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A nanometer is one billionth of a meter. If you blew up a baseball to the size of the earth, the atoms would become visible, about the size of grapes. Some 3- 4 atoms fit lined up inside a nanometer. Nanotechnology is about building things atom by atom, molecule by molecule. The trick is to be able to manipulate atoms individually, and place them where you wish on a structure.
Nanotechnology uses well known physical properties of atoms and molecules to make novel devices with extraordinary properties. The anticipated pay off for mastering this technology is beyond any human accomplishment thus far.
Nature uses molecular machines to create life.Scientists from several fields including chemistry, biology, physics, and electronics are driving towards the precise manipulation of matter on the atomic scale. How do we get to nanotechnology? Several approaches seem feasible. Ultimately a combination may be the key.
The goal of early nanotechnology is to produce the first nano-sized robot arm capable of manipulating atoms and molecules into a useful product or copies of itself. Nanotechnology finds applications as nanotubes, in nano medicine and so on.Soon you have trillions of assemblers controlled by nano super computers working in parallel assembling objects quickly.
Ultimately, with atomic precision, everything could be made. Itâ„¢s all a matter of software.
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A glimpse into the Technology of 21st
Computers reproduce information at almost no cost. A push is well
underway to invent devices that manufacture at almost no cost, by treating
atoms like computers treat bits of information. This would allow automatic
construction of consumer goods with out traditional labour, like a Xerox
machine produces unlimited copies without a secretary retyping the original
information. Electronics is fuelled by miniaturization. Working smaller has
led to the tools capable of manipulating individual atoms like the proteins in a
potato manipulate the atoms of soil and water to make copies of itself
(Drexler, Merkle paraphrased). The secret to self-replication, biological or
synthetic, is prefabricated building blocks. Biology uses atoms. Atoms are as
new and squeaky clean as the instant they condensed out of pure energy of the
Big Bang, come in 92 flavors (elements), each atom is identical
(electronically) to any other atom in a flavor and have the remarkable attribute
of sticking to each, other.
The shotgun marriage of chemistry and engineering called
Nanotechnology is ushering in the era of self-replicating machinery and
self-assembling consumer goods made from cheap raw atoms (Drexler,
Merkle paraphrased). If we can place atoms on a structure under construction
individually, this opens up a realm of super large molecules not found in
nature, designed by engineers (adhering to the normal laws of chemistry)
Structures, big structures, or microscopic structures and machines could be
made of materials with unusual physical properties like carbon in its ultraNanoTechnology
strong form, diamond. Ideally, programmed nanites, machines with atomic
sized components could take any source of required atoms and energy, make
copies of themselves, then grow things without traditional manufacturing
techniques and without by-products. No waste and no side reactions means
this tech would be super green Nanites could be programmed and unleashed to
clean up existing industrial pollution (and will within two decades).
II. The father of Nanotechnology
Who thought all this up Where did this outrage originate Dr. K. Eric
Drexler is the father of Nanotechnology, seeing the pattern of the passable in
his studies of biology; computer science, etc. while still a student in the late
seventies. He realized what a different world we could have, if we could build
with individual atoms like nature. Drexler (and Dr. Chris Peterson) fought one
heck of an uphill battle throughout the Ëœ80s and Ëœ90s for acceptance of these
radical ideas by the scientific community. Now, things have changed.
History will read, Newton, Einstein and
A nanometre is one billionth of a meter (3 - 4 atoms wide) i.e.
1/1000000000 of a Meter. Utilizing the well-understood chemical properties
of atoms and molecules (how they stick together), Nanotechnology proposes
the construction of novel molecular devices possessing extraordinary
properties. The trick is to manipulate atoms individually and place them
exactly where needed to produce the desired structure
IV. Universal Assembler
Nanotechâ„¢s goal is a device called a Universal Assembler that takes
raw atoms in one side and delivers consumer goods out the other. It could also
make a copy of itself you could give to a friend. What happens to the economy
if demand for just about everything is foiled by a household applianceÂ¦ is a
Scientists are on the verge of manipulating atoms and molecules with
the same precision as life. Research in molecular biology, chemistry, and
scanning probe microscopy (scopes that can see and move atoms) are laying
the foundations for a technology of self-replicating molecular machines by
developing positional controlled chemical synthesis. By building objects on
such a fine scale, we could make extraordinary things from ordinary matter. If
the fields of molecular biology (which some call wet nano), chemistry and
solid state physics were all to shut down today and make no more advances,
chip manufacture in their quest for evermore speed would develop
MNT(Molecular Nanotechnology) single handed. They have the incentive.
