Multi-Tier Online Booking Of Classifieds full report
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01-04-2010, 07:00 PM

The goal of this multi-tier application is to bestow seamless online booking of the classifieds. The client is a top player in the publishing industry with highest readership. Their classified ads were manually booked via agents. The application has various modules which are:
¢ Ad booking system for Agents
¢ Content Checking system
¢ Management & Reporting module for the publication house
¢ Software administration module.
This application, in turn, is integrated with their publishing production server (SAP) for consolidation.
Project Highlights:
¢ Online booking by 500+ agents.
¢ Automatically applies Schemes while booking.
¢ Facilitates checking the content of the Ad.
¢ Effectively manages the combo offer for multiple publications offered by the same publisher.
¢ Efficiently manages complex pricing structure of publishing house.
¢ Up-to-the-minute tracking of bookings.
¢ Integration with SAP Server for consolidation.
¢ Capability of enabling it for Indian/World Languages.
Multi-Tier Ad Booking System
One of the problems facing magazines is organizing their advertisement books. The high-end is well covered with specialist software serving publications which can afford many thousands. What is there for less Investigation continues, but in the meantime there are systems below which range from the low thousands up.
This is an ad booking system producing a wide variety of reports. Entry is browser based. It runs on a Windows XP server using SQL server as its database.
The Enterprise system provides ad salespeople with the most effective tools to book, schedule, price, and process ads, including classified liner ads, display ads, combined classified and display ads, Web ads, and inserts. The system integrates and streamlines all facets of advertising sales, production and management processes: order entry, scheduling, pricing, composition, pagination, and reporting.
1.1 Multi-Tier Application Architecture
Web-based applications are multitier applications (sometimes referred to as n-tier applications). Multitier applications divide functionality into separate tiers (i.e., logical groupings of functionality). Although tiers can be located on the same computer, the tiers of Web-based applications typically reside on separate computers. Figure presents the basic structure of a three-tier Web-based application.
The information tier (also called the data tier or the bottom tier) maintains data pertaining to the application. This tier typically stores data in a relational database management system (RDBMS).
The middle tier implements business logic, controller logic and presentation logic to control interactions between the application's clients and the application's data.. The middle-tier controller logic processes client requests and retrieves data from the database. The middle-tier presentation logic then processes data from the information tier and presents the content to the client.
The client tier, or top tier, is the application's user interface, which gathers input and displays output. Users interact directly with the application through the user interface. In response to user actions the client tier interacts with the middle tier to make requests and to retrieve data from the information tier. The client tier then displays data retrieved from the middle tier to the user.
1.2 Application Architecture Diagram
The application has multi-tier architecture :

Iterative Development Model
An alternative approach is the Iterative Development Life Cycle (sometimes referred to as the Spiral Life Cycle).
With the Iterative Life Cycle, analysis is done just the same as with the Waterfall method. However, once analysis is done, each requirement is prioritized as follows:
¢ High - These are mission critical requirements that absolutely have to be done in the first release.
¢ Medium - These are requirements that are important but can be worked around until implemented.
¢ Low - These are requirements that are nice-to-have but not critical to the operation of the software.
Once priorities have been established, the releases are planned. The first release (Release 1.0) will contain just the High priority items and should take about 1 to 3 months to deliver.
Below are the advantages of the Iterative Life Cycle:
¢ The Design phase goes much faster, as designs are only done on the items in the current release (Release 1.0 for example).
¢ Coding and Testing go much faster because there are less items to code and test. If major design flaws are found, re-work is much faster since the functional areas have been greatly reduced.
¢ The client gets into production in less than 3 months, allowing them to begin earning revenue or reducing expenses quicker with their product.
¢ If market conditions change for the client, changes can be incorporated in the next iterative release, allowing the software to be much more nimble.
¢ As the software is implemented, the client can make recommendations for the next iteration due to experiences learned in the past iteration.
2.1 System study
A system is a combination of resources working together to convert input to output that moves through a series of stages or phases to deliver the system in-line with the user requirements.
Analysis is a detailed study of the various operations performed by a system and their relationships within and outside the system.
The study phase is the first phase involved in the creation of a computer-based system. It is the phase in which problems are identified, alternate solutions are evaluated and the most feasible system recommended during a preliminary analysis is permitted. A technical and economical evaluation of the proposed system is conducted.
