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22-02-2011, 10:20 AM

.doc   Theories of Motivation.doc (Size: 176 KB / Downloads: 103)
Nearly all the conscious behavior of human being is motivated. The internal needs and drives lead to tensions, which in turn result into actions. The need for food results into hunger and hence a person is motivated to eat.
A manager requires to create and maintain an environment in which individuals work together in groups towards the accomplishment of common objectives. A manager cannot do a job without knowing what motivates people. The building of motivating factors into organizational roles, the staffing of these roles and the entire process of leading people must be built on a knowledge of motivation. It is necessary to remember that level of motivation varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times. Today in the increasingly competitive environment maintaining a highly motivated workforce is the most challenging task. The art of motivation starts by learning how to influence the behavior of the individual. This understanding helps to achieve both, the individual as well as organizational objectives.
Motivation is a powerful tool in the hands of leaders. It can persuade convince and propel. People to act.
It is a general tendency to believe that motivation is a personal trait. Some people have it and the others don’t. In practice, some are labeled to be lazy because they do not display an outward sign of motivation. However, individuals differ in their basic motivational drives. It also depends upon their areas of interest. The concept of motivation is situational and its level varies between different individuals and at different times. If you understand what motivates people, you have at your command the most powerful tool for dealing with them.
Motivation is to inspire people to work, individually or in groups in the ways such as to produce best results. It is the will to act. It is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts and ability to satisfy some individual need.
Motivation is getting somebody to do something because they want to do it. It was once assumed that motivation had to be injected from outside, but it is now understood that everyone is motivated by several differing forces.
Motivation is a general term applied to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces. To say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in a desired manner.
To motivate others is the most important of management tasks. It comprises the abilities to communicate, to set an example, to challenge, to encourage, to obtain feedback, to involve, to delegate, to develop and train, to inform, to brief and to provide a just reward.
(1) Achievement Motivation
It is the drive to pursue and attain goals. An individual with achievement motivation wishes to achieve objectives and advance up on the ladder of success. Here, accomplishment is important for its own shake and not for the rewards that accompany it. It is similar to ‘Kaizen’ approach of Japanese Management.
(2) Affiliation Motivation
It is a drive to relate to people on a social basis. Persons with affiliation motivation perform work better when they are complimented for their favorable attitudes and co-operation.
(3) Competence Motivation
It is the drive to be good at something, allowing the individual to perform high quality work. Competence motivated people seek job mastery, take pride in developing and using their problem-solving skills and strive to be creative when confronted with obstacles. They learn from their experience.
(4) Power Motivation
It is the drive to influence people and change situations. Power motivated people wish to create an impact on their organization and are willing to take risks to do so.
(5) Attitude Motivation
Attitude motivation is how people think and feel. It is their self confidence, their belief in themselves, their attitude to life. It is how they feel about the future and how they react to the past.
(6) Incentive Motivation
It is where a person or a team reaps a reward from an activity. It is “You do this and you get that”, attitude. It is the types of awards and prizes that drive people to work a little harder.
(7) Fear Motivation
Fear motivation coercions a person to act against will. It is instantaneous and gets the job done quickly. It is helpful in the short run.
• We have to be Motivated to Motivate
• Motivation requires a goal
• Motivation once established, does not last if not repeated
• Motivation requires Recognition
• Participation has motivating effect
• Seeing ourselves progressing Motivates us
• Challenge only motivates if you can win
• Everybody has a motivational fuse i.e. everybody can be motivated
• Group belonging motivates
Motivation is not only in a single direction i.e. downwards. In the present scenario, where the workforce is more informed, more aware, more educated and more goal oriented, the role of motivation has left the boundries of the hierarchy of management. Apart from superior motivating a subordinate, encouragement and support to colleague as well as helpful suggestions on the right time, even to the superior, brings about a rapport at various work levels. Besides, where workforce is self motivated, just the acknowledgement of the same makes people feel important and wanted.
Motivation refers to the drive and efforts to satisfy a want or goal, whereas satisfaction refers to the contentment experienced when a want is satisfied. In contrast, inspiration is bringing about a change in the thinking pattern. On the other hand Manipulation is getting the things done from others in a predetermined manner.
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23-03-2011, 03:00 PM