Nanotechnology is molecular manufacturing or, more simply, building things
one atom or molecule at a time with programmed nanoscopic robot arms..
This ability is almost in our grasp.
V. Robotic Arm
This is a molecule and a machine, just like proteins are molecular
machines. This molecule is not found in nature, but will physically stick
together. One such working molecule could build others that could build
anything possible with matter and spark the age of self-replicating machinery,
material opulence, super health and extraordinary inventions. According to Dr.
K. Drexler A general-purpose molecular assembler arm must be able to move
its hand by many atomic diameters position it with fractional- atomicdiameter
accuracy, and then execute finely controlled motions to transfer one
or a few atoms in a guided chemical reaction.. Yet, how are we going to build
it... when such a molecular machine needs to be built with an atomic precision
motion control robot arm Which comes first... the assembler or the
assembled Chicken and the egg problem...
VI Technical feasibilities
Self-assembling consumer goods
Computers billions of times faster
Extremely novel inventions (impossible today)
Safe and affordable space travel I
Medical Nano... virtual end to illness, aging, death
No more pollution and automatic cleanup of already existing
Molecular food syntheses... end of famine and starvation
Access to a superior education for every child on Earth
Reintroduction of many extinct plants and animals
Terraforming here and the Solar System
VI. NanoMachine Components of AI Globus & Team,
NASA (in progress)
Extraordinarily Small, Strong and Resilient Components...
Nanomachines can also be incorporated into various materials to make
those materials respond to their environment, or to outside commands.
Examples of such materials would be smart fabrics that respond to the
environment to become warmer or cooler, or walls and furniture that can
move or change shape on command. Nanomachines could also be used as
tools both in industry and by consumers. Such tools could cut apart or glue
together material far more efficiently than anything large-scale that is used
today. Nanomachines could also repair cars, furniture, applicances, or almost
anything else quickly and efficiently. Or these objects could be designed with
nanomachines to repair themselves should the need arise. Life would be
greatly simplified by relieving people of the need to repair objects at home or
Smart Material: - Cosmetics is one of many multi-billion dollar industries
that will benefit from a new class of coating called Smart Materials. This
smart coating will certainly cross genders because of, some utilitarian
properties unrelated to fashion. The proposed class of smart coatings, though
extremely thin, contain a grab bag of nano structural composites. Laced with
nano-computers, their extraordinary powers offer usages yet to be imagined.
Like with all smart materials, conversion of the polish to a flat screen color
monitor or video phone is a snap. A fingernail may be a desirable place to
locate your personal computer interface. An environmental monitor could be
included to warn of high carbon dioxide concentration or radiation. Oneâ„¢s
physiological status could be constantly monitored. All of these functions
could run on solar power generated in normal lighting conditions.
If you combined microscopic motors, gears, levers, bearing, plate
sensors, power and communication cables etc., with powerful microscopic
computers, you have the makings of a new class of materials called Smart
Materials. Programmable smart materials could shape-shift into just about any
desired object. A house made of smart materials would be quite useful and
interesting. Imagine a wall changing colour at your command, or commanding
the appearance of a window where there was none, drapes of any style listed
in the smart materials software or from some source of the Internet. This is all
purely mechanical and can be done today, although with much larger parts,
resulting in a coarser effect (and at great expense).
Super Materials: - Atomic precision construction could produce metal
structures devoid of micro imperfections, dramatically increasing strength.
Bearings made to (unheard of) atomic precision (every atom in round)
would last far longer, run cooler and bear greater loads. Todayâ„¢s industrial
products would benefit greatly, but why bother with first wave
industrialization materials when diamondoid super composites available
Nano-constructed materials can be to material utility what scientific notation
is to math. In diamond form, carbon is 50- 70 times stronger than steel and
less than one fourth the weights. Much of the carbon needed to build with is
available now from the billions of pounds of fossil fuel burned into the
atmosphere since the industrial revolution. The raw material delivers itself.
