better quality of life for those living and working there.

Telematics provides potential for reducing the number of kilometres driven by vehicles in urban areas by providing improved access to and quality of, public transport by providing information on congestion and by regulating the private car in the inner city. In addition to environmental gains, Telematics can also produce efficiency gains by reducing traffic congestion. The term telematics has evolved to refer to automobile systems that combine Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking and other wireless communications for automatic roadside assistance and remote diagnostics. Telematics, a word coined from telecommunications and informatics (meaning information processing), describes a broad field of different technologies to assist in the management of traffic needs, road transport and travel information and planning) and traffic control. With respect to automobiles, telematics refers to the convergence of wireless systems global positioning, and onboard automotive electronics.
Space shuttles
Space shuttles

Introduction
Previously, all ventures in to space were achieved with giant rockets which, after a certain amount of time , were directed back in to the earth s atmosphere to be reduced to a cinder by the enormous heat of re entry -after the crew and their capsule had been ejected virtually all of that tremendously expensive equipment was destroyed after only one use. The shuttle, however, to quote to a National Aeronautics And Space Administration officials , is the first craft to be launched like a rocket, haul like a truck and land like an aero plane .

It goes in to the orbit round the earth taking in to the space scientists, artificial satellites, complete laboratories and equipment then returns to its base ready to repeat the exercise time and time again. But the development of such a bold project and implimentation has not come cheaply. The programme has already cost many billions of dollars and whole new manufacturing process have had to pioneered. New systems in aviation- Avionics - have been developed: shuttle s computers can handle all her manoeuvres with out human assistance ,even the most hazardous re-entry. Today four space shuttles are being used namely 1. Columbia 2. Discovery 3. Atlantis 4. Endeavour
Radar Guns and Laser radar Guns
Radar Guns and Laser radar Guns

Introduction
This is the age of speed. We can see people zipping down the highways at unimaginable speed. Long before the invention of radar guns in 1970 s and laser speed guns in 1990 s the police had a very tedious job in detecting those vehicles which where driven at over speed. The radar gun emits microwaves and works on the principle of radar where as the laser gun emits infrared rays and gives more accurate readings than the radar gun. The invention of the radar guns and the laser guns have proved to be a great blessing to the police patrol in determining the speed of vehicles.
Emission Control on IC Engine
Emission Control on IC Engine

Introduction
The pollusion problems in our country are increasing day by day. Euro 2000 norms came to reduce the pollusion problems. Now a day LPG vehicles are more preferred due to this reason.

Atmospheric pollusion from automobiles mainly occured from the fuel tank, the carburattor, the crank case and the exhaust system. One of the main method to reduce pollusion from engine is to introduce positive crankcase ventilation valve (PCV valve) in between the crankcase and intake manifold.

Other methods to reduce pollusion from different parts are 1. Closed crankcase ventilation 2 Fuel tank and carburattor ventilation 3. Re-designing the engine a. Combustion chamber b. Cooling system c. Fuel supply system d. Ignition system 4. Treating the exhaust gases to reduce pollutants 5. Exhaust gas analysis
Abresive Jet Machine
Abresive Jet Machine

Introduction
It is a newly developed technology used in industrial countries. This is adopted for machining operations.

Features In this machine a high velocity of abrasive stream is used for machining. The abrasive particle have a vibration of about 50 hertz is mixed with high pressure gas or air in the mixing chamber. Then the stream is emerges through a small nozzle mounted on a fixture to the work piece. Variable in abrasive jet machine The variables that influence the rate of metal removal and accuracy of machining in this process are :

1. Carrier gas 2. Shape of cut 3. Nozzle design 4. Work material 5. Type of abrasive 6. Stand of distance 7. Size of abrasive grain 8. Velocity of the abrasive jets 9. Mean of abrasive particle/unit volume of the carrier gas

Advantages

1. Ability to cut fragile, brittle or heat sensitive material without damage. 2. Ability to cut intricate holes in material of any hardness 3. Low capital cost

Disadvantages

1. Slow material removal rate 2. Stray cutting and hence accuracy is not good. 3. Embedding of abrasive in the work piece. 4. Abrasive powder cannot be refused.
Green Engine
Green Engine

Introduction
This seminar and presentation representing the Green engine effect. That is for increasing the efficiency of the engine and avoiding excessive pollution a new method adopting, a ceramic coating [non-metallic solid coating]is done on the parts like piston and crown of the engine used in automobiles

Factors affecting the efficiency Incomplete combustion Carbon deposition Thermal shocking Pollution control For avoiding these factors we adopt the method of ceramic coating on the engine Features of ceramic coating We conduct various process in this coating 1. Physical vapour deposition 2. Chemical vapour deposition 3. Ion plating 4. Spattering 5. HAIPAP

Advantages

1. This prevents he deposition of carbon over the cylinder head and piston 2. It acts as a thermal barrier which reduces the amount of heat leakage 3. It help complete combustion of fuels 4. It avoids thermal shocking 5. All the factors above contribute increases the efficiency up to 9% and reduction in pollution in a wide rate

Limitations

1. Additional reactions takes place due to coating. 2. High expense for coating.
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