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Computer Science Clay
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14-06-2009, 01:34 AM

Submitted by
in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree
COCHIN “ 682022
NOV 2008 Page 2

Certified that this is a bonafide record of the seminar and presentation entitled
done by MOHAMMAD SADIQUE SANJAR of the VII semester,
Computer Science and Engineering in the year 2008 in partial
fulfillment of the requirements to the award of Degree of Bachelor of
Technology in Computer Science and Engineering of Cochin University
of Science and Technology.
Remyamol K M
Dr. David Peter S
Head of the Division
Division of Computer Engineering
Division of Computer Engineering

At the outset, we thank God almighty for making our endeavor a success. We also
express our gratitude to Mr. David Peter S, Head of the Department for providing
us with adequate facilities, ways and means by which we were able to complete
this seminar and presentation.
We express our sincere gratitude to our Seminar Guide Remyamol K M, Lecturer,
Computer Engineering Division for his constant support and valuable suggestions
without which the successful completion of this seminar and presentation would not have been
We express our immense pleasure and thankfulness to all the teachers and staff of
the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, CUSAT for their
cooperation and support.
Last but not the least, we thank all others, and especially our classmates and our
family members who in one way or another helped us in the successful completion
of this work.Page 4

Wearable communication networks are a new type of networks where
communication wires are embedded into textiles. It allows the connection between
sensors and devices embedded into the material. Data from such devices can be
sent over various pieces of clothing to other devices in the network. A special
characteristic of such a network is the unreliable connection between different
pieces of clothing. This paper presents a prototype system and investigates routing
methods using simulations of a fabric area network. Input data for simulations are
derived from the operation of a first working prototype.
Increased research in microelectronics, wireless communications,
and human computer interaction particularly augmented-reality applications has
made a symbiotic system technically feasible. Wearable computing, or wearware,
focuses on making this technology useful in everyday life, particularly for
integrating contextual data with the Internet to automate mundane tasks. The
availability of portable, energy efficient computing devices that can be easily
integrated with clothing has renewed interest in the possibilities of wearware. The
notion of a wearable network of interactive devices aiding users in their day-to-day
activities is extremely appealing, but for it to become a reality researchers must
develop interesting and useful applications. Consumers are not interested in the
technology per se but in how it could enrich their lives.Page 5

Table of Contents
Chapter No.
Page No.
List of figures
List of Tables
Smart Clothing
2.1 Georgia Tech Wearable Motherboard
2.2 Availability and Success of GTWM
2.3 Limitations and Issues of Smart Shirt
2.4 Other Interesting Smart Clothing
Wearable Networks
4.1 Off -Body Networking Technologies
4.2 On -Body Networking Technologies
Fabric Area Networks
22 Page 6

List of figures
Sl. No.
Page No.
GTWM suit
Scenarios of Use for the "Smart Shirt"
The "Smart Shirt" Sensory Architecture
Detail of the "Smart Shirt"
"Smart Shirt" Platform Implementation
MIThril wearable computing system
The FANâ„¢s star topology
20 Page 7

List of Tables
Sl. No.
Page No.
Off-body networking technologies
On-body networking technologies
18 Page 8

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
1. Introduction
We are in the maturing phase of an explosion in private devices that
we can carry around with us or that are even attached to our body or clothing.
Today these devices work standalone and are not inter connected. But with
upcoming Ubiquitous Communication (Ubicomp) and Computing [W91]
technology new applications will arise and existing applications will profit from
enhanced knowledge transferred from other devices attached to us.
Interconnection of such small devices is the goal of several novel
technologies, especially RF based Pico-networks like Bluetooth [S99] and
body-networks. These systems have the disadvantage that they broadcast the
information into the nearby environment [PAB00] and are therefore vulnerable
for possible intruders.
They also consume substantial quantities of energy compared to
wire-based solutions. This paper concentrates on one special kind of network
used for interconnecting devices that are worn or near the body. The Fabric
Area Network (FAN) [H01] is a wire-based network embedded into textiles that
allows secure and private transfer of data between all devices that have a
connection through clothes that are being worn.
Possible application areas of such networks are communication of
sensors incorporated into clothing with a central computer, health applications
with various independent devices (pacemaker, life care watch etc.) or blue color
workers with pagers, scanners and special-purpose devices. This paper presents
a system and its first outcome and finally simulations of a network implemented
into the fibers of clothing. The paper concentrates on the problem of routing of
packets in the network.Page 9

