NON- CONVENTIONAL ENERGY project and implimentation report
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seminar surveyer
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04-01-2011, 03:33 PM





.doc   NON- CONVENTIONAL ENERGY.doc (Size: 90 KB / Downloads: 643)

SYNOPSIS
This project and implimentation is used for generating electrical power by simply running the train on the railway track. This project and implimentation uses simple drive mechanism such as rack and pinion assembly and chain drive mechanism. The pushing power is converted into electrical energy by proper driving arrangement. A spring arrangement is provided at the top. As the train runs over the rails, the spring is compressed; rack and pinion converts the linear motion to the rotary motion. The larger sprocket is coupled to the small cycle sprocket with the help of chain. This larger sprocket is used to transfer the rotation force to the smaller sprocket. The smaller sprocket is running in the same direction for the forward and reverse direction of rotational movement of the larger sprocket. This action locks like a cycle pedaling action. The fly wheel and gear wheel is also coupled to the smaller sprocket shaft. The gear wheel is coupled to the generator shaft with the help of another gear wheel. The power produced is stored in a lead acid battery and this can be used for powering lights with the help of an inverter.


NEED FOR NON- CONVENTIONAL ENERGY
Fuel deposit will soon deplete by the end of 2020 Fuel scarcity will be maximum. Country like United Kingdom may not have the chance to use petroleum products. Keeping this dangerous situation in mind we tried to make use of non-pollutant natural resource of petrol energy.
The creation of new source of perennial environmentally acceptable, low cost electrical energy as a replacement for energy from rapidly depleting resources of fossil fuels is the fundamental need for the survival of mankind. We have only about 25 years of oil reserves and 75-100 years of coal reserves.
Solar power stations (s.p.s) provide a cost-effective solution even though work on solar photo voltaic and solar thermo electric energy sources has been extensively pursued by many countries. Earth based solar stations suffer certain basic limitations.
It is not possible to consider such systems and meeting continuous uninterrupted concentrated base load electric power requirements. Energy plays an important role in the material, social and cultural life of man kind. The energy needs are increasing day by day. This is the result of population growth and increase in the standard of living which is directly proportional to energy consumption.
It is therefore, harnessing the gigantic inexhaustible solar energy source reduces the dependence on fossil fuels. For the environmental concerned, the solar energy harnessing system offers advantages in that, it emits no pollutions in to the atmosphere as they are with the combustion of fossil fuels. Thus, as a long term option solar energy system can be considered as an alternate to all the finite fuel system.


OBJECTIVE OF OUR PROJECT
When thinking about nonconventional source of energy what usually comes to our mind are the existing and extensively used nonconventional sources of energy like solar, tidal, wind, geo thermal heat, biomass .But in countries where we have so fluctuant weather and temperature, to depend on these resources are highly unreliable .That made us want to think out of the box and find a new method of generating energy which should be highly reliable and cost effective.
After pondering over this for long we tumbled upon the idea that railways, is the busiest network that function throughout the year and is massively spread. The thought of railway tracks struck us deep and henceforth decided to foster some means to derive energy from this alternative. We knew we could succeed in our plans as it is practically possible and effective. Also it’s very efficiently functioning which makes it a constant source of energy. Hence it’s very viable to produce energy from such a resource.
The equipment will be placed a little under the railway track. The downward force produced by the running of the train will be effectively converted to electrical energy.


PARTS AND COMPONENTS
1. GEAR
A gear is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or cogs, which mesh with another toothed part in order to transmit torque. Two or more gears working in tandem are called a transmission and can produce a mechanical advantage through a gear ratio and thus may be considered a simple machine. Geared devices can change the speed, magnitude, and direction of a power source.

MAJOR TYPES OF GEARS:
1. SPUR GEAR.
2. HELICAL GEAR
3. DOUBLE HELICAL GEAR.
4. BEVEL GEAR

1. SPUR GEAR
Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear. They consist of a cylinder or disk with the teeth project and implimentationing radially, and although they are not straight-sided in form, the edge of each tooth is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation. These gears can be meshed together correctly only if they are fitted to parallel axles.