2.2 Existing system
Now there exist some discreet systems that help the companies with minimal information. The programmers need extra effort to do their duties because of the lack of framework.

Existing System and its Drawbacks
The existing system works manually. All the reports are kept as files and also each data of the undertaken project and implimentation is maintained by using files. It involves much manpower and time to perform simple enquiry like requirements also.
2.3 Proposed system
The proposed system is a computerized system, since computers are electronic devices it never gets bored up of the repeated tasks assigned to it.
The cutting advantage of the computers is its capacity to store large amount data, its speed and accuracy in its work.
Using these abilities in right perspective, one can improve the working condition of a system. Speed is the most necessary thing in any business. The progress of any system depends on its customer satisfaction. In manual system the accuracy of all calculations may be less.
In manual system the data are stored in the forms of registers and records therefore it can store less data compared to computer. Also there is chance of missing records after some time. This may cause problem in the functioning of the manual system in future whereas in computer a large amount of data can be stored in comparatively smaller area.
This system provides speed and accurate handling of information. Thus it gives us the provisions for enquiry, admission, staffing, reporting etc. are more efficiently and user-friendly.
2.4 Feasibility study
All project and implimentations are feasible when given unlimited resources and infinite time. It is both necessary and prudent to evaluate the feasibility of a project and implimentation at the earliest possible time. A feasibility study is not warranted for systems in which economic justification is obvious, technical risk is low, few legal problems are expected and no reasonable alternative exists. An estimate is made of whether the identified user needs may be satisfied using current software and hardware technologies. The study will decide if the proposed system will be cost effective from the business point of view and if it can be developed in the given existing budgetary constraints. The feasibility study should be relatively cheap and quick. The result should inform the decision of whether to go ahead with a more detailed analysis.
Feasibility study may be documented as a separated report to higher officials of the top-level management and can be included as an appendix to the system specification. Feasibility and risk analysis is related in many ways. If there is more project and implimentation risk then the feasibility of producing the quality software is reduced.
The study is done in these phases
¢ Operational feasibility
¢ Technical feasibility
¢ Economical feasibility
¢ Behavioral feasibility
¢ Software feasibility
¢ Hardware feasibility
2.4.1 Operational Feasibility
Proposed project and implimentations are beneficial only if they can be turned into information systems that will meet the organization's operating requirements. Simply stated, this test of feasibility asks if the system will work when it is developed and installed. Are there major barriers to implementation Here are questions that will help test the operational feasibility of a project and implimentation:
Is there sufficient support for the project and implimentation from management
Are current business methods acceptable to the users
Have the users been involved in the planning and development of the project and implimentation
Will the proposed system cause harm
The purpose of the operational feasibility study is to determine whether the new system will be used if it is developed and implemented. And whether there will be resistance from users that will undermine the possible application benefits.
There was no difficulty in, implementing the system and the proposed system is so effective, user friendly and functionally reliable so that the users in the company will find that the new system reduce their hard-steps. If the users of the system are fully aware of the internal working of the system then the users will not be facing any problem in running the system.
2.4.2 Technical feasibility
A study of function, performance and constraints may improve the ability to create an acceptable system. Technical feasibility is frequently the most difficult area to achieve at the stage of product engineering process.
Considering that are normally associated with the technical feasibility include
¢ Development risk
¢ Resource availability
¢ Technology
Technical feasibility study deals with the hardware as well as software requirements. The scope was whether the work for the project and implimentation is done with the current equipments and the existing software technology has to be examined in the feasibility study. The outcome was found to be positive.
In the proposed system, data can be easily stored and managed using database management system software. The reports and results for various queries can be generated easily. Therefore , the system is technically feasible.
2.4.3 Economical feasibility
A cost evaluation is weighed against the ultimate income or benefit derived from the developed system or product. Economic j1.lstification is generally the "bottom-line" consideration that includes cost benefit analysis, long term corporate income strategies, impact on other profit centers or products, cost of resources needed for development and potential market growth. When compared to the advantage obtained from implementing the system its cost is affordable. Also the system is designed to meet the modifications required in the future. So most of the required modifications can be done without much re-work.
Proposed system was developed with the available resources. Since cost input for the software is almost nil the output of the software is always a profit. Hence Software is economically feasible.
In the existing system, manpower is more required. In the proposed system, number of employees to be involved is reduced drastically. So, the proposed system is said to be economic.