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
For clothing, the intersection points can provide the connection between parts of
the network and are therefore the places where routing and filtering of packets
should be implemented. Various algorithms for routing are introduced and
analyzed in this paper.
The use of routing gives the possibility to control the workload and the power
consumption of the stations and therewith the control over the workload of the
entire network. The opportunity to decide which way data packets should go makes
the network more powerful and more adaptable in the dynamic environment in
which it resides. Characteristics of the network (e.g. packet loss, delay etc.) are
derived from experimental prototypes that we had integrated into clothing and had
them worn.
Recent technological advances have made possible a new generation
of small, powerful, mobile computing devices. Consumers can now access a
wide range of communication, informational, and computational resources
anytime, anywhere. We are still far from realizing the "man-machine systems"
conceived more than four decades ago by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S.
Kline in "Cyborgs and Space."
However, increased research in microelectronics,
wireless communications, and human-computer interaction”particularly
augmented reality applications”has made such a symbiotic system technically
Wearable computing, or wearware,
was pioneered in the 1970s and
has already been developed to support specialized activities in such diverse fields
as aircraft maintenance, virtual conferencing, and medicine. Today the focus is
on making this technology useful in everyday life, particularly in integrating
contextual data with the Internet to automate mundane tasks.Page 10

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
2. Smart Clothing
"Smart Clothing" is made from fabrics that are wireless and washable
that integrate computing fibers and materials into the integrity of the fabrics.
Georgia Tech is one university among several, which include MIT and University
of California at Davis, which conduct research in the area of "intelligent fabric".
2.1 Georgia Tech Wearable Motherboard
Georgia Tech developed a "Wearable Motherboard" (GTWM), which was initially
intended for use in combat conditions. Georgia Tech's research was funded by the
US Department of Navy. The Sensate Liner for Combat Casualty Care uses optical
fibers to detect bullet wounds and special sensors that inter connects in order to
monitor vital signs during combat conditions. Medical sensing devices that are
attached to the body plug into the computerized shirt, creating a flexible
The GTWM is woven so that plastic optical fibers and other special
threads are integrated into structure of the fabric. There are no discontinuities in
the GTWM. The GTWM is one piece of fabric, without seams. Because the
sensors are detachable from the GTWM, they can be placed at any location, and is
therefore adjustable for different bodies. Therefore, it can be customized for each
user. For example, a firefighter could have a sensor that monitors oxygen or
hazardous gas levels. Other sensors monitor respiration rate and body temperature
or can collect voice data through a microphone.Page 11

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
Before the GTWM was adjusted and improved for commercial use, the
information was transmitted via a "personal status monitor" that connects to the
shirt and is usually worn at the hip. It also served as a personal computer so that
wearers can access the internet, listen to music, or check e-mail. Now, the personal
status monitor has been integrated into the shirt itself. The system is also
completely wireless. The GTWM identifies the exact location of the physical
problem or injury and transmits the information in seconds. This helps to
determine who needs immediate attention within the first hour of combat, which is
often the most critical during battle.
Fig 2.1: GTWM suitPage 12

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
2.2 Availability and Success of GTWM
The GTWM is currently being manufactured for commercial use
under the name "Smart Shirt". Sensatex/Life link is manufacturing the "Smart
Shirt", which should be available early next year. The company plans to develop
relationships with firefighter groups, doctors and others in order to create
"wearable motherboards," that meet their different needs
The commercial applications for the "Smart Shirt are:
Medical Monitoring
Disease Monitoring
Infant Monitoring
Obstetrics Monitoring
Clinical Trials Monitoring
Biofeedback Page 13