2. FLYWHEEL
A flywheel is a mechanical device with a significant moment of inertia used as a storage device for rotational energy. Flywheels resist changes in their rotational speed, which helps steady the rotation of the shaft when a fluctuating torque is exerted on it by its power source such as a piston-based engine, or when an intermittent load, such as a piston pump, is placed on it. Recently, flywheels have become the subject of extensive research as power storage devices for uses in vehicles and power plants.

3. RACK AND PINION
A rack and pinion is a type of linear actuator that comprises a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion. The circular pinion engages teeth on a linear ‘gear’ bar, the rack. Rotational motion applied to the pinion will cause the rack to move to the side, up to the limit of its travel.

4. CHAIN DRIVE AND SPROCKET
Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another. It is often used to convey power to the wheels of a vehicle, particularly bicycles and motorcycles. It is also used in a wide variety of machines besides vehicles.
Most often, the power is conveyed by a roller chain, known as the drive chain or transmission chain, passing over a sprocket gear, with the teeth of the gear meshing with the holes in the links of the chain. The gear is turned, and this pulls the chain putting mechanical force into the system.

5. DC GENERATORS
In electricity generation, an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by a motor, motors and generators have many similarities. A generator forces electrons in the windings to flow through the external electrical circuit. It is somewhat analogous to a water pump, which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine, water falling through a turbine or waterwheel, an internal combustion engine, a wind turbine, a hand crank, compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy.

6. BATTERY
A battery cell consists of five major components, electrodes-anode and cathode, separators, terminals, electrolyte and a case or enclosure. Battery cells are grouped together into a single mechanical and electrical unit called a battery module. These modules are electrically connected to form a battery pack, which powers the electronic drive systems.

7. INVERTER CIRCUIT
An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current to alternating current, the converted AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits. Static inverters have no moving parts and are used in a wide range of applications, from small switching power supplies in computers, to large electric utility high-voltage direct current applications that transport bulk power. Inverters are commonly used to supply AC power from DC sources such as solar panels or batteries. The inverter performs the opposite function of a rectifier.



ADVANTAGES
 Power generation is simply running the train on this arrangement.
 Power also generated by running or exercising on the track
 By small modification, this system can be used in the speed breaker arrangement.
 No need fuel input
 This is a Non-conventional system
 Battery is used to store the generated power


DISADVANTAGES
 Slight inclination is required in the Railway Track
 Mechanical moving parts is high
 Initial cost of this arrangement is high.
 Care should be taken for batteries


FUTURE SCOPE

 This arrangement is slightly modified to construct in foot step and this arrangement is fixed in
 Schools,
 Cinema theatres,
 Shopping complex and
 Many other buildings

FINISHED WORK
The research work has been completed and the theory seems very practical. The selection of materials and the design of parts will be completed in a month’s time. I hope to complete the working model in 2 months’ time.




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ajitram
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#2
23-01-2011, 11:44 PM

hey could you please give me a detailed version on how uve built a prototype of this or atleast a schematic diagram

Email Add: ajitramesan@gmail.com
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seminar surveyer
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#3
24-01-2011, 09:49 AM

for more details, please visit the following threads.

topicideashow-to-non-conventional-energy-resources
topicideashow-to-non-conventional-energy-system--3571
topicideashow-to-non-conventional-sources-of-energy-in-tamil-nadu-full-report
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mojahun
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#4
15-02-2011, 07:38 PM

It seems to be more innovative. Thanks
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Tejas desai
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#5
12-03-2011, 11:31 PM

heya i already made it and what i got was 10 mm depression produces 12 V!!!!!
its cost effective tooSmile
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seminar class
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#6
23-03-2011, 12:14 PM