In the existing system, storage of the records should be properly done and security should be provided for the records. In the proposed system, the software provides security and maintenance and it hardly needs one or two persons to operate the system.
2.4.4 Behavioral Feasibility
People are inherently resistant to changes and computer is known for facilitating the changes. An estimate should be made of how strongly the user staff reacts towards the developments of the computerized system.
In the existing system more manpower is required and time factor is more. In the proposed system, both man power and time factors are reduced and also unnecessary burden is reduced. Thus, the remaining people are made to engage in some other important work. Therefore, the system is behaviorally feasible.
2.4.5 Software feasibility
Even though software is developed in a very high software environment, it will be supported by many other platforms and environments with minimum changes.
2.4.6 Hardware feasibility
The software can be developed with resource already existing. Here the consideration is that the existing hardware resources support the technologies that are to be used by the new system. No hardware was newly bought for the project and implimentation and hence. Software is said to achieve hardware feasibility.
3.1 Hardware requirements
Minimum Requirements
Processors : Intel Pentium Pro or Processor running at 133 MHz
Hard Disk : 1.2 GB Hard Disk
RAM : Client Level “ Minimum 128MB
Recommended Requirements for peak performance
Processors : Intel Pentium III running at 450 MHz
RAM : Client Level “ Minimum 512MB
Display Type : SVGA Color Monitor
Keyboard : Enhanced 104 Standard
Mouse : PS/2 2 Button
3.2 Software requirements
Operating System : WINDOWS XP & Higher Versions
Tools Used
Front End : C#.Net
Back End : SQL Server 2005
Technology Used

3.3 Software features
Visual C#.Net:
C# is simple, powerful, type-safe, and object-oriented. With its many innovations, C# enables rapid application development while retaining the expressiveness and elegance of C-style languages Visual Studio supports Visual C# with a full-featured Code Editor, project and implimentation templates, designers, code wizards, a powerful and easy-to-use debugger, and other tools.
The .NET Framework class library provides access to a wide range of operating system services and other useful, well-designed classes that speed up the development cycle significantly.
The C# language is clearly the star of the whole .Net mega-production, with Visual Basic.Net as its sidekick. C# and its 'Java-like' qualities -- such as garbage collection and hierarchical namespaces -- have received lots of attention. VB.Net syntax remains verbose, while C# more closely resembles C -- but both languages access the same programming framework and compile to nearly identical MSIL code.
Database Management System
Database is an integrated set of interrelate data stored in online medium with controlled redundancy to several applications within an enterprise. A Database Management System is a software system that manages the base of an enterprise and provides facilities to the users to use the database within practical case.
In relational database approach, data is organized in logical mathematical sets, in a tabular structure.
The data field becomes a column in a table under relational model, and each record becomes a row in a table. Relationship between various table area defined through the use of mathematical function, such as JOIN and UNION. The most important advantage of the relational model is its flexibility in describing the relationships between the various data items. Primary purpose behind relational model is the preservation of data integrity, which implies that data must be stored in a format that prevents it from being accessed from outside the DBMS that created it.
The emphasis on the data integrity makes the relational model ideal for traction processing systems, and thus for multi-user and client/server database.
A DBMS is computer software that manages access to database. A typical multi-user DBMS performs the following tasks and more:
¢ A DBMS safety manages shared access to a single database among multiple concurrent users.
¢ A DBMS leverages computer resources wisely so that a large number of application users can perform work with fast response times for maximum productivity.
¢ A DBMS protects database information in such a way that it can reconstruct work lost due to every thing from a single power outage of catastrophic site disasters.
SQL Server 2005
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 is a set of components that work together to meet the data storage and analysis needs of the largest Web sites and enterprise data processing systems. Microsoft® SQL Server„¢ 2005 data is stored in databases. The data in a database is organized into the logical components visible to users. A database is also physically implemented as two or more files on disk.
When using a database, you work primarily with the logical components such as tables, views, procedures, and users. The physical implementation of files is largely transparent. Typically, only the database administrator needs to work with the physical implementation.
Features of SQL Server 2005
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 features include:
¢ Internet Integration.
The SQL Server 2005 database engine includes integrated XML support. It also has the scalability, availability, and security features required to operate as the data storage component of the largest Web sites.
¢ Scalability and Availability.