Archana. C
Suhaina. M.A
Poornima. C
Yogeshwari. A
Anushya varshni. R

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What is Motivation ?
• The word ‘motivate’ means to move, to activate.
• Anything that initiates activity whether external or internal ,is motivating.
• Motivation is an inspirational process which impels the members of the team, to pull their weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the tasks that they have accepted and generally to play an effective part in the job that the group has undertaken.
• It is the process of indoctrinating employees with unity of purpose and the need to maintain harmonious relationships among people.
• Motivation is a predisposition to act in a specific goal-directed way.
• “Inducement or incentive” – American Heritage Dictionary
Motivational drives
• David C. McClelland of Harvard University proposed that the organization offers an opportunity to satisfy at least three needs
- for achievement
- for affiliation
- for power
• Also called Achievement motivation theory.
• People’s motivational drives reflect elements of culture in which they grow up – their family, school, books..
Achievement Motivation
• A drive to overcome, accomplish objectives and get ahead.
• Accomplishment is important for its own sake, not for the rewards that accompany it.
• These people work harder when their superior provides detailed evaluation of their work behavior.
• This type of managers select assistants who are technically capable.
• They want concrete feedback on their performance.
• They like to take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems.
• They like to take calculated risks and set moderate goals.
Affiliation Motivation
• A drive to relate people effectively.
• Persons with affiliation motives work better when they are complimented for their favorable attitudes and cooperation.
• Affiliation-motivated persons tend to select friends as assistants.
• Managers with strong needs for affiliation may have difficulty being effective managers.
• People seek affiliation because of a desire to have their beliefs confirmed; to avoid boredom, to avoid the mutual feelings of being beaten by the system.
• They are motivated by jobs that demand frequent interaction with co-workers.
Power Motivation
• A drive to influence people and change situations.
• They make excellent managers if their drives are for institutional power instead of personal power.
• They like to set goals, make decisions and direct activities.
• These people seek power through legitimate means, rise to leadership positions through successful performance, and therefore are accepted by others.
• How motivation affects Organizational Behavior ?
1. Performance appraisal:
- Process of evaluating the performance of employees. Plays a key role in reward systems.
 Objectives of performance appraisal are:
- Allocate resources
- Motivate and reward employees
- Give employees feedback
- Maintain fair relationships within groups
- Coach and develop employees
- Comply with regulations
 Some organizations in both public and private sectors include self-appraisal as a formal part of the process.
• Wage Incentives – More pay for more production
• Profit Sharing – A system that distributes to employees some portion of the profits of business.
• Gain Sharing Plan – Shares the gains with employees on some formula basis.
• Flexible benefits – Also called cafeteria benefit programs
• Skill based pay – Rewards individual for what they know.
• Sacrifice reward – Overtime, Call-in pay, Shift differential
• Non-work award – Vacations, pensions
Motivation Theories
Content Theories

• Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory
• Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation
• Alderfer’s ERG theory
• Contemporary theories
• Equity theory
• Attribution theory
• Maslow’s hierarchy theory :
Maslow outlined the overall theories of motivation. He thought that a person’s motivational needs could be arranged in a hierarchical manner. He believed that once a given level of need is satisfied it no longer serves to motivate. The next level has to be activated to motivate the individual.
• Maslow identified 5 levels of hierarchy needs.
• Psychological needs
• Safety needs
• Love needs
• Esteem needs
• Needs for self actualization
• Maslow’s need hierarchy theory can be converted into the content model of work motivation as shown.
Maslow’s model
• Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation
• extension of Maslow's theory
• conducted a study among accountants and engineers
• found out impact of job content and job context
• study revealed two sets of factors affecting motivation and work-the two factor theory of motivation and job satisfaction.
• the absence of certain factors caused dissatisfaction. These were called the hygiene factors. They serve to prevent dissatisfaction
• the other set of factors ,if present , serve to motivate the individual to superior performance. they were the growth factors.
• challenging jobs and opportunities will ensure motivation of personnel.
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06-04-2011, 10:16 AM

