NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY A SEMINAR REPORT
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Computer Science Clay
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14-06-2009, 09:40 AM



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NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT


A night vision device (NVD) is an optical installment that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness. They are most often used by the military and law enforcement agencies, but are available to civilian users. The term usually refers to a complete unit, including an image intensifier tube, a protective and generally water-resistant housing, and some type of mounting system. Many NVDs also include sacrificial lenses, IR illuminators, and telescopic lenses. NVDs are mounted appropriately for their specific purpose, with more general- purpose devices having more mounting options. For instance, the AN/PVS-14 is a monocular night vision device in use with the US military as well as by civilians. It may be mounted on the user's head for hands free use with a harness or helmet attachment, either as a monocular device, or in aligned pairs for binocular "night vision goggles" which provide a degree of depth perception as do optical binoculars. The AN/PVS-14 may also be attached to a rifle using a Pica tinny rail, in front of an existing telescopic or red dot sight, or attached to a single-lens reflex camera. Other systems, such as the AN/PVS-22 or Universal Night Sight, are designed for a specific purpose, integrating an image intensifier into, for example, a telescopic sight, resulting in a smaller and lighter but less versatile system.
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NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY

Presented BY
DEEPIKA.G.D
NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY

Introduction
Types of NVT
Thermal Imaging
Image Enhancement
Performance Attributes
Technical characteristics
Equipments
Applications
Conclusion
References


Introduction
NVT allows us to see in the dark
Originally developed for military use
Now used for site security, surveillance as well as search and rescue
Evolved from bulky optical instruments in lightweight goggles through the advancement of image intensification technology.
Types of night vision
Categorized by generations
Each substantial change NVT establishes a new generation
Categorized into:
Generation-0
Generation-1
Generation-2
Generation-3
Generation-4

Generation-0
Created by US Army
Uses active infrared
A project and implimentationion unit called IR illuminator is attached
Full moon operation
Use anode in conjunction with cathode to accelerate the electrons
Problems “acceleration causes distortion of image as well as reduction of life of the tube
Also, it was quickly duplicated by the hostile nations

Generation-1 (1960â„¢s)
Uses passive infrared
Uses ambient light provided by the moon and the stars
Donâ„¢t require a source of project and implimentationed infrared light
Donâ„¢t work well on cloudy or moonless nights
One quarter moon operation
Uses same image-intensifier tube technology as Generation-0
Same problems as faced by the Generation-0


Generation-2 (1970â„¢s)
Offer improved resolution and performance over Generation-1 devices
Considerably more reliable
Able to see in extreme low light conditions due to the addition of microchannel plate(MCP) to the image-intensifier tube
The images are less distorted and brighter



Generation-3 (1990â„¢s)
Currently used by the US Army
Better resolution and sensitivity
Photocathode is made up of Gallium Arsenide
MCP is coated with an ion barrier
Tube life is increased
Generation-4 (2000â„¢s)
Known as filmless and gated technology
Shows significant improvement in both high- and low-level light environments
No ion barrier in MCP
Responds quickly to different lightning conditions
Reduced background noise
Enhances signal to noise ratio
Images are less distorted and brighter

Thermal imaging
This technology operates by capturing upper portion of the infrared light spectrum, which is emitted as heat
Hotter objects emit more of this light than the cooler objects
These elements then create a thermogram
Thermogram electric pulses display data

Thermal imaging
Thermal imaging devices
Two types:
1. Uncooled.
2. Cryogenically cooled.

Great for detecting people or working in near-absolute darkness


Image Enhancement
Image Enhancement
It is also known as Image intensification
Relies on image intensifier tube to collect an amplify infrared and visible light
Lens captures the light which is then sent to image intensifier tube
It has photocathode that converts photons into electrons
When electrons pass through MCP ,more electrons are presented
This causes chain reaction where atoms are released
Electrons reach phosphor screen and photons are released
Those phosphor create green image


Performance Attributes
Sensitivity (photo response)- tubeâ„¢s ability to detect the available light
Signal- plays a key role in night visionâ„¢s performance
Resolution- ability to dissolve detail in the image
Technical Characteristics
Textures, Light and Dark
Depth Perception
Fog and Rain
Honeycomb
Spots
Equipments
Three categories
Scopes
Goggles
Cameras


Equipments
Scopes- monocular, handheld, better look at a specific object and then return to normal viewing conditions.
Goggles- binocular, handheld or worn, excellent for constant viewing
Cameras- send the image to a monitor for display or to a VCR for recording.