The same database engine can be used across platforms ranging from laptop computers running Microsoft Windows 98 through large, multiprocessor servers running Microsoft Windows 2000 Data Center Edition. SQL Server 2005 Enterprise Edition supports features such as federated servers, indexed views, and large memory support that allow it to scale to the performance levels required by the largest Web sites.
¢ Enterprise-Level Database Features
The SQL Server 2005 relational database engine supports the features required to support demanding data processing environments. The database engine protects data integrity while minimizing the overhead of managing thousands of users concurrently modifying the database.
¢ Ease of installation, deployment, and use
SQL Server 2005 includes a set of administrative and development tools that improve upon the process of installing, deploying, managing, and using SQL Server across several sites.
SQL Server 2005 also supports a standards-based programming model integrated with the Windows DNA, making the use of SQL Server databases and data warehouses a seamless part of building powerful and scalable systems.
¢ Data warehousing
SQL Server 2005 includes tools for extracting and analyzing summary data for online analytical processing. SQL Server also includes tools for visually designing databases and analyzing data using English-based questions.
Database Architecture
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 data is stored in databases. The data in a database is organized into the logical components visible to users. A database is also physically implemented as two or more files on disk. Each instance of Sql Server has four system databases (master, model, tempdb, and msdb) and one or more user databases.
Some organizations have only one user database, containing all the data for their organization. Some organizations have different databases for each group in their organization, and sometimes a database used by a single application. For example, an organization could have one database for sales, one for payroll, one for a document management application, and so on. Sometimes an application uses only one database; other applications may access several databases.
It is not necessary to run multiple copies of the SQL Server database engine to allow multiple users to access the databases on a server. An instance of the SQL Server Standard or Enterprise Edition is capable of handling thousands of users working in multiple databases at the same time. Each instance of SQL Server makes all databases in the instance available to all users that connect to the instance, subject to the defined security permissions.
ASP.NET Features
ASP.NET is not just a simple upgrade or the latest version of ASP. ASP.NET combines unprecedented developer productivity with performance, reliability, and deployment. ASP.NET redesigns the whole process. It's still easy to grasp for new comers but it provides many new ways of managing project and implimentations. Below are the features of ASP.NET.
Easy programming model
ASP.NET makes building real world Web applications dramatically easier. ASP.NET server controls enable an HTML like style of declarative programming that let you build great pages with far less code than with classic ASP. Displaying data, validating user input, and uploading files are all amazingly easy. Best of all, ASP.NET pages work in all browsers including Netscape, Opera, Firefox and Internet Explorer.
Flexible language options
ASP.NET lets you leverage your current programming language skills. Unlike classic ASP, which supports only interpreted VBScript and JScript, ASP.NET now supports more than 25 .NET languages (built-in support for VB.NET, C#, and JScript.NET), giving you unprecedented flexibility in your choice of language.
Great tool support
You can harness the full power of ASP.NET using any text editor, even notepad. But Visual Studio .NET adds the productivity of Visual Basic-style development to the Web. Now you can visually design ASP.NET Web Forms using familiar drag-drop-doubleclick techniques, and enjoy full-fledged code support including statement completion and color-coding. VS.NET also provides integrated support for debugging and deploying ASP.NET Web applications.
The Enterprise versions of Visual Studio .NET deliver life-cycle features to help organizations plan, analyze, design, build, test, and coordinate teams that develop ASP.NET Web applications. These include UML class modeling, database modeling (conceptual, logical, and physical models), testing tools (functional, performance and scalability), and enterprise frameworks and templates, all available within the integrated Visual Studio .NET environment.
Rich Class Framework
Application features that used to be hard to implement, or required a 3rd-party component, can now be added in just a few lines of code using the .NET Framework. The .NET Framework offers over 4500 classes that encapsulate rich functionality like XML, data access, file upload, regular expressions, image generation, performance monitoring and logging, transactions, message queuing, SMTP mail, and much more. With Improved Performance and Scalability ASP.NET lets you use serve more users with the same hardware.
Compiled execution
ASP.NET is much faster than classic ASP, while preserving the "just hit save" update model of ASP. However, no explicit compile step is required. ASP.NET will automatically detect any changes, dynamically compile the files if needed, and store the compiled results to reuse for subsequent requests. Dynamic compilation ensures that your application is always up to date, and compiled execution makes it fast.
