NANOTECHNOLOGY TREATMENT OF CANCER – A New Perspective
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02-04-2010, 11:52 AM


ABSTRACT:

The credential part of this paper gives the theoretical application of nanodevices in the treatment of cancer. The latest technology for the treatment cancer is the chemotherapic treatment in which drugs of specific composition is given to the patients depending on the biopsy of the tumor from the patient. The main disadvantage of using chemotherapy is that the drug used is not so specific and hence it causes damage to the surrounding healthy cells. It uses MAB, the monoclonal antibodies to locate the affected areas. To make the treatment more specific, we use the nanodevices that use nanosensors to be more specific in application of chemotherapy to the malignant tumors, thereby increasing the safety in usage of chemotherapic drugs. Also the use of biomotors in the nanodevices increases the oxygen content in the surrounding that decreases the hypoxia environment. This is given more importance because the angiogenesis or blood vessel formation for tumors is activated in a low oxygen environment or hypoxia.
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22-02-2011, 09:47 AM


.doc   NANOTECHNOLOGY+-cancer+treatment.doc (Size: 252.5 KB / Downloads: 172)
ABSTRACT:
The credential part of this paper gives the theoretical application of nanodevices in the treatment of cancer. The latest technology for the treatment cancer is the chemotherapic treatment in which drugs of specific composition is given to the patients depending on the biopsy of the tumor from the patient. The main disadvantage of using chemotherapy is that the drug used is not so specific and hence it causes damage to the surrounding healthy cells. It uses MAB, the monoclonal antibodies to locate the affected areas. To make the treatment more specific, we use the nanodevices that use nanosensors to be more specific in application of chemotherapy to the malignant tumors, thereby increasing the safety in usage of chemotherapic drugs. Also the use of biomotors in the nanodevices increases the oxygen content in the surrounding that decreases the hypoxia environment. This is given more importance because the angiogenesis or blood vessel formation for tumors is activated in a low oxygen environment or hypoxia.
INTRODUCTION:
"This technology has the potential to replace existing manufacturing methods for integrated circuits, which may reach their practical limits within the next decade when Moore's Law eventually hits a brick wall"
- Physicist Bernard Yurke of Bell Labs.
With the introduction of nanotechnology we say we are in for a new invention, but we knew the concept of this technology from the days of Darwin; even his findings were based on this nanotechnology. There are many evidences for the existence of the concept nanotechnology.
What is nanotechnology?
Nano is one billionth of one. Now we have the so-called microprocessors and micromanipulations that would reach the nano level within a few decades.
Two more concepts commonly associated with nanotechnology are
• Positional assembly.
• Self-replication.
The basic requirements of any technology would be to do any work with greater accuracy and speed. This accuracy needs right programming of the nanocompf a DNA, which arranges the adenine, guanine, cytosine and thiamine with hydrogen bonds in between them, is self-explanatory for both self-replication and positional assembly.
NANO EVIDENCES:
• In 1990, IBM researchers showed that it is possible to manipulate single atoms. They positioned 35 xenon atoms on the surface of a nickel crystal, using an atomic force microscopy instrument. These positioned atoms spelled out the letters "IBM".
• In 1998, Los Alamos and MIT researchers managed to spread a single qubit across three nuclear spins in each molecule of a liquid solution of alanine or trichloroethylene molecules. Spreading out the qubit made it harder to corrupt, allowing researchers to use embarrassment to study interactions between states as an indirect method for analyzing the quantum information.
WHAT IS CANCER?
The human body is made up of many cellular units that worn out regularly. These worn out cells are removed and new cells replaces the old existing cells by a cellular division referred to as mitosis. Cancerous cells are those cells with boundless dividing capabilities that affect the normal body put up. Cancer begins when there has been a permanent change in the structure of DNA, referred to as the mutation. This change in gene structure takes place in several steps given below.
A. Primary steps:
In this case Safety Systems fails. The cells communicate with each other by receptor organs through the chemotherapic process, i.e. through chemical changes.
Proto-Oncogenes Become Oncogenes:
These messages referred to as the growth factor reaches the adjacent cells and activate the genes known as Proto-Oncogenes, but the case of a mutated gene is referred to as simply Oncogenes which gives message for repeated multiplication of cells, being the main causative of cancerous cell growth.
Tumor Suppressor Genes Stop Working:
The adjacent cells produce the tumor suppressor activation to inhibit the growth of the cells. At times this might also malfunction.
Cell Cycle Clock Malfunctions:
The cell nucleus contains a collection of interacting proteins that control cell division, called the cell cycle clock that interprets the health of the cell for further processes. If DNA is found damaged then the tumor suppressor gene destroys the cell.
Cells Achieve Immortality:
The normal life span of a cell is controlled within limits by the telomeres, a protector of DNA that reduce in amount during each cell division. At a particular point, the DNA is damaged and the cell is destroyed,causing an increase in the life span of the cell adding to the tediousness.
B. Secondary steps:
This alone is not enough to produce cancer cause it has to survive a number of other safety mechanisms that prevents the excessive cell growth.
Tumor Forms:
The tumor is a collection of cells without the aid of extracellular matrix for its survival, which maintains a blood vessel network buy angiogenesis and serves as a cancer tissue.
Tumors Spread:
These malignant tumors spread to the entire region local to it and also affect the nearby regions to form secondary growth or metastases.Thus the cancerous tissue is produced due to mutations in the gene structure causing cancer in the affected regions.
How an anti-cancer drug works:
The goal of chemotherapy is to shrink primary tumors, slow the tumor growth, and kill cancer cells that may have spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body from the original, primary tumor. Chemotherapy kills both cancer and healthy cells.Anticancer drugs destroy cancer cells by stopping them from growing .Chemotherapy, or the administration of cancer-fighting drugs, such as taxol, has proven effective in destroying breast cancer cells that have spread to other organs.
WHAT IS A MAB?
Monoclonal Antibody (MAb), laboratory-produced protein molecule used in medicine to detect pregnancy; diagnose disease, including acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis, and various kinds of cancer; and treat conditions caused by toxins, or poisonous substances, such as snake venom.
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23-02-2011, 10:42 AM


