Nano Ram - Seminar Presentation
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Computer Science Clay
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01-03-2009, 10:50 AM


Nano Ram - Seminar Presentation

Nano-RAM, is a proprietary computer memory technology from the company Nantero and NANOMOTOR is invented by University of bologna and California nano systems.NRAM is a type of nonvolatile random access memory based on the mechanical position of carbon nanotubes deposited on a chip-like substrate. In theory the small size of the nanotubes allows for very high density memories.

Nantero also refers to it as NRAM in short, but this acronym is also commonly used as a synonym for the more common NVRAM, which refers to all nonvolatile RAM memories.Nanomotor is a molecular motor which works continuously without the consumption of fuels. It is powered by sunlight. The research are federally funded by national science foundation and national academy of science.

Carbon Nanotubes Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a recently discovered allotrope of carbon.They take the form of cylindrical carbon molecules and have novel properties that make them potentially useful in a wide variety of applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics, and other fields of materials science.

They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient conductors of heat. Inorganic nanotubes have also been synthesized. A nanotube is a member of the fullerene structural family, which also includes buckyballs. Whereas buckyballs are spherical in shape, a nanotube is cylindrical, with at least one end typically capped with a hemisphere of the buckyball structure.

Their name is derived from their size, since the diameter of a nanotube is on the order of a few nanometers (approximately 50,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair), while they can be up to several millimeters in length. There are two main types of nanotubes: single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs).

Manufacturing a nanotube is dependent on applied quantum chemistry, specifically, orbital hybridization. Nanotubes are composed entirely of sp2 bonds, similar to those of graphite.

This bonding structure, stronger than the sp3 bonds found in diamond, provides the molecules with their unique strength. Nanotubes naturally align themselves into "ropes" held together by Van der Waals forces. Under high pressure, nanotubes can merge together, trading some sp2 bonds for sp3 bonds, giving great possibility for producing strong, unlimited-length wires through high-pressure nanotube linking.

Fabrication Of NRAM This nano electromechanical memory, called NRAM, is a memory with actual moving parts, with dimensions measured in nanometers. Its carbon nanotube based technology makes advantage of vaanderwaals force to create basic on off junctions of a bit. Vaanderwaals forces interaction between atoms that enable noncovalant binding.

They rely on electron attractions that arise only at nano scale levels as a force to be reckoned with. The company is using this property in its design to integrate nanoscale material property with established cmos fabrication technique.

Storage In NRAM NRAM works by balancing the on ridges of silicon. Under differing electric charges, the tubes can be physically swung into one or two positions representing one and zeros.

Because the tubes are very small-under a thousands of time-this movement is very fast and needs very little power, and because the tubes are a thousand times conductive as copper it is very to sense to read back the data. Once in position the tubes stay there until a signal resets them. The bit itself is not stored in the nano tubes, but rather is stored as the position of the nanotube. Up is bit 0 and down is bit 1.Bits are switched between the states by the application of the electric field.

The technology work by changing the charge placed on a latticework of crossed nanotube. By altering the charges, engineers can cause the tubes to bind together or separate, creating ones and zeros that form the basis of computer memory.

If we have two nano tubes perpendicular to each other one is positive and other negative, they will bend together and touch. If we have two similar charges they will repel. These two positions are used to store one and zero.

The chip will stay in the same state until you make another change in the electric field. So when you turn the computer off, it doesn't erase the memory .We can keep all the data in the NRAM and gives your computer an instant boot.
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hridya
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03-05-2010, 07:51 PM

i need matter on
nano ram
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26-04-2011, 12:04 PM


.ppt   powerpoint seminar of NANA-RAM.ppt (Size: 2.67 MB / Downloads: 341)
NANO RAM
Nanotechnology