Bucky tubes:-Gears made of Buckytubes are great nanomachine
components... Buckytubes are carbon graphite sheets rolled into a tube (looks
like tubes of chicken wire), and are like carbon in its diamond form, but
with ALL available bonding strength aligned on one axis These tubes are
stronger than diamond fiber, and the strongest fiber possible with matter, so
weâ„¢re starting out with real racehorse material. Globus and Team designs are
chemically stable, very tough and varied in geometry, including gears made
from nested Buckytubes or tubs inside of tubes. Such a gear would be stiffer
and suited for a long drive shaft. And talk about performance.
Results suggest these gears can operate at up to 50-100 gigahertz in a
vacuum or inert atmosphere at room temperature. The failure mode involves
tooth slip, not bond breaking, so failed gears can be returned to operation by
lowering temperature and/or rotation rate.
Long Buckytubes connected by their ends (a loop) could make motion
transition belts (a fan belt) for nanomachines.
Nanogear: - Synthesizing Nanogear... Drafted for gear teeth is the famous
circular (snake biting its tail) Benzene molecule, a hoop of connected carbon
atoms ringed by hydrogen atoms attached to each carbonâ„¢s unused dangling
bond. Globusâ„¢ computer simulations show (in a very non-Drexlerian
technique) Benzene atoms stick to and bond with Buckytubes if a collision
between the two is of proper energy â€ shoot Benzene high speed at a tube.
Too little energy and the tough, elastic carbon structure just bounce off each
other... too much, and they both shatter.
Building gears this way and obtaining precise results at this resolution
is a formidable task, but perhaps not impossible. Another approach involves
bending the flexible tube, causing an electronic condition favourable for a
bond at the point of greatest lattice distortion (Carbon bonds are stretched
apart, holes in the chicken wire get bigger). Mass with these techniques again
are not impossible.
The Drexlerian method, building things the new fashion way, One
Atom at a Time is a more direct approach where carbon and hydrogen
deposition tools have elements delivered and a gear would be built (extruded)
like building with Lego Blocks. The atoms and the blocks will build just about
any structure, if you stick the right ones together in the right places.
Nanomotors by Oak Ridge National Laboratories :- NanoMotors... and the
Oak Ridge Natâ„¢l Lab Boys: Over the past 15 years, prominent scientists like
Noble Laureate Richard Feynman, Eric Drexler and Ralph Merkle have
hypothesized about these mechanical machines, said Don Noid, co-author of
a proposal that helped gain seed money for the project and implimentation last year. Now, ORNL
is modelling nanomachines using fundamental calculations.
Researchers Don Noid, Robert Tuzund and Bobby Sumpter of Oak
Ridge National Laboratories show these versatile burnt sausages can become
extraordinarily simple motors, when exposed to an oscillating polarized light
source. Certainly a candidate for the smallest motor, tubes act like an antenna
and rotate away from the highest energy state resonance. Exposure to the
oscillating polarized light continuously bumps the tub up into the high energy
resonance coupling while the tube continuously wants to fall down hill to
The motors consisted of two concentric graphite cylinders (shaft and
sleeve) with one positive and one negative electric charge attached to the
shaft. Rotational motion of the shaft was induced by applying one or
sometimes two oscillating laser fields [ MPEG animation (3.7MB)]. The shaft
cycled between periods of rotational pendulum-like behaviour and
unidirectional rotation (motor-like behaviour). The motor ON and OFF times
strongly depended on the motor size, field strength and frequency, and relative
location of the attached positive and negative charges.
Slap a few Benzyne teeth on the end and power up some rod logic
components on a nanocomputer or animate a conveyer belt. NanoPipesÂ¦
Buckytubes, the multi-use nano component grow to different diameters and
conduct electricity like copper, even better when stuffed with metal atoms.
Larger tubes are big enough to pipe full sized C6O Buckyball molecules as in
the illustration of the soccer ball shape (red) followed by Helium atoms
(green), used as a transport fluid. In addition to piping atoms and molecules,
for perhaps a nanomachine construction sites, these tubes could be used as
ultra small chemical reaction vessels.
The animations show a variety of features of fluid flow that are not
readily apparent from the raw computer data. As the fluid atoms, shown in
green, flow through the pipe, they bounce off the pipe wall and cause it to
flex. In some simulations, the helium gas carries along a comparatively heavy
buckyball molecule, which has a cage-like structure. Because of its tight fit,
the buckyball can cause the pipeâ„¢ to bulge as it passes through. If the pipe
flexes or bulges, parts of the nanomachine attached to it may vibrate. When
designing nanomachines, the effects of this vibration must be accounted for.