.docx   EFFECTIVE UTALIZATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN THE TREATMENT OF CANCER.docx (Size: 20.67 KB / Downloads: 99)
EFFECTIVE UTALIZATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CANCER TREATMENT
ABSTRACT:

Electronics and computational techniques are increasingly being used to analyze biological cells to diagnose diseases and develop methodologies to cure diseases inside the body. One such technology is ‘Nanotechnology’. The paper emphasizes on the best and effective utilization of Nanotechnology in the treatment of cancer. The design of nanodevice is based on the constant study of cancer cells and nanotechnology.
The nano device is injected to the patient which can travel through blood vessel, identify and destroy cancer cells. The system is fully automated whereby the device manages to move to the affected cells through certain algebraic calculations automatically wherever it might be placed. This would be loaded into a simple microprocessor like 8085 and can be embedded along with the nanodevice for automatic discovery of cancer cells. Manual guidance and monitoring is done to control the device explicitly, further more command signals are activated automatically or manually to destroy the affected cells through RF signals. The theme is based on the fact that the cancer cells get destroyed on exposure to RF signals, due to high heat generation.
In our paper we design a device that contains sensors, transceivers, motors and a processor which are made up of biodegradable compound. No more destruction of healthy cells due to harmful toxins and radiations generated through chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
INTRODUCTION:
Electronics and computationtal techniques are increasingly being used to analyze biological cells to diagnose diseases, and develop methodologies to cure the diseases inside the human body.
The main aim of this paper deals with the eradication of cancer cells by providing a steady, possible method of destroying and curing the cancer in an efficient and safe way so that healthy cells are not affected in any manner. This technology also focuses on a main idea that the patient is not affected by cancer again. The purpose of using the RF signal is to save normal cells.
NANOTECHNOLOGY:
A nanometer is one billionth of a meter - 1/80,000 the width of a human hair, or about the combined diameter of ten hydrogen atoms. Nanotechnology is the art of manipulating materials on the atomic or molecular level and is used to build microscopic devices such as robots and other machines. These miniature devices play an important role in providing safe and efficient analysis and treatment of disease.
CANCER: Cancer cells are different from healthy cells because they divide more rapidly than healthy cells. In addition, when cells divide at an accelerated rate, they form a mass of tissue called a tumour. These cancerous cells that come in excess amounts cause many problems to the bodies of patients.
The nano devices can be programmed to destroy affected cells and kill only them, thus ending the problem of destroying any normally functioning cells which are essential to one’s well-being.
In general, the most common methods used for the cancer treatment are
• Chemotherapy, a treatment with powerful medicines
• Radiation therapy, a treatment given through external high-energy rays
PROBLEM:
Both of these types of treatment are harmful. Healthy cells are destroyed in the process. As a result, this leaves the patient very weak, causing them to not be able to recover quickly medical treatments. Research has proved that any individual who had cancer can survive on deadly chemotherapy up to a maximum of five years and after that it’s anybody’s guess. But treatment using nano technology will make a man perfectly normal. This paper deals on the treatment of the most wide spread ‘CANCER’ using nano technology.
WHY GENES?
DNA, the genetic material of living organisms, is a large helical molecule held together by weak bonds between base pairs of nucleotides. Human genome consists of approximately 30000 genes, containing approximately 3 billion base pairs. A gene is a sequence of DNA. Sequence is the order of nucleotides in a DNA or ribonucleic acid (RNA).
SUPER CARBON:
With the help of nano-molecular tools, we could design the nano device. The device would have binding sites (sensors, transceiver, and other requirements) made up of super carbon. The working parts of these machines would be built around gears no bigger than a protein molecule.
PROCESS:
The initial step of identifying the cancer and the location can be done by scanning. Once the location has been identified through scanning, the task is to position the nanodevice to the exact location. We focus on the positioning of the nanodevice into the required location by itself. The nanodevice is allowed to be placed into any part of the body (or) the nano device is injected through the blood vessel. The positioning is done with the help of mathematical calculations. External Control signals could be used to avoid mishap or any other errors. The nanodevice is loaded with a microchip. The device is also provided with the compounds concealed so that it is initiated externally through a computer. The nano device contains sensors, motor, generator, processor, transceiver, camera and power supply. The location of the cancer cells is given as co-ordinates in a 3-dimensional point of view. This point is considered as the reference and referred as (0,0,0).
POSITIONING:
The nanodevice performs an internal calculation based on the difference between its current position and the reference. Mathematical computations involve such that only one axis is compared between the nano device and the reference at a time. The motor fan is placed in a particular direction for a particular reference comparison. After one of the axis is completed and comparison is done, then the next axis is being compared followed by the third. Thus the three co-ordinate comparison of the nano-device results in any 3-dimensional orientation of the nano-device and results in exact positioning.
NAVIGATION:
The output of the mathematical operation is given to a driver circuit (motor). The driver helps the device to navigate through the blood with precision in direction and with the required speed. Very precise control over location of the cancer killer's activities could thus be achieved. The cancer killer could readily be reprogrammed to attack different targets using acoustic signals while it was in the body.
The cancer killer could thus determine that it was located in (say) the big toe. If the objective was to kill a colon cancer, the cancer killer in the big toe would move to the colon and destroy the cancer cells. The device thus should sample its new position with the reference at a sampling rate. The sampling rate is made such that their value is less than the velocity of blood flow
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#4
05-03-2011, 03:38 PM

Presented By
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Abstract
A nanometer is a billionth of a meter. It's difficult to imagine anything so small, but think of something only 1/80,000 the width of a human hair. Ten hydrogen atoms could be laid side-by-side in a single nanometer. Nanotechnology is the creation of useful materials, devices, and systems through the manipulation of matter on this miniscule scale. The emerging field of nanotechnology involves scientists from many different disciplines, including physicists, chemists, engineers, and biologists.
“Nanotechnology will change the very foundations of cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.”
Nano scale devices used for treatment of Cancer are based on the constant study of cancer cells and nanotechnology. Nanoscale devices which are smaller than 50 nanometers can easily enter most cells, while those smaller than 20 nanometers can move out of blood vessels as they circulate through the body.
Because of their small size, nanoscale devices can readily interact with biomolecules on both the surface of cells and inside of cells. By gaining access to so many areas of the body, they have the potential to detect disease and deliver treatment in ways unimagined before now. Since biological processes that lead to cancer occur at the nanoscale at and inside cells, nanotechnology offers a wealth of tools with new and innovative ways to diagnose and treat cancer.
In our paper we design a device that contains sensors, transceivers, motors and a processor, which are made up of biodegradable compound. No more destruction of healthy cells due to harmful toxins and radiations generated through chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
INTRODUCTION:
The paper deals with the eradication of cancer cells by providing an efficient method of destroying and curing the cancer so that healthy cells are not affected in any manner. This technology also focuses on a main idea that the patient is not affected by cancer again. The purpose of using the RF signal is to save normal cells
NANOTECHNOLOGY IN THIS CONTEXT
Nanotechnology refers to the interactions of cellular and molecular components and engineered materials at the most elemental level of biology. This paper emphasizes on the effective utilization of Nanotechnology in the treatment of cancer.
WHAT IS CANCER?
Cancer cells are different from healthy cells because they divide more rapidly than healthy cells. In addition, when cells divide at an accelerated rate, they form a mass of tissue called a tumor. These cancerous cells that come in excess amounts cause many problems to the bodies of patients.
In general, the most common methods used for the cancer treatment are
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26-03-2011, 02:56 PM