The study of the controlling of matter on an atomic and molecular scale.
deals with structures of the size 100 nm or smaller in at least one dimension, and involves developing materials or devices within that size.
gravity would become less important, surface tension and Vander Waals attraction would become increasingly more significant,
Electronics is fuelled by miniaturization which is supporting Moore's law.
Nanotechnology promises further miniaturization in future
Nanotechnology’s goal is to make a device called “Universal Assembler” It should have following properties:
(1)Fractional atomic diameter accuracy.
(2)Capability to execute finely controlled motions to transfer one or a few atom in a guided chemical reaction.
There are two main concepts commonly associated with Nanotechnology:
1. Positional assembly
2. Self replication
By building objects on such a fine scale, we could make extraordinary things from ordinary matter.
for eg: Carbon Nanotubes.
CARBON NANOTUBES
Novel features of CNT:
Band gap tuning(by diameter & angle of twist).
highly elastic
thermal conductivity higher than even diamond.
conduct electricity as efficiently as copper, yet also be semiconducting .
Can conduct one billion amps. ( which vaporize copper or gold)
have a diameter of 1 to 10 nanometers but CNT is 100 times stronger than steel & one-sixth of its weight,
Can be constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1
Two major problems faced while shrinking metal wires further:
Tight packing =>>>> rapid overheating.
As metal wires get smaller ,the wires may fail like blown fuses
CARBON NANOTUBES
Advantages
Very small in size.
Low power consumption
Disadvantage
High cost
Requirement of high precision
Occurrence of impurities
NRAM
Nonvolatile RAM based on the mechanical position of CNT’s deposited on a chip-like substrate.
(Nano-electromechanical memory)
It is owned by company “Nantero”.
How it is acting as memory?
How to read/write it?
How it is Non-volatile?
STORAGE IN NRAM
Structure of memory cell
operation
On state=‘1’ bit condition
Each bit is individually addressable
Fabrication of NRAM
Purification of CNT’s
special solvent containing CNT’s is sprayed over si wafer.
Unwanted NT’s are removed by lithography & etching
Many NT’s for single bit gives redundancy of memory
Density of memory cells on si , depends on the resolution of the lithography equipment.
ADVANTAGES of NRAM
Permanently nonvolatile
High speed similar to DRAM/SRAM
High density similar to DRAM(no refresh operation)
Unlimited lifetime
Low power consumption
Data storage
CMOS-compatible manufacturing process & compatible with all existing hardware devices such as the PC, digital camera, mp3 players etc
Very small in size.
Highly resistant to environmental forces (heat, cold and magnetism).
Redundancy(many CNT’s for single bit)
disadvantages
Over supply of DRAM
Relatively high cost.
NRAM is still in research phase,& trying to enter market.
Contaminants (oxygen for eg) attaching to a nanotube can affect its electrical properties.
applications
Computer and
Laptops.
(Enabling instant on performance, with instant boot up)
Mobile devices.
(Faster storage of more data for PDA’s and handhelds)
Embedded memory.
(More powerful & faster microprocessor, microcontroller, other logic device can be built)
High speed network server.
Faster and denser memory storages.(e.g.. hard disk).
CONCLUSION
Nanotechnology will be an undeniable force in near future & lead to further miniaturization.
If CNT based memory devices(NRAM) are made available in market, it surely replaces all type of existing devices.
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smart paper boy
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02-08-2011, 02:54 PM

Presented by:
Ishan Hussain
Shreenath


.ppt   75.ppt (Size: 393 KB / Downloads: 101)
INTRODUCTION
Nano-RAM also known as NRAM, is a proprietary computer memory technology. NRAM is a type of nonvolatile random access memory based on the mechanical position of carbon nanotubes deposited on a chip-like substrate. In theory the small size of the nanotubes allows for very high density memories.
HISTORY
Nano-RAM is a computer memory technology from the company Nantero and NANOMOTOR its invented by University of bologna and California nano systems. Nanomotor is a molecular motor which works continuously without the consumption of fuels. It is powered by sunlight. The research are federally funded by national science foundation and national academy of science.
TECHNOLOGY
Nantero's technology is based on a well-known effect in carbon nanotubes. In Nantero's technology, each NRAM "cell" consists of a number of nanotubes suspended on insulating "lands" over a metal electrode.  A small dot of gold is deposited on top of the nanotubes on one of the lands, providing an electrical connection, terminal. A second electrode lies below the surface.
What is Carbon Nano Tubes ?
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a recently discovered allotrope of carbon.
They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient conductors of heat.
Their name is derived from their size, since the diameter of a nanotube is on the order of a few nanometers.
There are two main types of nanotubes: single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs).
STRUCTURE OF (CNT)
STORAGE ON NRAM

The tubes can be physically swung into one or two positions representing one and zeros.
The bit itself is not stored in the nano tubes, but rather is stored as the position of the nanotubes.
The chip will stay in the same state until you make another change in the electric field.
So when you turn the computer off, it doesn't erase the memory .We can keep all the data in the NRAM and gives your computer an instant boot.
ADVANTAGES
 NRAM does not require power to "refresh" it, and will retain its memory even after the power is removed.
The power needed to write to the device is much lower than a DRAM.
 It uses Carbon nanotubes to give super CARBON NANOTUBES Advantages Very small in size. Low power consumption.
 The read and write process are both "low energy" consuming,so NRAM can result in longer battery life in conventional devices.
Highly resistant to environmental forces (heat, cold,etc)
USES OF NRAM
NRAM could enable instant-on computers which boot and reboot instantly
PDAs with lots of memory, MP3 players with thousands of songs can replace flash memories in digital cameras and cell phones.
High speed network servers. And because the technology is considerable faster and denser, Nanterno believes NRAM could eventually replace hard disk storage.
NRAM
CONCLUSION

It's hard to imagine a more exciting area than nanoelectronics. Every day at our lab our engineers are coming up with new ideas and new ways to build products on a molecular level that have never been done before. And the whole field of nanotechnology is one that will, over the next few decades, affect just about every area of human life, from electronics to medical care and beyond, so it's great to be right there on the leading edge. Thus, with the beginning of the usage of NRAM which gives instant-on computers, we can obtain a very fast and ever existing Random Access Memory for very vast applications.
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