VIII. Nanotechnotogy in different branches of science
Biology: - The field of medicine will use nanotechnology most heavily, and it
will draw much more from engineering than from clinical medicine. While
engineers so far have manipulated matter only in great blocks of atoms, they
will now be asked to build medical delivery devices atom by atom.
Microminiaturisation will enable minuscule robots to flow through the
bodyâ„¢s bloodstream delivering lethal medicinal drugs directly to alien
germs and diseased cells such as cancer cells.
Cochlear implants restore a measure of hearing to some deaf people
Experimental implants for the blind can partially replace the brainâ„¢s visual
processing circuits. In these cases the advanced technology consists of
neural networks, a configuration of computer intelligence that mimics the
learning ability of brain circuitry.
Using Buckyball medicine could be delivered to the body orally and the
body then eliminates the Buckyballs without any side effects. It is possible
to attach the needed drugs on the bucky ball structure as is required for the
particular disease. This is much easier and effective than the conventional
capsule approach. In capsules, a mixture of drugs is delivered into the
body, a major part of which is eliminated by the body. When using
mechanisms like bucky balls, it is easy to ensure that they are tailor-made
to deal with the specific cell disorder that the disease causes.
Drugs that make use of buckyballs for the treatment of AIDS could be out
by 2006. One of the daunting challenges faced by researchers in fighting
the HIV virus has been the inability of drugs to attach themselves to the
virus and stop it from reproducing any further. Nanotechnology-powered
medical techniques like buckyballs have the ability to fix themselves to the
virus, thus preventing further reproduction.
Tissue damages can be reduced by providing more oxygen in the form of
an artificial red blood cell.
Yet another exciting though futuristic prospect that Nanotechnology
presents is the ability to have minute machines travelling inside our body
protecting us from inside. These 'nanodoctors' will be able to find and
repair damage at the cellular level. For this to be possible, molecular
assemblers-with better capabilities than the current scanning tunnelling
microscopes are needed. They have to have the capability to move atoms
and molecules faster and more precisely than present day STMs. However,
this wouldn't be possible for the next 15-20 years, to say the least.
Computer: - The people working in computer are the best novel audiences.
They are intimately familiar with the concept of replicating quanta. The step
toward treating atoms like bits of information is no distance at all. They see
their own hardware driven by economic frenzy in an exponential dive toward
the atomic realmÂ¦ and beyond. They donâ„¢t need the chemist or biologist to
hit Nanotechnology, the chip manufacturer will develop manipulation at this
resolution regardless of any prejudice and a little math shows how very soon.
The computational power of the system can be increased drastically, we can
pack more computational power into a sugar cube than exists today.
Chemistry: - Chemists are another story. Having so much invested in super
clever synthesis of structures using Shake and Bake technology, when
presented with the idea of placing an atom on a hot spot of a synthetic
molecule the size of a 747... Chemists flinch with an involuntary negative
reaction difficult to quench with rational. To increase offense by saying
something like, This shotgun marriage of chemistry and engineering... is a
deliberate push over the edge.
Electronics: - Now in Chip Industry every 18 months or so the size of wires
and transistors is cut by 50% while the speed of the chip is doubled. The wires
are already a fraction of a micron small. How long can you keep cutting the
size of components in half and expect it to function As it turns out, not much
longer. Soon the wires will become so thin and packed so tight that an effect
of Quantum Mechanics will come into play, namely, tunnelling. The electrons
tunnel through insulating barriers too thin to keep them contained. If one
builds a chip with wires so smallâ„¢ and insulators so thin, electrons start
wholesale tunnelling, or shorting out, rendering the device totally useless.