Rich output caching
ASP.NET output caching can dramatically improve the performance and scalability of your application. When output caching is enabled on a page, ASP.NET executes the page just once, and saves the result in memory in addition to sending it to the user. When another user requests the same page, ASP.NET serves the cached result from memory without re-executing the page. Output caching is configurable, and can be used to cache individual regions or an entire page.
Web-Farm Session State
ASP.NET session state lets you share session data user-specific state values across all machines in your Web farm. Now a user can hit different servers in the Web farm over multiple requests and still have full access to her session. And since business components created with the .NET Framework are free-threaded, you no longer need to worry about thread affinity.
Enhanced Reliability
ASP.NET ensures that your application is always available to your users.
Memory Leak, DeadLock and Crash Protection
ASP.NET automatically detects and recovers from errors like deadlocks and memory leaks to ensure your application is always available to your users. For example, say that your application has a small memory leak, and that after a week the leak has tied up a significant percentage of your server's virtual memory. ASP.NET will detect this condition, automatically start up another copy of the ASP.NET worker process, and direct all new requests to the new process. Once the old process has finished processing its pending requests, it is gracefully disposed and the leaked memory is released. Automatically, without administrator intervention or any interruption of service, ASP.NET has recovered from the error.
Easy Deployment
ASP.NET takes the pain out of deploying server applications. "No touch" application deployment. ASP.NET dramatically simplifies installation of your application. With ASP.NET, you can deploy an entire application as easily as an HTML page, just copy it to the server. No need to run regsvr32 to register any components, and configuration settings are stored in an XML file within the application.
Dynamic update of running application
ASP.NET now lets you update compiled components without restarting the web server. In the past with classic COM components, the developer would have to restart the web server each time he deployed an update. With ASP.NET, you simply copy the component over the existing DLL, ASP.NET will automatically detect the change and start using the new code.
Easy Migration Path
You don't have to migrate your existing applications to start using ASP.NET. ASP.NET runs on IIS side-by-side with classic ASP on Windows 2000 and Windows XP platforms. Your existing ASP applications continue to be processed by ASP.DLL, while new ASP.NET pages are processed by the new ASP.NET engine. You can migrate application by application, or single pages. And ASP.NET even lets you continue to use your existing classic COM business components.
XML Web Services
XML Web services allow applications to communicate and share data over the Internet, regardless of operating system or programming language. ASP.NET makes exposing and calling XML Web Services simple. Any class can be converted into an XML Web Service with just a few lines of code, and can be called by any SOAP client. Likewise, ASP.NET makes it incredibly easy to call XML Web Services from your application. No knowledge of networking, XML, or SOAP is required.
Mobile Web Device Support
ASP.NET Mobile Controls let you easily target cell phones, PDAs and over 80 mobile Web devices. You write your application just once, and the mobile controls automatically generate WAP/WML, HTML, or iMode as required by the requesting device.
System design is the process of developing specifications for a candidate system that meet the criteria established in the system analysis. Major step in system design is the preparation of the input forms and the output reports in a form applicable to the user.
The main objective of the system design is to use the package easily by any computer operator. System Design is the creative act of invention, developing new inputs, a database, offline files, method, procedures and output for processing business to meet an organization objective. System design builds information gathered during the system analysis.
4.1 Introduction
System design is a solution for, how to approach the creation of a new system It provides the understanding and procedural details necessary for implementing the proposed system.The purpose of this software phase is to design the software system in sufficient detail so that the sub-system can be correctly coded and tested. Software design is the process of designing a system by identifying its major components,and iterating until the desired level of detail is achieved. Software design is initiated when software requirements have been properly identified and documented. This phase ends when the software design documentation is judged to be complete and correct..
4.2 Modularization details
All the programs are menu-driven. Each menu provides the user with options which can perform different tasks. The main modules in this software are Administrator module and Agent module.
Customer Entry
It is provided for entering customer details like name, address, email-id etc.
Agent Register Form
It is provided for entering agent details like name, address, email-id etc.
Rate Settings
It is provided for specifying details like page number, column size in news papers, magazines etc. It also specifies the amount and description about the Ads.
Status update
It is used for displaying booking Id, customer name, column size, page number, publishing date, booking date.
This screen consist of login options for customer ie to enter their user name & password.
Agent booking
It is used for displaying booking Id, customer name, column size, page number, publishing date, booking date, select file.