Presented by:
K.A.SIVA KUMAR
P.NAVEEN KUMAR


.doc   NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY FUEL CELLS.doc (Size: 282.5 KB / Downloads: 68)
Technology is like a double edged weapon…..
which can turn either to a boon or bane..
depends only how you pursue it
and how you use it….
Energy is today’s basic necessity; we don’t produce energy but transfer it to different forms and use it. We have selected this presentation “NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY” because it suggests logical solutions to how we have produced energy and power for such a long time till humans existed on earth. In this presentation we have described the general idea of fuel cell energy with chemical reactions and processes involved in them. We have covered the history of fuel cell, principle and its working, types of fuel cells, construction of low temperature PEM fuel cell and benefits of fuel cells. There after we concluded up with the applications of these fuels cells.
Non-Conventional Energy
INTRODUCTION:-
Energy is the primary and most universal measure of all kinds of work by human beings and nature. Every thing that is happening in the world is the expression of flow of energy in one of its forms. Most people use the word energy for input to their body and thus think about crude fuels and electric power.
All of us know that neither energy can be created nor destroyed it can be just transformed from one form to another. Now-a-days we are using mostly non-conventional sources to generate electricity like solar energy, wind energy, chemical energy, co-generation, geothermal, biomass energy, hydro energy, fuel cell energy. These energy converters were developed mostly in 18th Century but the revolutionary changes occurred only in 20th and 21st centuries.
HISTORY OF FUEL CELL:-
The principle of the fuel cell was discovered by German scientist Christian Friedrich Schonbein in 1838 and published in the January 1839 edition of the “Philosophical magazine”. Based on this work, the first fuel cell was developed by Welsh scientist Sir William Robert Grove in 1843. The fuel cell he made used similar materials to today’s phosphoric-acid fuel cell. It wasn’t until 1959 that British engineer Francis Thomas Bacon successfully developed a 5 k W stationary fuel cell. In 1959 a team led by Harry Ihrig built a 15 KW fuel cell tractor for Allis-Chalmers which was demonstrated across the US at state fairs. This system used potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and compressed hydrogen and oxygen as the reactants.
UTC’s Power subsidy was the first company to manufacture and commercialize a large, stationery fuel cell system for use as a co-generation power plant in hospitals, universities and large office buildings. UTC power continues to market this fuel cell as the Pure Cell 200 KW system.
In 2006 Staxon introduced an inexpensive OEM fuel cell module for system integration. In 2006 Angstrom power, a British Columbia based company, began commercial sales of portable devices using proprietary hydrogen fuel cell technology, trademarked as “micro hydrogen”.
WHAT IS A FUEL CELL?
Fuel cell is a device that electrochemically converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidant to electrical energy. The fuel and oxidant are typically stored outside of the fuel cell and transferred into the fuel cell as the reactants are consumed.
In principle a fuel cell operates like a battery. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not run down are require recharging. It will produce energy in the form of electricity and heat as long as fuel is supplied.
A fuel cell consists of two electrodes sandwiched around an electrolyte. Oxygen passes over one electrode and hydrogen over the other, generating electricity, water and heat
HOW DO FUEL CELLS WORK?
Anode: 2H2 4H+ + 4e-
Cathode: O2 + 4H+ + 4e- 2H2O
Overall: 2H2 + O2 2H2O + energy
A fuel cell generates electrical power by continuously converting the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy by way of an electrochemical reaction. The fuel cell itself has no moving parts, making it a quiet and reliable source of power. Fuel cells typically utilize hydrogen as the fuel, and oxygen (usually from air) as the oxidant in the electrochemical reaction. The reaction results in electricity, by-product water, and by-product heat.
Because the fuel is converted directly to electricity, a fuel cell can operate at much
higher efficiencies than internal combustion engines, extracting more electricity from the same amount of fuel.
When hydrogen gas is introduced into the system, the catalyst surface of the membrane splits hydrogen gas molecules into protons and electrons. The protons pass through the membrane to react with oxygen in the air (forming water). The electrons, which cannot pass through the membrane, must travel around it, thus creating the source of DC electricity.
Individual fuel cells can be then combined into a fuel cell "stack". The number of fuel cells in the stack determines the total voltage, and the surface area of each cell determines the total current. Multiplying the voltage by the current yields the total electrical power generated.
TYPES OF FUEL CELLS:
Fuel cells are generally categorized by their electrolyte—the material sandwiched between the two electrodes. This material's characteristics determine the optimal operating temperature and the fuel used to generate electricity. Each comes with its particular set of benefits and short comings
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viplove.sahni
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#7
27-03-2011, 01:51 PM

Hello!! Its a really nice project and implimentation. Can i've a schematic diagram or some more info on how will u make this project and implimentation.

Please reply on viplovesahni@gmail.com

Thanx.
Regards.
Viplove
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24-02-2012, 04:54 PM

ENERGY SOURCES


.docx   Deepan raj Assignment work correction.docx (Size: 28.51 KB / Downloads: 31)

1. Introduction to energy
Energy is the primary and most universal measure of all kinds work by human beings and nature. Every thing what happens the world is the expression of flow of energy in one of its forms.
Non-Conventional Energy Sources
The sources of energy which are being produced continuously in nature and are in exhaustible are called renewable sources of energy (or) non-conventional energy.