Some chip designers will be forced to switch to an old-fashioned
mechanical calculator concept, but with a nouveau twist. If you can build
these mechanical parts one atom at a time, they can be thousands, of times
smaller and millions of times faster than existing transistors. The competition
for faster chips is fierce and the profit at stake immense. Itâ„¢s a freight train
running downhill that cannot be stopped. And that trainâ„¢s destination is
Economics: - Society is in for a spin as we head for a novel form of
economics in an age of self replicating machinery, where the design of an
object cost about the same as today yet production cost is nearly zero. All first
wave manufacturing will be obsolete. No cobblers, just shoe designers, no
autoworkers, just car designers, no feed lots, just chefs. Ask yourself, what
will be of value What is money in a nano age How will politics and war
change when we donâ„¢t have traditional resources to fight over Most people
think pace of technological change has increased over the last few decades,
but it really hasnâ„¢t. Weâ„¢ve just spread things out and made it seem that way.
We donâ„¢t have breakthrough developments anymore. The developments that
weâ„¢ve seen over the last three decades pale in comparison to those of the early
twentieth century when the telephone, automobiles, airplanes, television and
anti-biotics burst onto the seen for the first time. Todayâ„¢s seemingly goal-less
change has made many people believe that we are changing for no other
reason than for change sake. As a result, people are getting burnt out on the
idea of technological progress. Theyâ„¢re paying less attention, and thatâ„¢s when
you have the potential for a surprise that no ones prepared for. The goal of
developing molecular nanotechnology is something that must be pursued in a
direct way that gets the publics attention. The NTDC effort seems to be
focused on this more appropriate and opportunistic approach.
In a world of information, digital technologies have made copying fast,
cheap and perfect, quite independent of cost or complexity of the content.
What if the same were to happen in the world of matter The production cost
of a ton of tera byte RAM chips would be about the same as the production
cost of steel. Design costs would matter, production costs wouldnâ„¢t.
IX. Arrival of Nanotechnology
Arrive, is broadly defined as the arrival of the first Universal
Assemblersâ„¢ that has the ability to build with single atoms anything oneâ„¢s
software defines. A Universal Assembler may look like a microwave oven,
connected to raw atomic feed stock, like carbon black, O2, sulphur powder,
etc. Other portable assemblers (for camping) extract atomic feed stock out of
the air and soil. The Assembler can make Dock Martins as easily as it can
make a supercomputer or a pizza (not any pizza mind you, but atomically
exact replicas from your favourite joint in Boston) or, (hold on) a copy of
So when already 8 -15 years seems to be the best guesstimate (Zyvex
says 5-10). As more people from all walks of life learn of the Nanotechnology
concept and add their talents to the quest, you can be sure that research will
accelerate and the time frame will shorten. How long will it take for paradise
(hopefully) to arrive on Earth and in Space after the Universal Assembler is
Some Nanotechnology enthusiasts have become infected with an easy
Nanotechnology myth. They talk or write about Nanotech as if one day a
scientist will dump the contents of two test tubes together to create the first
nano-manipulator and thatâ„¢ll be it from then on weâ„¢ll have Nanotechnology.
Now probably most of these people understand that it will take a long,
disciplined effort, and it will not be an accidental discovery. Even so, they
seem to believe that shortly after getting the first Nanotech manipulator, weâ„¢ll
get many of the promised Nanotech miracles. As the premise quotation of the
novel Terminal Cafe puts it The first thing we get with Nanotechnology is
Probably the first thing weâ„¢re likely to get with Nanotech will be cute
publicity demos, intended to drum up funding for further research. And those
cute demos may not even be visible to the naked eye. Spelling ËœIBMâ„¢ in atoms
with atomic force micros has probably set the standard. Perhaps the first nanomanipulators
will stack up molecules as if they were blocks or force specially
prepared molecules to bond together into a chain or rod.
By this, they presumably mean a useful assembler, or even better, a self
replicator. OK so letâ„¢s jump ahead, over the years of work needed to get to
that point. Assume we have an assembler technology that can build an
identical assembler, and that can be programmed to build other things.
Itâ„¢ll take a few years of research to figure out how to safely use
Nanotech inside a living human body to achieve any useful results. And
maybe it will be a few years beyond that before we get any significant life
extension for most people. How about something more mundane such as
building consumer goods from the atoms up
Letâ„¢s just replicate a few billion assemblers, and put them to work
churning out a Nanotech toaster. Itâ„¢ll have arrays of infrared lasers and optical
sensors - so itâ„¢ll make perfect toast every time. Itâ„¢s bound to be a hot item! Iâ„¢ll
just call up the toasterâ„¢s CAD design helpfully specified down to the atomic
level by some over-eager Nanotech enthusiast.