4.3 Database design
The overall objective in the development of database technology has been to treat data as an organizational resource and as an integrated whole. Database Management System allows data to be protected and organized separately from other resources. Database is an integrated collection of data. This is the difference between logical and physical data.
The organization of data in the database aims to achieve three major objectives:
1. Data integration
2. Data integrity
3. Data independence
The databases are implemented using a DBMS package. Each particular DBMS has unique characteristics and general techniques for database design.
The process of normalization is concerned with the transformation of the conceptual schema to a computer representable form. Normalization reduces the redundancies and anomalies.
The First Normal Form
First normal form does not allow multivalued and composite valued attributes. It states that the domain of an attribute must include only atomic values and that value of any attribute in a tuple must be single value from the domain of that attribute.
The Second Normal Form
In second normal form, for relations where primary key contains multiple attributes, non key attributes should not be functionally dependent on a part of the primary key.
Third Normal Form
In third normal form, relation should not have a non-key attribute functionally determined by another non-key attribute. That is there should be no transitive dependency of a non-key attribute on the primary key.
Admin Module
0th Level

1st Level
2nd Level
Agent Module
0th Level
2nd Level
Column Name Data Type Size
fld_agid int
fld_agname varchar 50
fld_agaddress varchar 50
fld_agcontactno varchar 50
fld_agemail varchar 50
fld_userslno int
fld_agstatus bit 0 or 1
Column Name Data Type Size
fld_bookid int
fld_agid int
fld_setid int
fld_pubdate datetime
fld_bookdate datetime
fld_custid int
fld_filepath varchar 50
Column Name Data Type Size
fld_bookid int
fld_status bit 0 or 1
fld_description varchar 50
Column Name Data Type Size
fld_custid int
fld_custname varchar 50
fld_custaddr varchar 50
fld_custcontactno varchar 50
fld_custemail varcahar 50
fld_agid int
Fld_custstatus bit 0 or 1
Column Name Data Type Size
fld_setid int
fld_pgno int
fld_colsize varchar 50
fld_amount numeric 18,0
fld_description varchar 50
Column Name Data Type Size
fld_userslno int
fld_username varchar 50
fld_userpass varchar 50
fld_usertype varchar 50
Input design
Input design is the process of converting the user-originated inputs to a computer-based format. The design for handling input specifies how data are accepted for computer processing. Input design is a part of overall system design that needs careful attention and if includes specifying the means by which actions are taken. A system user interacting through a workstation must be able to tell the system whether to accept input produce a report or end processing. The collection of input data is considered to be the most expensive part of the system design. Since the inputs have to be planned in such a manner so as to get the relevant information extreme care is taken to obtain the information. If the data going into the system is incorrect then the processing and outputs will magnify these errors. The major activities carried out are
¢ Collection of needed data from the source
¢ Conversion of data into computer accepted from
¢ Verification of converted data
¢ Checking data for accuracy
The following are the major input screens used for CARGO MANAGER
Login Screen: This input screen is used for providing a user id and a password.
Output design
The output design has been done so that the results of processing should be communicated to the user. Effective output design will improve the clarity and performance of outputs.
Output design phase of the system is concerned with the Convergence of information to the end user - friendly manner. The output Design should be efficient, intelligible so that system relationship with the end user is improved and there by enhancing the process of decision making.
The data flow diagram (DFD) is one of the most important tools used by system analysts. Data flow diagrams are made up of a number symbols, which represent system components. Most data flow modeling methods use four kinds of symbols. These symbols are used to represent four kinds of system components. Processes, data stores, data flows and external entities. Processes are represented by circles in DFD. Data Flow represented by a thin line in the DFD and each data store has a unique name and square or rectangle represents external entities. Unlike detailed flowchart, Data Flow Diagrams do not supply detailed description of the modules but graphically describes a systemâ„¢s data and how the data interact with the system.
To construct a Data Flow Diagram we use,
¢ Arrow
¢ Circles
¢ Open End Box
¢ Squares
An arrow identifies the data flow in motion. A circle stands for process that converts data into information. An open-ended box represents a data store, data at rest or a temporary repository of data. A square defines a source or destination of system data.
Five rules for constructing a Data Flow Diagram
¢ Arrows should not cross each other.
¢ Squares, circles and files must bear names.
¢ Decomposed data flow squares and circles can have same names.