Applications
Military
Law enforcement
Hunting
Wild life observation
Surveillance
Security
Navigation
Hidden-object detection
Entertainment

Conclusions
Although the term ``night vision'' currently encompasses three distinct technologies, it is the evolution of image intensification technology that first made devices practical and widely used.

Their success was the result of advancements in light amplification and resolution techniques.
References

electronics.howstuffworksnightvision3.html
nightvisionmilitary/militaryhome.html
physics.ohio-state.edu/~wilkins/writing/Samples/shortmed/johnmedium/index.html
atncorpHowNightVisionWorks
morovisionhownightvisionworks.htm
alanaecologyacatalog/Introduction_to_ Nightvision.html
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rutvii_2
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30-01-2010, 10:36 PM

hii... please send me the night vision technology as soon as possible please....
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.pdf   night-vision-technology-full report.pdf (Size: 200.63 KB / Downloads: 1,632)

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NIGHT VISION TECHHNOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
Night vision Technology by literally allows one to see in the dark.
Night Vision Technology
Night Vision Technology is used to view objects in darkness.
This technique is mostly used by night vision devices.
NVD basically works on IR spectrum.
The light with shorter wavelength have higher energy.

NEAR INFRARED
MID INFRARAED
THERMAL INFRARAED

IR emission occurs when some changes occurs in the atomic level of objects.

If energy is applied to an atom the electron in it jumps to higher energy level.

As the electron trends to return to its ground state, it release its energy as photons.

This photon has specific wavelength depends on its energy level.



Night vision can work in two ways.



Thermal Imaging
Image Enhancement




Thermal Imaging

The thermal imaging technology operates by capturing the upper portion of IR light spectrum. The infrared spectrum is emitted as heat by objects instead of simply reflected as light. The warm objects emit more IR light than cooler objects.
WORKING

A special lens focuses the IR light emitted by all of the objects in view.
The focused light is scanned by a phased array of IR detected elements.
This scanning create a very detailed temperature pattern called thermogram.
The thermogram created by the detector elements is translated into electric impulses.


The electric impulses are then send to a signal processing unit which translates them into data for the display.
The signal processing unit send the information to the display. Itâ„¢s colour depends on the intensity of IR emission.
The combination of all the impulses from all the elements create the image.



IMAGE ENHANCEMENT

Image enhancement systems are normally called NVDâ„¢s. NVDâ„¢s rely on a special tube called an image intensifier tube to collect and amplify IR and visible light.
Working


An objective lens captures near-IR light.
The gathered light is send to the image-intensifier tube. The power supply for this tube receives power from two N-cell or AA battery.
The image intensifier tube has a photo cathode, which is used to convert the photons into electrons.
When the electron pass through the tube, similar electrons are released from atoms and it multiplies in number through micro channel plate(MCP).

An MCP is a glass disc that has various microscopic holes and has metal electrodes on both sides.

When a electron from the photo cathode hit the first electrode of MCP they get accelerated.

As electron pass through the micro channels they release other electrons using a process called Cascaded secondary emission.

The new electron collide with atoms creating a chain reaction result in rapid increase of electron.


The micro channels are created at a slight angle to encourage electron collision.

At last the electron hit a screen coated with phosphorus. This cause phosphorus to reach exited state and release photons.

This photons create green image which characterize night vision.

The viewed image can be magnified and focused through occular lens.





CHARACTERISTICS

Textures, light and dark
The objects that are clearly visible on day appear dark and vice versa through night vision unit.

Fog and Rain
Fog and rain reflect more light towards the night vision unit and this may degrade its performance.



Honey comb


This is a faint hexagonal pattern witch is the result of the manufacturing process.
Black spots
A few is a inherent characteristics of night vision technology which remain constant and will not increase in size or number.