Winds are caused because of two factors.
1. The absorption of solar energy on the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere.
2. The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the Sun. A wind mill converts the kinetic energy of moving air into Mechanical energy that can be either used directly to run the Machine or to run the generator to produce electricity.
(b) Tidal energy
Tides are generated primarily by the gravitational attraction between the earth and the Moon. They arise twice a day in Mid-Ocean. The tidal range is only a Meter. Basically in a tidal power station water at high tide is first trapped in a artificial basin and then allowed to escape at low tide. The escaping water is used to drive water turbines, which in turn drive electrical generators.
© Solar energy
Brief history of solar energy (or) Importance of solar energy: Energy from the sun is called solar energy. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that take place deep in the Sun. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space.

SOLAR ENERGY
Energy from the sun is called solar energy. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun. The most important are light infrared rays. Ultra violet rays, and X- Rays.
Solar Radiation at the Earth’s Surface
The solar radiation that penetrates the earth’s atmosphere and reaches the surface differs in both amount and character from the radiation at the top
of the atmosphere. In the first place. Part of the radiation is reflected back in to the space, especially by clouds. Further more, the radiation entering the atmosphere is partly absorbed by molecules in the air. Oxygen and Ozone (o3), formed from oxygen, absorb nearly all the Ultraviolet radiation, and water vapor and carbon dioxide absorb some of the energy in the infrared range.
In addition, part of the solar radiation is scattered (i.e. its direction has been changed) by droplets in clouds by atmosphere molecules, and by dust particles.
Instruments for measuring solar radiation and sun shine
Solar Radiation flux is usually measured with the help of a pyranometer or a Pyrheliometer, sunshine recorder is used for measuring sunshine.
Solar Energy applications
1. Heating and cooling of residential building.
2. Solar water heating.
3. Solar drying of agricultural and animal products.
4. Salt production by evaporation of seawater.
5. Solar cookers.
6. Solar engines for water pumping.
7. Solar Refrigeration.
8. Solar electric power generation.
9. Solar photo voltaic cells, which can be used for electricity.
10. Solar furnaces.

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seminar ideas
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#9
30-04-2012, 03:10 PM

NON- CONVENTIONAL ENERGY



.pdf   fuel_cells_Sreevidhya@Students.pdf (Size: 306.33 KB / Downloads: 27)

INTRODUCTION:-

Energy is the primary and most universal measure of all kinds of work by human
beings and nature. Every thing that is happening in the world is the expression of flow of
energy in one of its forms. Most people use the word energy for input to their body and thus
think about crude fuels and electric power.
All of us know that neither energy can be created nor destroyed it can be just
transformed from one form to another. Now-a-days we are using mostly non-conventional
sources to generate electricity like solar energy, wind energy, chemical energy, co-generation,
geothermal, biomass energy, hydro energy, fuel cell energy. These energy converters were
developed mostly in 18th Century but the revolutionary changes occurred only in 20th and 21st
centuries.



HISTORY OF FUEL CELL:-

The principle of the fuel cell was discovered by German scientist Christian Friedrich
Schonbein in 1838 and published in the January 1839 edition of the “Philosophical magazine”.
Based on this work, the first fuel cell was developed by Welsh scientist Sir William Robert
Grove in 1843. The fuel cell he made used similar materials to today’s phosphoric-acid fuel
cell. It wasn’t until 1959 that British engineer Francis Thomas Bacon successfully developed a
5 k W stationary fuel cell. In 1959 a team led by Harry Ihrig built a 15 KW fuel cell tractor for
Allis-Chalmers which was demonstrated across the US at state fairs.



WHAT IS A FUEL CELL?
Fuel cell is a device that electrochemically converts the chemical energy of a fuel
and an oxidant to electrical energy. The fuel and oxidant are typically stored outside of
the fuel cell and transferred into the fuel cell as the reactants are consumed.
In principle a fuel cell operates like a battery. Unlike a battery, a fuel cell does not run
down are require recharging. It will produce energy in the form of electricity and heat as long
as fuel is supplied.