.pptx   nano ppt.pptx (Size: 2.33 MB / Downloads: 107)
INTRODUCTION
What is nanotechnology?

Nanotechnology is the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer-length scale
Causes for cancer
Cancer occurs when cells begin to multiply more rapidly than usual and tumors or malignant growths of tissue are formed.
Cancer is caused by damage of genes which control the growth and division of cells.
Why we go for nanotechnology?
Conventional treatment options of cancer:

Surgery
Radiation therapy
Chemotherapy
SURGERY
Remove the cancerous part.
Limitations:
One loses the organ and the cancer may appear again.
The surgery is not possible for all types of cases of the cancer.
radiation therapy
Cancerous cells are burnt by radiation of specific frequency band and the intensity.
Limitation:
Even the healthy cells get burnt and cancerous cell burning is not uniform.
CHEMOTHERAPY
Cancerous cells are killed by drugs toxic to cells .
Limitation:
Rarely successful if the cancer is in advanced stage.
Advantages of nanotechnology in cancer treatment
NP size:few nm Cell size:few microns
Can be used to create therapeutic agents that target specific cells and deliver toxin to kill them.
Early detection of cancer:
Nanocrystals
Quantum dots
Nanopart
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26-03-2011, 04:17 PM


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NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CANCER TREATMENT
1.INTRODUCTION :

Nanotechnology is a fascinating science for many scientists as it offers them many challenges. Nano technology is the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer-length scale, i.e. at the level of atoms, molecules, and supramolecular structures. Recent developments in nanotechnology have provided researchers with new tools for cancer imaging and treatment. This technology has enabled the development of nanoscale devices that can be conjugated with several functional molecules simultaneously, including tumor-specific ligands, antibodies, anticancer drugs, and imaging probes. Since these nanodevices are 100 to 1,000-fold smaller than cancer cells, they can be easily transferred through leaky blood vessels and interact with targeted tumor-specific proteins both on the surface of and inside cancer cells. Therefore, their application as cancer cell-specific delivery vehicles will be a significant addition to the currently available armory for cancer therapeutics and imaging.
These technologies have been applied to improve drug delivery and to overcome some of the problems of drug delivery for cancer treatment. Several nanobiotechnologies mostly based on Nano particles, have been used to facilitate drug delivery in cancer. The magic of Nano particles mesmerizes everyone because of their multifunctional character and they have given us hope for the recovery from this disease. Although we are practicing better drug delivery paths into the body, we ultimately seek more accurate protocols to eradicate cancer from our society.
How is cancer caused?
Cancer occurs when cells begin to multiply more rapidly than usual and tumors or malignant growths of tissue are formed. Cancer is caused by damage of genes which control the growth and division of cells. Genes carry the instructions for basic functions of cells. Cancerous cell need blood supply to grow. A hormone like molecule causes nearby blood vessel to grow towards the cell to supply the oxygen and other nutrients. Cancer can be cured by rectifying the damaging mechanism of the genes or by stopping the blood supply to the cells or by destroying it. Detection/diagnose is possible by confirming the growth of the cells.
Conventional treatment options of cancer:
One of the treatment option is surgery. That is, remove the cancerous part. However, the limitation is that one loses the organ and the cancer may appear again. Further, the surgery is not possible for all types of cases of the cancer. Second option is radiation therapy. In this the cancerous cells are burnt by radiation of specific frequency band and the intensity. The limitation of this method is that even the healthy cells get burnt, cancerous cells burning is not uniform and the burnt part may become dead and non functional. The third option is chemotherapy. That is, cancerous cells are killed by drugs toxic to cells or by stopping cells from taking nutrients needed to divide the cells or stop the mechanism responsible for division of the cell. Normally a combination of drugs is given so that drugs affect all the three aspects of the cancer treatment. The limitation of this approach is that treatment is harmful to healthy cells, approach is gross and rarely successful if the cancer is in advanced stage. However, the limitation of these methods is that these are not very sensitive and the detection is possible only after substantial growth of the cancerous cells.
Advantages of nanotechnology in cancer treatment over conventional methods:
Nano Particles (NP) being of a few of nano meters size and the cells being of the size of few microns, NP can enter inside the cells and can access the DNA molecules/Genes and therefore, there is a possibility that the defect in the genes can be detected. In the nanotechnology methods, certain NP can be designed to absorb preferentially certain wavelength of radiation and if they enters in the cancerous cells, they will burn them. Nanotechnology can be used to create therapeutic agents that target specific cells and deliver toxin to kill them.The (NP) that is the nanoparticles will circulate through the body, detect cancer associated molecular changes, assist with imaging, release a therapeutic agent and then monitor the effectiveness of the intervention.
Drug Delivery Strategies Used To Fight Cancers:
There are a variety of different delivery strategies that are either currently being used or are in the testing stage to treat human cancers which are discussed in this paper.
Various methods for cancer treatment:
Recent Advances:

Tools of Nanotechnology:Some of the tools of nanotechnology having applications in cancer detection and treatment are the following :
(i) Cantilevers : Tiny bars anchored at one end can be engineered to bind to molecules associated with cancer. These molecules may bind to altered DNA proteins that are present in certain types of cancer (Fig.1). This will change the surface tension and cause the cantilevers to bend.
By monitoring the bending of cantilevers, it would be possible to tell whether the cancer molecules are present and hence detect early molecular events in the development of cancer.
(ii) Nanopores : Nanopores (holes) allow DNA to pass through one strand at a time and hence DNA sequencing can be made more efficient. Thus the shape and electrical properties of each base on the strand can be monitored. As these properties are unique for each of the four bases that make up the genetic code, the passage of DNA through a nanopore can be used to decipher the encoded information, including errors in the code known to be associated with cancer.
(iii) Nanotubes : Nanotubes are smaller than Nano pores. Nanotubes & carbon rods, about half the diameter of a molecule of DNA, will also help identify DNA changes associated with cancer
It helps to exactly pin point location of the changes. Mutated regions associated with cancer are first tagged with bulky molecules. Using a nano tube tip, resembling the needle on a record player, the physical shape of the DNA can be traced. A computer translates this information into topographical map. The bulky molecules identify the regions on the map where mutations are present.Since the location of mutations can influence the effects they have on a cell, these techniques will be important in predicting disease.
(iv) Quantum Dotes (QD) : These are tiny crystals that glow when these are stimulated by ultraviolet light. The latex beads filled with these crystals when stimulated by light, the colors they emit act as dyes that light up the sequence of interest. By combining different sized quantum dotes within a single bead, probes can be created that release a distinct spectrum of various colors and intensities of lights, serving as sort of spectral bar code.
(v) Nanoshells (NS) : These are another recent invention. NS are miniscule beads coated with gold. By manipulating the thickness of the layers making up the NS, the beads can be designed that absorb specific wavelength of light. The most useful nanoshells are those that absorb nearinfrared light that can easily penetrate several centimeters in human tissues. Absorption of light by nanoshells creates an intense heat that is lethal to cells. Nanoshells can be linked to antibodies that recognize cancer cells. In laboratory cultures, the heat generated by the light-absorbing nanoshells has successfully killed tumor cells while leaving neighbouring cells intact.
(vi) Dendrimer : A number of nanoparticles that will facilitate drug delivery are being developed. One such molecule that has potential to link treatment with detection and diagnostic is known as dendrimer. These have branching shape which gives them vast amounts of surface area to which therapeutic agents or other biologically active molecules can be attached. A single dendrimer can carry a molecule that recognizes cancer cells, a therapeutic agent to kill those cells and a molecule that recognizes the signals of cell death. It is hoped that dendrimers can be manipulated to release their contents only in the presence of certain trigger molecules associated with cancer. Following drug releases, the dendrimers may also report back whether they are successfully killing their targets.
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28-03-2011, 11:08 AM