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Motivation is the processes that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.
Nature of motivation:
It is a psychological phenomenon which generates within an individual. A person feels the lack of certain needs to satisfy and the need of satisfying ego motivates a person to do better than he normally does.
A positive motivation involves the possibility of increased motive satisfaction, while negative motivation involves the possibility of decreased motive satisfaction.
Positive or incentive motivation is generally based on reward. It includes, a)praise and credit for work done, b)competition, c) participation,
d) pride, e) appreciation, f) pay Intrinsic motivation is concerned with the satisfaction one gets after doing the work well.
It includes,
Praise, responsibility, recognition, esteem, power, status, competition.
Negative or fear motivation is based on force and fear. Fear includes,
a) Punishments, b) riot, c) firing, d) demotions, e) layoff.
Extrinsic motivation is concerned with external motivators which employees enjoy,
It includes,
Pay promotion, status, fringe benefits, retirement plans, holidays and vacations
• Self motivation or Attitude motivation
• Group motivation
• Sizing up situations requiring motivation
• Preparing a set of motivating tools
• Selecting and applying an appropriate motivation
• Following up the results of the application (FEED BACK)
 Variability
 Self interest
 Attainability
 Participation
 Proportioning rewards
 Human element
 Individual group relationships
 Stimulational
Financial motivators:
Financial motivators may be in the form of more wages and salaries, bonuses, profit sharing, leave with pay, medical reimbursements.
Non financial motivators:
• Appraisal
• Status and pride
• Participation
• Job enrichment
• Job security
• Job rotation
• Competition
Mc Gregor concluded that a manger’s view of nature of human beings based on certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mold his or her behaviour toward employees according to these assumptions.
THEORY X assumptions are basically negative,
• They generally dislike work.
• As they dislike work they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment.
• Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible
• Most workers place security above all other factors and will display little ambition.
THEORY Y assumptions are basically positive,
• Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play.
• People will exercise self direction and self control if they are committed to the objectives.
• The average person can learn to accept, even seek responsibility.
• The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population.
MASLOW’s framework explains these theories as,
• Theory X assumes that lower order needs dominate individuals.
• Theory Y assumes that higher order needs dominate individuals.
• Mc Gregor himself held to the belief that theory Y assumptions are more valid than theory X.
Fredrick Herzberg and his associates developed the motivation hygiene theory which is commonly known as 2 factor theory in the late 1950’s and early 1960’s.
The motivational factors are intrinsic in nature and hygiene factors are extrinsic in nature.
• Quality of supervision
• Pay
• Organizational policies
• Physical working conditions
• Relations with others job security
• Promotion opportunities
• Opportunities for personal growth
• Recognition
• Responsibility
• Achievement
• Hygiene factors do not produce positive results but prevent negative results.
Motivational factors have a positive effect on job satisfaction and result in increased output
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Definition of Motivation

The study of motivation is covering all those things which are biological, social and psychological and that they defeat our laziness and move us, either eagerly or reluctantly, to action.
Motivation is concerned with three things
Needs – the most basics human requirements.
Drives – tells how these needs translate into behavior.
Goals – what these behavior aim to achieve.
Types of Needs
Primary Needs

Also called as Physiological or biogenic needs include need for air, water, food , shelter, clothing etc.
These needs are called as primary needs because they are essential for the survival.
Types of Need
Secondary Need