¢ Choose meaningful names for data flow
¢ Draw all data flows around the outside of the diagram
5.1 System implementation
Implementation is key stage in achieving a successful new system, because usually , it involves a lot of upheaval in the user departments. It is the stage of the project and implimentation where the theoretical design is turned in to a working system. It must therefore be carefully planned and controlled.
An important aspect of the system analyst job is to make sure that the design is implemented to establish standards. It is a process of converting a new revised system design in to an operational one.
Implementation includes all the activities that take place to convert the old system to new system may be totally new, replacing an existing manual or automated system or it may be a proper implementation essential to provide a reliable system to meet organizations equipment.
Implementation aspect
Implementation of new computer system to replace an existing one is more difficult conversion. If not properly planned, there can be many problems.
Implementation is a key stage in achieving a successful new system, because it usually involves a lot of upheaval in the user departments. During the phase the product structure, it is undergoing data structures, the general algorithms and interfaces and linkage among the various substructures are established.
5.2 System testing
Testing is the penultimate step of software development. An elaborate testing of data is prepared and the system is using test data. While doing testing, errors are noted and correction is made. The users are trained to operate the developed system .Both hardware and software securities are made to run the developed system successfully.
System testing is aimed at ensuring the system works accurately before live operation commences. Testing is vital to the system. A series of testing are performed for the proposed system before the system is ready for user acceptance testing. Nothing is complete without testing, as it is vital success of the system.
The entire testing process can be divided into 3 phases
¢ Unit Testing
¢ Integration Testing
¢ Final/ System 'testing
Unit Testing
Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software designs the module. To check whether each module in the software works properly so that it gives desired outputs to the given inputs. All Validations and conditions are tested in the module level in the unit test .Control paths are tested to ensure the information properly flows into, and out of the program unit and out of the program unit under test.
Boundary condition is tested to ensure that the modules operate at boundaries. All independent paths through the control structure ensure that all statements in a module have been executed at- least once.
Black Box Testing
This testing method focuses on the functional requirements of the software. It attempts to find out the error of the following categories such as incorrect and missing functions, interface error, error in data structure, performance error and initialization and termination errors.
White Box Testing
This testing method is also called path testing. It is a test case design method that uses the control structure of the procedural design to drive test case.
In this system, Unit testing has been successfully handled. The test data was given to each and every module in all respects and got the desired output. Each module has been tested found working properly.
Integration testing
The major concerns of integration testing are developing an incremental strategy that will limit the complexity of entire actions among components as they are added to the system.
Developing a component as they' are added to the system, developing an implementation & integration schedules that will make the modules available when needed, and designing test cases that will demonstrate the viability of the evolving system, Though each program works individually, they should work after linking them together. This is also referred to as Interfacing. Data may be lost across interface and one module can have an adverse effect on another. Subroutines, after linking, may not do the desired function expected by the main routine. Integration testing is a systematic technique for constructing program structure while at same time, conducting test to uncover errors associated with the interface .In the testing, the programs are constructed and tested in small segments.
Data Validation Testing
Data validation is done to see whether the corresponding entries made in the tables are correct. Proper validations are done in case of insertion and updating of tables. If any such case arises, then proper error messages or warning, if any, has to be displayed.
The different test cases are:
¢ Guarantee that all independent parts within a module have been exercised at least once.
¢ Exercise all logical decision on their true / false side.
¢ Exercise all loops at their boundaries and within their operational bounds.
¢ Exercise internal data structure to ensure their validity.
¢ Each module was tested and the tested modules were linked and integration test was carried out.
Password Testing
The login process is tested with some separate login trials. Password is mainly meant for security. Incorrect will be screened .Also already created passwords won't be allowed to use again.
Test Data
The system analyst will provide the test data, specially designed to show that the system will operate successfully in all its aspects and produce expected results under expected conditions. Preparation of test data and the checking of results should be carried out in conjunction with the appropriate users and operational departments. Also the extent to which the system should be tested must be planned.
System Testing
When a system is developed, it is hoped that it performs properly. In practice, however, some errors always occur. The main purpose of testing an information system is to find the errors and correct them. A successful test is one, which finds an error.
The main objectives of system testing are
¢ To ensure during operation the system will perform as per specification.
¢ To make sure that the system meets user's requirements during operation.
¢ To verify that the controls incorporated in the system function as intended.