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
Fig 2.2 : Scenarios of Use for the "Smart Shirt"
2.3 Limitations and Issues of the "Smart Shirt"
Some of the wireless technology needed to support the monitoring
capabilities of the "Smart Shirt" is not completely reliable. The "Smart Shirt"
system uses Bluetooth and WLAN. Both of these technologies are in their
formative stages and it will take some time before they become dependable and
Additionally, the technology seems to hold the greatest promise for
medical monitoring. However, the "Smart Shirt" at this stage of development only Page 14

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
detects and alerts medical professionals of irregularities in patients' vital statistics
or emergency situations. It does not yet respond to dangerous health conditions.
Therefore, it will not be helpful to patients if they do face complications after
surgery and they are far away from medical care, since the technology cannot yet
fix or address these problems independently, without the presence of a physician.
Future research in this area of responsiveness is ongoing.
As is the case for any monitoring system, the privacy of the wearer
could be compromised. For example, a GTWM that is outfitted with a microphone
or GPS may compromise the wearer's privacy. Additionally, the data that is
transferred by the "Smart Shirt" could be used for purposes other than the intended,
and could be viewed by unauthorized people. Databases about individuals could
also be linked to provide more information than is necessary for this application.
All of these possibilities could compromise the privacy of the individual.
Furthermore, Dr. Molly Coyle, founder of Health Technology Center in
San Francisco, a non-profit organization that researches the role of technology in
improving health, believes that monitoring for healthy people may exacerbate
hypochondria. In my research on "Smart Clothing", there was never any mention
of the cost to manufacture or keep up the system that it requires. This suggests that
the cost may be somewhat prohibitive for widespread use.
Furthermore, since its most noble applications seem to be in the area of
medical monitoring and telemedicine in particular, where the likelihood that
patients are already spending a lot of money on medical care, it is uncertain
whether this population will be able to afford this kind of technology.
In the case of telemedicine and the aforementioned scenario of use with
patients recovering from surgery, there is also the possibility that patients may bePage 15

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
released from hospitals prematurely because doctors may depend on this
technology to monitor them.
Fig 2.3: The "Smart Shirt" Sensory ArchitecturePage 16

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
Fig 2.4 : Detail of the "Smart Shirt"
2.4 Other Interesting "Smart Clothing"
There are also other "Smart Clothes" that are aimed at consumer use.
For example, Philips, a British consumer electronics manufacturer, has developed
new fabrics, which are blended with conductive materials that are powered by
removable 9V batteries. These fabrics have been tested in wet conditions and have
proven resilient and safe for wearers. One prototype that Philips has developed is a
child's "bug suit" that integrates a GPS system and a digit camera woven into thePage 17

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
fabric with an electronic game panel on the sleeve. This allows parents to monitor
the child's location and actions. Another Philips product is a live-saving ski jacket
that has a built in thermometer, GPS, and proximity sensor.
The thermometer monitors the skier's body temperature and heats the
fabric if it detects a drastic fall in the body temperature. The GPS locates the skier,
and the proximity sensor tells the skier if other skiers are nearby. Philips suggests
that wearable computers will be widely used by the end of the next decade.
Fig 2.5 : "Smart Shirt" Platform Implementation
3. MIThrilPage 18

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
The MIT Media Lab is developing several wearable computing
project and implimentations ( wearable/). MIThril is a next-generation research
platform inspired by the lightweight ring-mail armor called mithril worn by
Frodo, the protagonist of J.R.R. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings saga. As Figure 3.1
shows, the system hardware is unobtrusively packaged in a vest and, except for the
head-mounted Micro Optical QVGA clip-on display and Handy key Twiddler, can
be completely concealed by a shirt. The software combines user interface
elements, machine-learning tools for classifying context-aware data, and prototype
applications for biomedicine, communications, and just-in-time information
MIThril integrates four low-power computing cores: the Linux-based
BSEV (a Bright Star Engineering ipEngine-1 with a body bus/video driver board),
an Intrinsyc Cardboards, an IEEE 802.11 bridge, and a microcontroller-based
data-gathering system. The body network links the cores to one another and to the
wireless bridge via 10-Mbps Ethernet, while the body hub connects the BSEV core
to a wide range of sensors and peripherals, including an infrared active tag
reader, an accelerometer, a microphone, headphones, a charge-coupled device
camera, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as well as the head-
mounted display and twiddler.Page 19