Known as acquired or learned needs.
These needs arise from our socialization.
These needs are learned and are dependent on the culture we grow up in.
Thus an individual will try to eat the culturally acceptable food in a particular country.
Needs and Goals are Dynamic
Needs are never completely satisfied or permanently.
New needs are emerge as old needs are satisfied.
Success and failure influence goal.
Substitutes goals are formed. ( To get rid of tension)
Frustration and Defense Mechanism
Frustration is the feeling experience by an individual when he or she fails to achieve the goal.
Individual react differently to frustration.
If frustration is adaptive substitute goal can be there.
Some individual may take it as a personal failure and became a victim of anxiety.
Positive thinking will let you do everything better than negative thinking will
Yes! That is the first secret. You must decide to be motivated.
Don’t look around you… it’s not a physical revelation.
It’s not in a book or website… it’s not at a seminar and presentation. It’s not contained in an
audio or visual presentation.
It’s in your mind.
It does take some effort… it means tuning out the distractions. It means
planning to work and working the plan.
You have to decide it’s time to put down your doubts and fears… you have to decide to give up some things. Motivation is dependent on the decision to let yourself be motivated.
That’s the first secret.
Motivation Starts with a Decision to Let Yourself Be Motivated
2.*“Acting as If”… you’ve already attained it*
Be confident and sure about your direction.
AND visualize that you have already achieved it… and act as if you have...
If you are poor… if you are beaten down… if life has given you a raw deal.
You ARE NOT going to be affective picking yourself back up if you remain in that state.
Take care of yourself… Create the person you want to be.
Act like the person you want to be. Don’t complain to people about your problems.
Work on your problems. Attack them knowing they are only temporary… be confident in the end result by acting as if it is inevitable.
Act as if you have already accomplished that result.
Help others…
Help others. Forget about your problems. Concentrate on lifting others up. In doing this, you can forget about your troubles.
Do business like you know what you are doing… maybe you don’t! Maybe you are unsure of yourself.
It’s OK if you are a Newbie, but loose the newbie mindset. Don’t keep repeating it to yourself… You know something? It’s just questions… even the experts have questions.
Concentrate on the building blocks. Don’t worry about not understanding how they all fit together; in time you’ll understand. In the meantime…
Act As If… The Rest You Will Find Out.
Act like you have already achieved and watch what happens… Alliances emerge… Joint Ventures emerge… become the person people want to know.
People don’t want to hang around people that are in the dump.
Become a success magnet by Acting like a success!
…You don’t have to have lots of money to be successful. Again… it’s a state of mind.
Have a Plan! You got a decision… now you need to plan the journey!
It doesn’t have to be complex. Take an hour… jot down some notes.
But have at least a pretty good idea of what it will take…
Maybe part of that plan includes continuing education.
A person with a plan is a person that can make decisions that will help them
achieve the goals they have set quicker and easier.
If you don’t have a plan, how do you know what decisions to make?
Put Together A Plan so that Motivation Will Have a Map to Follow…
See yourself achieving the prize…
See yourself walking down that path…
Visualize yourself as who you want to be…
It all ties in together. Your mental mindset must believe in what you are
doing. You can’t move forward unless your mind sees the road.
Make a list… make an outline… make some notes.
Review them often. See yourself taking on the different stages to get where
you want to go. Think about it…
If you do this enough… everyday, your mind will take control of those thoughts…
5.*Action Combined with Faith*
We have covered a lot of ground in this small Report…
You now know what you need mentally.
The 5th secret might actually surprise you…
Action… Combined with faith? This last secret involves forgetting everything I have told you up until now…
Yes… you must work on all those things if you are going to stay motivated and make a better life for yourself and to achieve your hearts desires…
You must act.
Everything in this Report involves action…
You must act in order to decide…
You must act to fail…
You must act to plan…
All of it… everything we do must first have action.
So here’s what you do now that we are wrapping this up…
Go back over this guide… study it. Work on areas that you need work on. And just starting doing it!
Not tomorrow!! NO! Today…
Not next week!! NO! This week…
DON’T WAIT FOR EVERYTHING TO BE PERFECT. Even if you only got 5 minutes, act on something right now… start focusing on it.
Start filtering out the environment you are in and start
VISUALIZING the environment you will possess!
We are NOT a product of our environment. Remember that…
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In the organizational setting the word “Motivation” is used to describe the drive that impels an individual to work. A truly motivated person is one who “wants” to work .Both employees and employers are interested in understanding motivation if employees know what strengthens and what weakens their motivation, they can often perform more effectively to find more satisfaction in their job. Employers want to know what motivates their employees so that they can get them to work harder.
When people speak of motivation or ask about the motives of person, they are really asking “Why” the person acts, or why the person acts the way he does .The concept of motivation implies that people choose the path of action they follow.
When behavioral scientists use the word motivation, they think of its something steaming from within the person technically, the term motivation has its origin in the Latin word “mover” which means “to move”. Thus the word motivation stands for movement. One can get a donkey to move by using a carrot or a stick; with people one can use incentives, or threats or reprimands. However, these only have a limited effect. These work for a while and then need to be repeated, increased or reinforced to secure further movement.

A basic principle is that the performance of an individual depends on his or her ability backed by motivation. Stated algebraically the principle is:
Performance =f (ability × motivation)
Ability refers to the skill and competence of the person to complete a given task. However, ability alone is not enough. The person’s desire to accomplish the task is also necessary. Organizations become successful when employees have abilities and desire to accomplish given task.
Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways.

Some definitions on motivation:
…how behavior gets started is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped, and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organism while all this is going on’ jones, 1955).
…the term motivation refers to a process governing choices made by person or lower organisms among alternative forms of voluntary activity”
…motivation is the result of process, internal or external to the individual that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action.”
…motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior or a drive that aimed at a goal or an incentive”
Obviously, the first definition covers all stages shown in the motivation model.

Probably, no concept of HRM receives as much attention of academicians, researchers and practicing manager’s motivation. The increased attention towards motivation is justified by several reasons
1. Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job. This statement can apply to corporate strategists and to production workers. It is the responsibility of managers to make employees look for better ways of doing their jobs.

Motivation is an important concept that has been receiving considerable attention from academicians, researchers and practicing HR managers. In its essence, motivation comprises important elements such as the need or content, search and choice of strategies, goal-directed behavior, social comparison of rewards reinforcement, and performance-satisfaction.
The increasing attention paid towards motivation is justified because of several reasons. Motivated employees come out with new ways of doing jobs. They are quality oriented. They are more productive. Any technology needs motivated employees to adopt it successfully.
Several approaches to motivation are available. Early theories are too simplistic in their approach towards motivation. For example, advocates of scientific Management believe that money is the motivating factor. The Human Relations Movement posits that social contacts will motivate workers.
Mere knowledge about the theories of motivation will not help manager their subordinates. They need to have certain techniques that help them change the behavior of employees.

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