¢ To see that when correct inputs are fed to the system the outputs are correct.
¢ To make sure that during operation, incorrect input and output will be deleted.
Acceptance Testing
Undertaken in this project and implimentation. An acceptance test has the objective of selling the user on the validity and reliability of the system it verifies that the system procedures operate to system specification and that the integrity of vital data is maintained. I tested the system with a large collection of records. The system is found to be user friendly and working efficiently. All the above testing was successfully done.
After the system is implemented successfully, training of the user is one of the most important subtasks of the developer. For this purpose user manuals are prepared and handled over to the user to operate the developed system.
Thus the users are trained to operate the developed system. Both the hardware and software securities are made to run the developed systems successfully in future. In order to put new application system into use, the following activities were taken care of:
¢ Preparation of user and system documentation.
¢ Conducting user training with demo and hands on.
¢ Test run for some period to ensure smooth switching over the system
The users are trained to use the newly developed functions. User manuals describing the procedures for using the functions listed on menu and circulated to all the users. It is confirmed that the system is implemented up to users need and expectations.
After the job of testing was completed the whole system was well documented in clear, understandable and simple language. This was to ensure that if any updating has to be performed in future. One who did the task would not face any problem performing those tasks. An attempt was made to maximum perfection in documenting the software in a simple, precise and self explanatory manner.
The documentation deals with the system department with maximum clarity. Each and every process is explained in detail. The tables used by the system with their fields are provided. The system uses various kinds of forms to produce well structured screen formats. These forms are also documented. The output is generated by the system constitutes another part.
Post implementation review
Software maintenance is the process of modifying a software system or component after its delivery in order to correct faults, improve the performance and other attributes, or to adapt to the changed environment.Maintenance covers a wide range of activities including correcting the coding and design errors, updating the documentation and test data, and upgrading the user support. There is an aging process that calls for periodic maintenance of hardware and software.Maintenance is always necessary to keep the software usable and usefu1. Hardware also requires periodic maintenance to keep the system in to its standards. Software maintenance activities can be classified into:
¢ Corrective Maintenance.
¢ Adaptive Maintenance .
¢ Perfective Maintenance
Corrective maintenance removes software faults. Perfective maintenance improves the system without changing its functionality. The objective of perfective maintenance should be to prevent failures and optimize the software.
Adaptive maintenance modifies the software to keep it up to date with its operative environment. It may be needed because of changes in the user requirements, changes in target platform, or changes in external interfaces.
Even if a system is wildly successful, someone will want new or enhanced features added to it.The process of receiving suggestions and requests for such enhancements or modifications, evaluating their effects, and implementing them is called "perfective maintenance".
The system A Multi-Tier Enterprise Application For Online Booking Of Classifieds has been designed and developed flexibly according to the current requirements. Depending upon the requirements of the user in future A Multi-Tier Enterprise Application For Online Booking Of Classifieds system can be updated in a much reliable manner.
The efficiency of the system can be improved by applying minor modifications. It would be necessary to make corrections in the programs depending on the changes in the system and the userâ„¢s advanced needs. The most exciting will be the Ads booking without the direct interaction.
The system A Multi-Tier Enterprise Application For Online Booking Of Classifieds has been developed for the given conditions and is found working effectively under all circumstances that may arise in real environment.
The proposed system, which has been implemented using C# .NET and SQL Server 2005 as back end provides many advantage over the manual system. The screen designs have been done in a good way so as to make the user comfortable with the system. The system was tested for a wide range of input and found to be error-free in all test cases. The entire system has been tested with a sample data.
The system is highly user friendly and is well efficient to make easy interactions with users of the system. The system is developed platform dependent, tested and implemented with high degree of accuracy. The system is done with an insight into the necessary modifications that may be required in the future. Hence the system can be maintained successfully without much rework.
1. Elias M Awad, System Analysis and Design II, Galgotia Publications, 1997.
2. ASP.NET Unleashed “ Stephen Walther.
3. System Analysis and Design - Robert E. Leslie
4. Fundamentals of Database Systems “ Elmasri & Navathe.
5. Inside Microsoft SQL Server 2000 -K.Delaney.
6. Keith Franklin ,2001,C#.NET for Developers, SAMS publishers.
7. Fundamentals of software engineering “Carlo Ghezzi.
8. Software engineering “ Ian Somerville.

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