How to tell one assembler to make another, and even how to tell a
billion assemblers each do the same thing. But how do I tell a thousand teams
of a million assemblers each how to cooperate with each other within their
teams and between teams to make a toaster Maybe if I used a million teams
of a thousand assemblers each No... Iâ„¢d better get the guys in research to
spend a week or two figuring this out for me.
X. Risks Inherent to Nanotechnology
We are on the threshold of material opulence and greatly enhance
physical health. However, in a bed of roses, one still must avoid the thorns.
Like all technology nano can be used for good or not so good (serious
understatement) and could cause considerable panic to the under informed
during the transition. As post-nano international relations thinker Tom
McCarthy points out, if Chinaâ„¢s perception of its ancient rival Indiaâ„¢s
advanced software and technology lead might produce Nanotechnology first,
this could prompt China to nuke Indian research centres before India could
strike with Nanoweapons. Now consider this, unlike nuclear, nano is a desktop
industry... and one sufficiently advanced disgruntled hack working in a garage
could program a self replicating Nanite to kill all bovine on the planet, or all
people with brown eyes, or indeed, all DNA based life. But wait; check this
small example of the wonders possible building things with atomic precision.
Building on the atomic scale, mechanical computers with the power of a
mainframe could be manufactured so small, that several hundred would fit
inside the space of a biological cell.
XI. The Industries likely to disappear because of
Everything -- but software, everything will run on software, and
general engineering, as it relates to this new power over matter... and the
entertainment industry. Unfortunately, there will still be insurance salesmen
and lawyers, although not in my solar orbiting city state. If as Drexler suggest,
we can pave streets with self assembling solar cells, I would tend to avoid
energy stocks. Mature nanites could mine any material from the earth,
landfills or asteroids at very low cost and in great abundance. The mineral
business is about to change. Traditional manufacturing will not be able to
compete with assembler technology and what happens to all those jobs and the
financial markets is a big issue that needs to be addressed now. I intend to start
or expand organizations addressing these issues and cover progress in the
pages of NÃƒÂ¤notechnology Magazine.
We will have a lot of obsolete mental baggage and programming to
throw out of our heads... Traditional pursuits of money will need to be reevaluated
when a personal assembler can manufacture a fleet of Porches, that
run circles around todayâ„¢s models. As Drexler so intuitively points out, the
best thing to do, is to get the whole worldâ„¢s society educated and
understanding what will and can happen with this technology. This will help
people make the transition and keep mental and financial meltdowns to a
XII. New industries Likely to appear because of
Future generations are laughing as they read these wordsÂ¦ Laughing at
the utter inadequacy and closed imagination of this writing... So consider this
a comically inadequate list. However, if they are laughing, I am satisfied and
at Peace, as this means we made it through the transition (although I fear it
shall not be the last).
Mega engineering for space habitation and transport in the Solar
System will have a serious future. People will be surprised at how fast space
develops because right now, a very bright core of nano-space enthusiasts have
engineering plans, awaiting the arrival of the molecular assembler. People like
Forrest Bishop have wonderful plans for space transport and development,
capable of being implemented in surprisingly short time frames. This is
artificial life, programmed to grow faster than natural systems. I think Mars
will be teraformed in less time than it takes to build a nuclear power plant in
the later half of the good old, backward 20th century.
An explosion in the arts and service industries are to be expected when
no fields need to be ploughed for our daily bread, similar to the explosion
when agriculture became mechanized and efficient and the Sons and daughters
of farmers migrated to cities. This explosion will be exponentially greater.
Leisure time, much more leisure time, more diversions.. What professions
should disappear because of nano-technology
Ditch digger, tugboat captain -- most professions where humans are as
smart brawn, or as the best available computer, including jet fighter pilot,
truck driver, surgeon, pyramid builder, steel worker, gold miner... not that
there will not be people doing these jobs, just for fun. Charming libation
vendors a good future, until the A.I. people make some really scary
breakthroughs. I do expect the best available computer to be important for
novel for quite a whileÂ¦ and we are just on the verge for finding out how
frequent and varied novel situations can be.
Think of people who have reading and math impairments and thus --
poorly educated, yet a brilliant self taught mechanics. Molecular machines are
just small machines. With the right visualization tools (VR with tactile
feedback), those people could become a competent molecular machine
designer and trouble shooter. We all have our talents to contribute. Perhaps
this may be the greatest opportunity in history to express talents.