TYPES OF FUEL CELLS:
Fuel cells are generally categorized by their electrolyte—the material sandwiched
between the two electrodes. This material's characteristics determine the optimal
operating temperature and the fuel used to generate electricity. Each comes with its
particular set of benefits and short comings.
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seminar flower
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25-06-2012, 11:24 AM

NON - CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCE

.pptx   NON - CONVENTIONALENERGY SOURCE.pptx (Size: 1.7 MB / Downloads: 30)

INTRODUCTION

As the requirement of power is increasing day to day. Hence large amount of power is to be generated.
At present India is the sixth largest country in the world in electricity generation.
India having an aggregate generating capacity of (1,81,558.12 MW ) out of which

WHAT IS NON – CONVENTIONAL ENERGY ?

The sources of energy which are being produced continuously in nature and are in exhaustible are called renewable source of energy (or) non – conventional energy sources.
Some of these sources are:
(1) Bio – Mass
(2) Solar Energy
(3) Tidal Energy
(4) Wind Energy

BIO - MASS

Bio - mass is the biological material, mainly derived from the living organisms or recently living organisms this includes plants , animals and there by - product.
Different types of bio - mass includes
(1) Sugar Cane Trash .
(2) Rice Husk , Straw.
(3) Coconut Husk , Shells.
(4) Municipal Waste.
(5) Animal Solid Waste.

ADVANTAGES OF BIO – MASS.

The biomass is abundant in nature and is a renewable source of energy.
Source of energy is very cheap.
With an estimated production of 400 million ton of source characteristics available for biomass it is capable of supplementing coal, oil.
The level of air pollutants can be controlled and reduced by Ethanol. The biomass absorbs carbon dioxide during its growth so on the whole there is no addition in the quantity of green house gas.

DISADVANTAGES

The cost of the plant will be more.
Collecting sufficient quantities of waste can be difficult.
Causes air pollution, although only a very little.
The smell from the biomass power plant will be bad.




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#11
13-08-2012, 09:31 AM


to get information about the topic "using of non convetional sources of energy in indian railways" full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

topicideashow-to-non-conventional-energy-project and implimentation-report

seminar and presentationproject and implimentationsshowthread.php?tid=16785&google_seo=ihvc++++++++++++++++++++&pid=91719#pid91719
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spongymadmax
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#12
02-09-2013, 04:19 PM

hey pls email me the complete report...Am interested in doing this project and implimentation...Email id: spongymadmax@gmail.com
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05-09-2013, 10:43 AM

To get full information or details of NON- CONVENTIONAL ENERGY please have a look on the pages

seminar and presentationproject and implimentationsshowthread.php?mode=linear&tid=43207

topicideashow-to-non-conventional-energy-system--3571

seminar and presentationproject and implimentationsshowthread.php?mode=linear&tid=79858

topicideashow-to-recent-trend-in-non-conventional-energy-sources-biodiesel-fuel-for-the-next-generat

topicideashow-to-development-of-non-conventional-energy-sources

topicideashow-to-non-conventional-energy-resources

topicideashow-to-a-presentation-on-non-conventional-energy-resources-ppt

topicideashow-to-non-conventional-energy-project and implimentation-report

if you again feel trouble on NON- CONVENTIONAL ENERGY please reply in that page and ask specific fields in NON- CONVENTIONAL ENERGY
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#14
26-09-2013, 08:15 PM

sir can you give me brief details of this project and implimentation.
my email id -raiamithc@gmail.com
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seminar projects maker
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27-09-2013, 09:42 AM

To get full information or details of NON- CONVENTIONAL ENERGY please have a look on the pages

seminar and presentationproject and implimentationsshowthread.php?mode=linear&tid=79858

topicideashow-to-non-conventional-energy-sources-pdf?pid=155124#pid155124

topicideashow-to-non-conventional-energy-system--3571

topicideashow-to-wind-energy-non-conventional-energy-source

topicideashow-to-non-conventional-energy-resources

topicideashow-to-a-presentation-on-non-conventional-energy-resources-ppt

topicideashow-to-non-conventional-energy-project and implimentation-report

if you again feel trouble on NON- CONVENTIONAL ENERGY please reply in that page and ask specific fields in NON- CONVENTIONAL ENERGY
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