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
Fig 3.1 : MIThril wearable computing system.
4. WearableNetworksPage 20

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
The most important factor in these and other wearable
computing systems is how the various independent devices interconnect and
share data. An off-body network connects wearware to other systems that the
user does not wear or carry, while an on-body or personal area network
connects the devices themselves”the computers, peripherals, sensors, and other
The advent of portable computers and wireless communication
technologies such as IEEE 802.11, also known as Wi-Fi, has ensured reasonable
anytime, anywhere connectivity.
However, this free flow of information must be
regulated to disseminate data effectively in a wearable network. In addition, because
wearable networks must operate under several constraints, they have unique
requirements with respect to mobility, bandwidth, power conservation, portability,
security, radiation levels, and Internet connectivity.
The degree of mobility is application-dependent. For example, a factory
worker needs coverage on the shop floor, a courier within a city, and a traveling
salesperson throughout a region. Connectivity issues extend beyond the needs of a
single user, and corporate-level standardization and technology integration must
be taken into account. Both off-body and personal area networks must not have
line-of-sight (LoS) requirements. Bandwidth is also application specific. For exam-
ple, aircraft technicians using interactive multimedia for design documents would
need extensive bandwidth, while very low data rates are sufficient for a delivery
Connecting several devices in a system with little available portable
power introduces complications. Factors that affect a device's battery life include
traffic patterns, passive modes such as sleep, and the transmit/receive duty
cycle.Page 21

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
Advances in very large-scale integration, signal processing, and
battery technology are improving power management in both hardware and soft-
ware. Devices must be small enough and lightweight enough to carry in a pocket or
embed within fabric. In addition, they must be durable to withstand harsh
environmental conditions including rain and the turbulence they are subjected to in a
washing machine.
When a user is an integral part of a wearable community, privacy and
security are of paramount importance, especially in a wireless medium, which is
inherently less secure. Military applications must meet low probability of intercept
or low probability of detection
conditions, as well as provide good defense against
Although studies on the harmful effects of radiation from cell phones
and other wireless devices are inconclusive, safety is becoming a more important
design consideration. In general, it is desirable to contain radiation to the surface
of clothing and away from the body, especially as the number of wearable
electronic devices and usage increase.
Finally, wearables must ultimately connect to the Internet, which could
occur in three ways.
One approach uses a proxy gateway at some off-body access
point to interface to the Internet, with all on-body subsystems communicating via a
non-IP protocol.
This efficiently uses scarce IPv4 addresses, but the proxy is a potential
bottleneck because it can become overloadeds with requests. Another solution
merges the proxy's functionality with an on-body hub assigned a single IP address,
again with non-IP subsystem communication. A third approach assigns device-
specific IP addresses to simplify communication. However, each device must bePage 22

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
IP-compliant, with sufficient computational resources to handle IP issues; this
approach also hogs already scarce IPv4 addresses” not an issue in IPv6.
Wearware will likely use a combination of these approaches, with the more
powerful devices in the personal area network running IP and secondary devices
such as sensors and personal peripherals using non-IP communication.
4.1 Off-Body Networking Technologies
Off-body communications rely on wireless local area network (LAN)
technologies and, increasingly, Manets. There is no single ideal solution, with each
varying according to data-rate requirements. Improvements in the area of tiered
networks and wireless metropolitan area networks (MANs) will integrate voice,
data, and other multimedia services. Table 1 summarizes the current off-body
wireless networking solutions.
Satellite technologies including low earth orbit, medium earth orbit,
or even the well-established geostationary earth orbit systems”used in very
small aperture terminals”are not viable options for off-body networks because of
their large antenna sizes, high power requirements, and prohibitively high costs.
For the same reason, both local multipoint distribution service and multichannel
multipoint distribution service technologies are impractical.Page 23

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
Fig 4.1 : Off-body networking technologiesPage 24