.doc   NANOTECHNOLOGY IN MEDICINE.doc (Size: 399.5 KB / Downloads: 51)
NANOTECHNOLOGY; A MAGIC BULLET TO CURE CANCER
. Cancer has been the great killer of our time. While the advance of medical science has made many cancers treatable, the diagnosis of cancer can still often mean a death sentence. But thanks to a new science known as nanotechnology
During a visit to the doctor, you get the bad news. Various tests that have been performed on you have uncovered the fact that you have a cancer. It is a very aggressive, malignant form of cancer. The doctor gives you your options, which include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. He gives you your chances of survival, which are not good. Nevertheless, you submit to a treatment regime, which involves side effects such as nausea and pain. The progress of your cancer is slowed, but not stopped. Within a few short months of agony and rapidly deteriorating heath, you are dead. Now imagine another visit to the doctor. He gives you the same bad news. However, he is able to give you an injection right there in the office. During a follow up visit about two weeks later, tests indicate that your cancer has been totally eradicated. You have many years of happy, productive life ahead of you. How is the second scenario possible?
The answer lays in a new science known as nanotechnology.
What is Nanotechnology?
 The technology involving the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules to build structures with atomic specifications is called as nano technology.
 Nano technology is still at its infant stages, but the nano products are having far reaching uses NANO MATERIALS : Materials having very very small size crystallites in the range of 1-100 nanometers (nm) are defined as nano materials .
ARE NANO MATERIALS AVAILABLE IN NATURE?
Nanomaterials can be natural or man made. For example, some nano particles are produced naturally by plants or even by volcanic activity.
 They have also been created for thousands of years as the by products of cooking, burning and more recently from vehicle exhausts.
Nanotechnology And Cancer ;
Most animal cells are about ten thousand to twenty thousand nanometers in diameter. Therefore, it would be easy for nanodevices to enter and interact with the cells DNA and proteins.
Nanotechnology can be used to fight cancer in two ways. First, it will be used in detecting the presence of cancer far earlier and with greater precision than with standard diagnostic methods, such as x-rays, MRIs, and biopsies.
Second, it will be used in the destruction of the cancer, with greater precision and thoroughness, once it is detected.
Detecting Cancer
It is practically a cliché in medicine that early detection of cancer translates into a greater probability of treating the cancer successfully. There are several nanotechnology tools being developed that could detect cancer when it is still at the molecular level. Some nanodevices are being developed that could detect alterations of a cell’s DNA that is a precursor to the development of cancer tumors. Other nanodevices are being developed that would have the capability to bind to cancer cells and not normal cells, thus making detection easier. Still other nanodevices could detect cancer “biomarkers” in a sample of human blood far earlier than current tests allow. The advantages of these methods are that they can detect cancer early, without exploratory surgery, and without physically altering the cells being examined.
Curing Cancer
Nanotechnology’s greatest promise in medicine is its potential to destroy cancers that until now have been resistant to conventional treatments.
Modern chemotherapy and radiation can be best described as carpet bombing cancer. That means that healthy cells are attacked along with the cancer cells. The result is that the patient suffers serious side effects, including nausea, hair loss, anemia, and the degradation of his or her immune system. The lack of precision inherent in modern cancer fighting techniques sometimes means that not all of a cancer is eradicated, resulting in a resurgence of the cancer.
Nanotechnology provides the potential of a cancer fighting smart bomb. Nanodevices can be built that can precisely deliver drugs to the cancer cells, leaving healthy cells untouched. These devices would enter the previously detected cancer cells and deliver the drug or combination of drugs, destroying the cancer from within.
Another potential technique combines nanotechnology with a new form of radiation therapy. Carbon nanotubes are introduced into cancer cells. Then an infrared laser is focused on the affected area. The laser heats the nanotubes, causing the destruction of the cancer cells, leaving healthy cells untouched. BY NANO COMPUTERS
Another technique imagined for treating cancer would involve nanocomputers literally rewriting the DNA of cancer cells to turn them back into normal cells. The idea would be that these devices would examine the DNA of cancer cells on the atomic level, comparing them to what the DNA of normal cells for the patient should be, and then calling in nanorepair devices to fix the DNA.