EQUIPMENTS

Night vision Equipments can be classified into three categories.
Scope

Goggle

Cameras
Scopes

Scopes are monocular can be handheld or mounted on a weapon.
Goggles
Goggles are binocular can be handheld or worn on the head.
Cameras
Cameras with night vision technology can send the images to a monitor or VCR for display or recording.
APPLICATIONS

Military
Law Enforcement
Hunting
Wild life observation
Surveillance
Security
Navigation
Hidden object detection
Entertainment

ADVANTAGES

Night vision devices are compact in size and is easily portable.

It is widely used in military purposes so it is reliable.

Itâ„¢s working is very simple so it is easy to use.

It is designed for a long life.
DISADVANTAGES

Night vision devices is very costly.

It cannot properly be used in rain and fog as it degrade its performance.

Poor quality images due to black spots.
CONCLUSION

The new generation began to discover the unique world that can be found after darkness falls. Thus in the modern times night vision technology become a part of our daily life. Night vision devices can be useful to you “ just be sure to get the right type of your needs.
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12-02-2010, 11:21 AM


.doc   NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY.doc (Size: 71 KB / Downloads: 656)
Night vision

ABSTRACT
"Night vision" as referenced here is that technology that provides us with the miracle of vision in total darkness and the improvement of vision in low light environment. Night vision has existed for more than fifty years. Its importance is remarkable mostly in warfare, though night vision has numerous uses. Modern hunters rely in night vision to hunt animals during the night without being exposed to them
Night vision has had many improvements throughout the course of history. Its beginning date back to Second World War when the Germans idealized a very effective way to easily use their sniper rifles during the night. This was later researched very deeply into because night vision proved to have a devastating advantage for those who used it.
There are currently two different technologies for night vision .The first one is thermal vision and second one is regular vision. Both of them are used for detect object, though they both have advantage and disadvantages for thermal vision is that it does not require any light whatsoever to function. On the other hands regular vision cannot function in complete darkness because they Use technology capable of multiplying exis


INTRODUCTION


"Night vision" as referenced here is that technology that provides us with the miracle of vision in total darkness and the improvement of vision in low light environment. Night vision has existed for more than fifty years. Its importance is remarkable mostly in warfare, though night vision has numerous uses. Modern hunters rely in night vision to hunt animals during the night without being exposed to them
Night vision has had many improvements throughout the course of history. Its beginning date back to Second World War when the Germans idealized a very effective way to easily use their sniper rifles during the night. This was later researched very deeply into because night vision proved to have a devastating advantage for those who used it.
Night vision uses a very complex mechanism some what similar to modern TV's As a matter of fact; more than 200 chemicals substances are needed in order to make night vision product work effectively
There are currently two different technologies for night vision .The first one is thermal vision and second one is regular vision. Both of them are used for detect object, though they both have advantage and disadvantages. On the other hands regular vision cannot function in complete darkness because they
Use technology capable of multiplying existent light by thousands of times -And not detect it from elsewhere.

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give me edge topic full report
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please ask here seminar and presentationproject and implimentationsnewthread.php?fid=29 for new topic discussion ,
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NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY A SEMINAR REPORT
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i request for seminar and presentation report on night vision technology
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Hey,
the full report has been posted in this thread itself. Please copy and paste the text to make your report. You can also download the ppt anf doc files posted alongwith it.
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HAI... I NEED THE ABSTRACT,REPORT,PPT OF NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY IN SIMPLE FORM.I HOPE YOU GUYS COULD HELP ME IN THIS AND IF U COULD, SEND ME TO sumishere@rediffmail.com AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. TANKING YOU.
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.pdf   night vision .pdf (Size: 478 KB / Downloads: 512)

NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY

abstract


Night vision technology, by definition, literally allows one to see in the dark. Originally developed for military use, it has provided the United States with a strategic military advantage, the value of which can be measured in lives. Federal and state agencies now routinely utilize the technology for site security, surveillance as well as search and rescue. Night vision equipment has evolved from bulky optical instruments in lightweight goggles through the advancement of image intensification technology.
The first thing you probably think of when you see the words night vision is a spy or action movie you've seen, in which someone straps on a pair of night-vision goggles to find someone else in a dark building on a moonless night. And you may have wondered
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This report is presented byTongueresented by
HISHARA.N.S
FOURTH SEMESTER
B.Sc. COMPUTER SCIENCE
C.H.M.M. COLLEGE FOR ADVANCED STUDIES
Metca Land, Chavarcode, Palayamkunnu P.O
Thrivannathapuram

NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY


INTRODUCTION
Night vision technology, by definition, literally allows one to see in the dark. Originally developed for military use, it has provided the United States with a strategic military advantage, the value of which can be measured in lives. Federal and state agencies now routinely utilize the technology for site security, surveillance as well as search and rescue. Night vision equipment has evolved from bulky optical instruments in lightweight goggles through the advancement of image intensification technology. The first thing you probably think of when you see the words night vision is a spy or action movie you've seen, in which someone straps on a pair of night-vision goggles to find someone else in a dark building on a moonless night. And you may have wondered "Do those things really work? Can you actually see in the dark?" The answer is most definitely yes. With the proper night-vision equipment, you can see a person standing over 200 yards (183 m) away on a moonless, cloudy night! Night vision can work in two very different ways, depending on the technology used. Night vision technology was developed by the US defense department mainly for defense purposes, but with the development of technology night vision devices are being used in day to day lives. In this seminar and presentation of mine I wish to bring out the various principles of working of these devices that have changed the outlook both on the warfront and in our common lives. Night Vision can work in two different ways depending on the technology used.
1.Image enhancement- This works by collecting the tiny amounts of light including the lower portion of the infrared light spectrum, those are present but may be imperceptible to our eyes, and amplifying it to the point that we can easily observe the image.
2:Thermal imaging- This technology operates by capturing the upper portion of the infrared light spectrum, which is emitted as heat by objects instead of simply reflected as light. Hotter objects, such as warm bodies, emit more of this light than cooler objects like trees or buildings. Image enhancement This works by collecting the tiny amounts of light, including the lower portion of the infrared light spectrum, that are present but may be imperceptible to our eyes, and amplifying it to the point that we can easily observe the image.
3 Thermal imaging
This technology operates by capturing the upper portion of the infrared light spectrum, which is emitted as heat by objects instead of simply reflected as light. Hotter objects, such as warm bodies, emit more of this light than cooler objects like trees or buildings. In this article, you will learn about the two major night-vision technologies. We'll also discuss the various types of night-vision equipment and applications. But first, let's talk about infrared light.


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29-09-2010, 12:40 PM


.doc   Nightvision.doc (Size: 89 KB / Downloads: 133)
This article is presented by:
Alexis Carr, Matt Parunak, & Rekita Moody
Night Vision Optics



ABSTRACT
In this study we will attempt to disclose the major aspects of night vision technology and how it has evolved over the past forty years. Night vision is simply having the ability to see in the dark. In many night vision systems, the objective lens collects small particles of light called photons and focuses them on an image intensifier. Within the image intensifier lies a photocathode which absorbs light energy and converts it into electrons. When the highly intensified electron image strikes the phosphor screen, it causes the screen to emit light which can be seen with the human eye. This process allows one to see a reflected image that directly corresponds with the outside image they are viewing. Night vision technology is considered preeminent and is used throughout the world in various areas of life (“How Night Vision Works”).

INTRODUCTION

Have you ever got up in the middle of the night and stumbled over an object in the middle of the floor? Blinded by the darkness, you rush to the nearest light switch to get an illuminated view of the area. Well, stumble no more; through advancement in technology, special equipment has been produced to enable one to see through the darkness. We call these highly esteemed devices, night vision optics. Originally developed and used by the U.S. military to locate enemy targets at night; night vision optics or devices, better referred to as NVDs, have revolutionized the history of human vision.

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Night vision device

abstract



A night vision device (NVD) is an optical instrument that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness. They are most often used by the military and law enforcement agencies, but are available to civilian users. The term usually refers to a complete unit, including an image intensifier tube, a protective and generally water-resistant housing, and some type of mounting system. Many NVDs also include sacrificial lenses[1], IR illuminators, and telescopic lenses.
Night vision devices were first used in World War II, and came into wide use during the Vietnam War.[2][3] The technology has evolved greatly since their introduction, leading to several "generations" of night vision equipment with performance increasing and price decreasing.
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