XIII. New objects likely to appear because of
Perhaps the big story -- with mature Nanotechnology, any object can
morph into any other imaginable object... truly a concept requiring personal
exposure to fully understand the significance and possibilities, but to get a grip
on the idea, consider this: The age of digital matter -- multi-purpose,
programmable machines change the software, and something completely
A simple can opener or a complex asphalt paver are both, single
purpose machines. Ask them to clean your floor or build a radio tower and
they stare back blankly. A computer is different, It is a multi purpose
machine -- one machine that can do unlimited tasks by changing softwareÂ¦
but only in the world of bits and information.
Fractal Robots are programmable machines that can do unlimited tasks
in the physical world, the world of matter. Load the right software and the
same machines can take out the garbage, paint your car, or construct an
office building and later, wash that buildingâ„¢s windows. In large groups, these
devices exhibit what may be termed as macro (hold in your hand) sized
nanobots , possessing AND performing many of the desirable features of
mature nanomachines (as described in Drexlerâ„¢s, Engines of Creation,
Unbounding the Future, Nanosystems etc.). This is the beginning of Digital
These Robots look like Rubicâ„¢s Cubes that can slide over each
other on command, changing and moving in any overall shape desired for a
particular task. These cubes communicate with each other and share power
through simple internal induction coils, have batteries, a small computer and
various kinds of internal magnetic and electric inductive motors (depending on
size) used to move over other cubes. When sufficiently miniaturized (below
0.1mm) and fabricated using photolithography methods, cubes can also be
programmed to assemble other cubes of smaller or larger size. This self
assembly is an important feature that will drop cost dramatically.
The point is -- if you have enough of the cubes of small enough
dimension, they can slide over each other, or morph into any object with
just about any function, one can imagine and program for such behaviour.
Cubes of sufficiently miniaturized size could be programmed to behave like
the T-2 Terminator Robot in the Arnold Schwarzenegger movie, or a lawn
chair... Just about any animate or inanimate object. Fractal Shape Shifting
Robots have been in prototype for the last two years and Drexler rather expect
this form of digital matter to hit the commercial seen very soon. In the near
future, if you gaze out your window and see something vaguely resembling an
amoeba constructing an office building, youâ„¢ll know what IT is.
This is not to say individual purpose objects will not be desirable...
Back to cotton -- although Cubes could mimic the exact appearance of a fuzzy
down comforter (a blanket), if made out of cubes, it would be heavy and not
have the same thermal properties. Although through a heroic engineering
effort such a blanket could be made to insulate and pipe gasses like a
comforter and even levitate slightly to mimic the weight and mass, why
bother when the real thing can be manufactured atom by atom, on site, at
about a meter a second (depending on thermal considerations).
Also, single purpose components of larger machines will be built to
take advantage of fantastic structural properties of diamondoid - Buckytube
composites for such things as thin, super strong aircraft parts. Today, using the
theoretical properties of such materials, we can design an efficient, quiet,
super safe personal vertical takeoff air car. This vehicle of science fiction is
probably Science future.
XIV. Commonly known objects likely to disappear because
People living before and through the transition - at first and because of
prejudice for things we know and because people have not imagined the
variety and super rich realm of new possibilities -- the objects failure to
everyday life will be sought by the public and reproduced by assembler
technology. People will still want cotton beach towels, although the cotton
farmer will no longer be needed when fibres can be manufactured atom by
atom from carbon in the air or from limestone. Lots of familiar items will
appear traditional on the outside, yet posses a multitude of new tricks and
functionality made possible with MNT - cars with Utility Fog crash protection
for instance. Of course MNT Smart Materials can look like anything, yet
Now, the next generation and generations to follow, born into the age
of nanotechnology will have a clean slate without concrete historical
prejudices, will design objects and lifestyles that take advantage of the new
wealth of possibilities and I should expect design objects and environments
that would appear bizarrely alien, extraordinarily novel to even the most
advanced nano thinker today. The general concept is familiar in science
fiction, only now we have a clear engineering path to make real, the stunning
constructs of uninhibited imaginations and those yet to be born.