Drug Administration take a great deal of time to approve new drugs and medical techniques for clinical use.
Nevertheless, some nanotechnology therapies are already available. Liposomes, a first generation nanotechnology device, is being used to deliver drugs to treat certain kinds of fungal infections as well as some kinds of cancer. A team at MIT have managed to successfully kill cancer tumors in mice using a nanodevice delivered drug. Another team at Stanford has used carbon nanotubes to heat and destroy cancer cells.
In 2001, the National Cancer Institute suggested that nanodevices that could detect cancers could be available in “five to fifteen years” and that similar devices that could treat cancers would be available in about the same time frame. Devices that can both detect and treat cancers could be available in “fifteen to twenty years.”
That means that within the lifetimes of most people, cancer, that great killer of our time, may no longer be fraught with the horrors we view it with now. Our descendents might well view cancer as we view certain plagues of the past, like small pox, as part of history and no longer as part of everyday life.
ANOTHER METHOD FOR CURING CANCER -USING NANOROBOTS, nanorobots are perfect for eradicating malignant cells. Scientists are already hard at work on nanobots that can identify and destroy cancer at its growth site so that no trauma is inflicted anywhere else in the body.
The burgeoning field of nanotechnology has many useful and direct applications for the medical industry, and nanorobots are no exception to this rule. The medical science wants to create nanobots that can repair damaged tissue without pain and trauma.
Many of the medical procedures we employ today are very traumatic to the human body and do not work in harmony with our natural systems.
Chemotherapy wreaks havoc on humans and nearly kills them in the quest to kill off their malignant cancer cells.
Invasive surgical procedures are also quite common today, with associated traumas that cause many patients to die on the operating table rather than survive and heal.
Nanorobots are so small that they actually interact on the same level as bacteria and viruses do, and so they are capable of building with the very particles of our bodies: atoms and molecules.
The ideal nanobot has not yet been fully realized, but when this microscopic robot makes its inevitable debut it will be hailed as a lifesaver by the world of medicine.
Some might say that today’s medical advances are more than enough and that mankind should leave room for natural processes. The fact of the matter is that artificial lifestyles have given rise to all kinds of ailments that absolutely require human interference for lifesaving purposes.
Surgery’s attendant risks are not only inherent in the cutting and sewing done by medical staff but include drug-related dangers as well. Patients may be allergic to anesthetics; their organs may become infected from a variety of surgery-related sources; during an organ transplant their body may mysteriously reject the new organ, leading to death; and in the case of a tumor operation, even a few microscopic missed cells can constitute complete failure to battle the cancer.
Simply put, surgeons are people—and people are far too large and clumsy to perform the types of fine-scale operations necessary for fixing the human body.
Drugs are little better when it comes to finesse. Although they do have the ability to interact specifically with the body’s molecules and cells, they operate by way of the circulatory system. Your bloodstream is an indiscriminate cycle that delivers its contents to many parts of the body.
Any drug administered will automatically affect areas of the body that are perfectly healthy, and significant doses will most likely cause unpleasant side effects. This means that the drug which is supposed to cure you may actually leave many parts of your body in worse shape than they were before. In this sense they have much the same blunt effect as a surgeon’s scalpel, no matter how refined the drug.
Nanorobots, on the other hand, will typically measure only about six atoms wide. It is anticipated that they could be equipped with all sorts of tools and cameras in order to furnish more extensive information about the human body. Not only that, but researchers expect that someday they will have refined the nanobot design to the point where nanobots can be remotely controlled in order to perform millions of useful tasks.
Among these is the ability to float neutrally through your bloodstream, identifying problem areas of your body and fixing them. Nanorobots could be used to clear built-up cholesterol from your arteries, thereby saving you from a heart attack. If the heart itself is damaged, they work their way up to the affected area and perform micro-surgery that you would probably not feel or notice, but which would almost certainly save your life.
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14-02-2012, 11:54 AM

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