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
4.2 On-Body Networking Technologies
A personal area network connects a computer to various devices”
sensors, actuators, peripherals, and so on”that a user carries or wears or, in some
cases, places nearby. A typical PAN includes a central processing module, separate
keypad or pointing device, display device, voice input device, and speaker for audio
output as well as several application-specific devices such as bar code readers and
health-monitoring sensors.
PANs are generally classified as wire-based, infrared-based, or radio-
frequency-based, with wired solutions being the predominant technology for
wearware. Many off-body solutions could be used on a smaller scale for on-body
communications but, as Figure 2 shows, would involve a colossal waste of resources.
Current on-body networking solutions are summarized in Table 2.
Several wearable prototypes use an on-body USB hub. A competitor with Fire
Wire, USB 2.0 provides data rates up to 480 Mbps, can support up to 127 devices,
and is compatible with the older 12-Mbps USB 1.1, which is still widely deployed.
It also supports isochronous communications suitable for keyboards and other input
devices.Page 25

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
Fig 4.2 : On-body networking technologiesPage 26

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
5. Fabric Area Networks
Created by Alex Hum at the now defunct Star lab research laboratory
in Brussels, a FAN
uses multiple radio frequency identification links to embed a
wireless network in clothing. Using RFID removes the LoS requirement; in addition,
the power of the near-field inductive coupling of RF fields decays to the third power
of distance, thereby preventing interference”common in Bluetooth, HomeRE, and
IEEE 802.11”by limiting radiation to specific areas on the clothing's surface.
Because the normal range of low-frequency RFID is about 10 centimeters,
covering the entire human body would require a circular antenna 2.54 meters in
diameter. However, as Figure 3 shows, the FAN model obviates this difficulty by
using multiple RF antennas, each with a diameter less than 2 centimeters, to route
data between connection points like a typical data network. This star topology
restricts the RF field's zone to the overlapping regions of the antennas, thereby
eliminating the need to broadcast in all directions.
Clothing using FAN technology, which Hum's group referred to as
intelligent wear, has the potential to monitor the environment, including light and
sounds, as well as body functions and even mood. For example, a shirt outfitted
with audio sensors could instruct a mobile phone to ring more loudly if the wearer
is at a party, or not at all if she is in a meeting.
Although i-Wear represents an innovative and exciting development in wearable
network design, attracting the support of Siemens, Philips, Adidas, Levi Strauss,
and other major companies in the technology and fashion industries, little research
has occurred in this area since the bankruptcy of Star labPage 27

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
Fig 5.1 : Fabric area network. The FANâ„¢s star topology restricts the radio
frequency fieldâ„¢s zone to the overlapping regions of the antennas, thereby
eliminating the need to broadcast in all directions.Page 28

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
6. Conclusion
A Wearable computing pioneer suggests that Smart clothing is a form of
existential media. Existential media defines new forms of social interaction through
enhanced abilities for self expression and self actualization, as well as through self-
determination. Wearable communication networks are a new type of networks where
communication wires are embedded into textiles. It allows the connection between
sensors and devices embedded into the material. Data from such devices can be sent
over various pieces of clothing to other devices in the network. A special characteristic
of such a network is the unreliable connection between different pieces of clothing.Page 29

Next Generation Wearable Networks
Department of Computer Science,SOE,CUSAT
7. References
1. M.E. Clynes and N.S. Kline, Cyborgs and Space,
The Cyborg Handbook, C.H. Gray, H.J. Figueroa-Sarriera, and S.
Mentor, eds., Routledge, 1995, pp.29-34.
2. W. Barfield and C. Thomas, eds., Fundamentals of
Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality,
Lawrence Erlbaum, 2000.
3. J.G. Spooner, Wearable Chips: Put on Your Dancinâ„¢
Shirt, 26 Apr. 2002,;
4. M. Broersma, Infineon Cuts Deals for Wearable
Chips, 24 July 2002, CNET;
5. J. Sundgot, Communicating Clothes, 16 May
2002, infoSync World;
6. A.P.J. Hum, Fabric Area Network”A New Wireless
Communications Infrastructure to Enable Ubiquitous
Networking and Sensing on Intelligent Clothing,
Computer Networks, vol. 35, no. 4, 2001, pp.
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