Mobile Robotics Presentation
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06-04-2010, 11:29 PM

.ppt   Mobile Robotics Presentation.ppt (Size: 2.58 MB / Downloads: 335)

.ppt   robotics.ppt (Size: 244 KB / Downloads: 251)
Fundamental Idea: Robot Pose
2D world (floor plan)
Major Issues with Autonomy

How do we Solve Localization? Represent beliefs as a probability density
Markov assumption
Pose distribution at time t conditioned on:
pose dist. at time t-1
movement at time t-1
sensor readings at time t
Discretize the density by

Localization Foundation

At every time step t:
UPDATE each sampleâ„¢s new location based on movement
RESAMPLE the pose distribution based on sensor readings


Markov localization (simplest)
Kalman filters (historically most popular)
Monte Carlo localization / particle filters

Same: Sampled probability distribution
Basic update-resample loop
Different: Sampling techniques
Movement assumptions

Localizationâ„¢s Sidekick: Globalization
Credit to Dieter Fox for this demo
Problem Two: Mapping

Problem Two: Mapping

Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM)

Circular Error Problem
How do we Solve SLAM?
Credit to Sebastian Thrun for this demo
For the Interested

Where AI meets the real world.
What is a Robot ?
A re-programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices

through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.
A robot must have the following essential characteristics:
Mobility: It possesses some form of mobility.
Programmability: implying computational or symbol- manipulative capabilities that a designer can combine as

desired (a robot is a computer). It can be programmed to accomplish a large variety of tasks. After being

programmed, it operates automatically.
Sensors: on or around the device that are able to sense the environment and give useful feedback to the device
Mechanical capability: enabling it to act on its environment rather than merely function as a data processing or

computational device (a robot is a machine); and
Flexibility: it can operate using a range of programs and manipulates and transport materials in a variety of

Isaac Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics
Law Zero A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.
First Law A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
Second Law A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the

First Law.
Third Law A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or

Second Law.
Construction & Working of the Robot
Mechanical platforms- the hardware base Sensors Motors Driving mechanisms Power supplies Electronic

Controls Microcontroller systems Languages R/C Servos Pneumatics Driving High-Current Loads from Logic Controllers
Sensors are the parts that act like senses and can detect objects or things like heat and light and

convert the object information into symbols or in analog or digital form so that computers understand. And then

Robots react according to information provided by the sensory system
Vision Sensor
Frame grabber
Image processing unit

Driving mechanisms
Power supplies
Driving High-Current Loads from Logic
Microcontroller systems
A robot system architecture
Artificial Intelligence
What is artificial intelligence? It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially

intelligent computer programs

Can a machine think?

Appling Robots
Artificial neural networks
Robots which train themselves
Where gone Asimovâ„¢s law?
Thanks to all of my respected teachers for allowing me to represent an article on Robotics. I thank to

the Internet Faculty of our college for providing access to Internet for searching data. Thanks to my parents

for providing me a ËœPersonal Computerâ„¢.
Use Search at wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
seminar flower
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15-06-2012, 05:34 PM

Mobile Robotics

.ppt   Mobile Robotics.ppt (Size: 949.5 KB / Downloads: 38)
What Is “Robotics” ?

The word robotics is used to collectively define a field in engineering that covers the mimicking of various human characteristics.
It may be human controlled or automatic.
It must be able to perform certain tasks we set for it.
The desired task must be achieved within some given limitations.
Examples: Automatic Toy Car
Mobile Sweeper Machine
Machines removing mines
Escape Robot
Solar Beam Robot

Locomotion System

As the name suggests a mobile robot must have a system to make it move
This system gives our machine the ability to move forward, backward and take turns
It may also provide for climbing up and down
The concept of locomotion invariably needs rotational motion e.g. a wheel driven by some power source
This involves conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy, which we can easily achieve using electrical motors
The issue is to control these motors to give the required speed and torque

Differential Drive

It has a free moving wheel in the front accompanied with a left and right wheel.The two wheels are separately powered
When the wheels move in the same direction the machine moves in that direction. Turning is achieved by making the wheels oppose each other’s motion, thus generating a couple

Skid Steer Drive

A close relative of the differential drive system
It is mostly used in tracked machines e.g. tanks. Also finds application in some four / six wheeled robots
The left and right wheels are driven independently
Steering is accomplished by actuating each side at a different rate or in a different direction, causing the wheels or tracks to slip, or skid, on the ground.

Synchronous Drive

As the name suggests, it uses synchronous rotation of its wheels to achieve motion & turns
It is made up of a system of motors. One set of which drive the wheels and the other set turns the wheels in a synchronous fashion
The two sets can be directly mechanically coupled as they always move in the same direction with same speed.


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