The wild card to consider and the reason that frankly, it is Ludicrous
project and implimentation past a few decades -- or more than say, one generation or so, is the
affect nanotechnology will have on intelligence enhancement efforts. Once
these efforts are even mildly successful, the experimenters will spend much
of their time amplifying intelligence enhancement efforts and the valve
controlling what is imaginable and what can be engineered opens at a
geometric rate. By definition, what can and will be is unimaginable now, and
Drexler is not even addressing the issue of machine intelligence in the
equation. The curve approaches vertical.
XV. New professions likely to appear because of
The ninety-two elements can be combined in a zillion to the zillionth
power, forming different molecules of nanometre to gas planet dimensions.
Nanotechnology is about being able to put those atoms together any way we
want, in an affordable manner. An explosion of new endeavours and
professionals of such endeavours. Perhaps when Drexler order that extra grey
matter, his answer will be more imaginative. Ah, the freedom to imagine, then
XVI. The Implications of Nanotechnology
Humanity will be faced with a powerful, accelerated social revolution as a
result of nanotechnology.
In the near future, a team of scientists will succeed in constructing the first
nano-sized robot capable of self-replication.
Within a few short years, and five billion trillion nano-robots later,
virtually all present industrial processes will be obsolete as well as our
contemporary concept of labor.
Consumer goods will become plentiful, inexpensive, smart, and durable.
Medicine will take a quantum leap forward.
Space travel and colonization will become safe and affordable.
For these and other reasons, global life styles will change radically and
human behaviour drastically impacted.
Imagine being able to cure cancer by drinking a medicine stirred into
your favorite fruit juice. Imagine a supercomputer no bigger than a human
cell. Imagine a four-person, surface-to-orbit spacecraft no larger or more
expensive than the family car. These are just a few products expected from
The ultimate goal of nanotechnology is to imitate life by producing
minuscule self-replicating devices to fight disease, store and process
information, and perform construction tasks. To be effective, nanodevices
must be self-replicating because to manufacture them individually would be
As a conclusion, we could say that the prospects of nanotechnology are
very bright .It will take some time to really make an impact on the human
race. But when it finally comes, Nanotechnology will be an undeniable force,
which will change the very course of life.
Nanotechnology is the hybrid science combining engineering and chemistry
that have applications in the real world. The area of nanotechnology lets one build
elaborate structures ,atom by atom ,on a scale of 1 to 100 nanometers that can store
information, switch electrical signals, convert sunlight to electricity.
A nanometer is a billionth of a meter that is about 1/80,000 of the diameter of a
human hair, or 10 times the diameter of a hydrogen atom. In this paper we had dealt with
the main concepts involved in the field of nanotechnology which are as follows:
Atoms and molecules stick together because they have complementary shapes that
lock together, or charges that attract. Just like magnets a positively charged atom will
stick to a negatively charged atom. A specific product will take shape as millions of these
atoms are pieced together by nanomachines.
The goal of nanotechnology is to manipulate atoms individually and place them
in a pattern to produce a desired structure of small size that spreads its wings in the
Reports indicate that Israeli scientists have built a DNA computer to tiny that a
trillion of them could fit in a test tube and perform a billion operations per second with
99.8 per cent accuracy. Researchers also found that a self assembled molecule could
sustain a current of about 0.2 microamperes at five volts - which meant that the molecule
could channel through itself roughly a million electron per second.
Molecular devices can be used as memory elements that forms the
basis for Nanotechnology.
Nanocomputers, though have several applications, the one that stirs the
imagination is its identification of malfunctions in human beings by traveling inside the
human body. The molecular machines inside the living cell already posses the repertoire
of operations required to implement a universal computer. A design for a biological
nanocomputer shows that a Turing machine can be realized by a basic cycle consisting of
molecular recognition, two cleavages, two ligations and movement along a polymer, all
controlled by allostreic conformational changes. Each of these operations is routinely
performed by some molecular machine in the living cell, such as the ribosome,
splicesome and the replisome.
The computerâ„¢s input, and software are made up of DNA molecules. For
hardware the computer uses two naturally occurring enzymes that manipulate DNA,
Fokl, an enzyme that cuts DNA and Ligase and enzyme that seals two DNA molecules
into one. When mixed together in solution, the software and hardware molecules operate
in harmony on the input molecule to create the output molecule, forming a simple
mathematical computing machine, known as a finite automaton.
The automaton could be programmed to perform different tasks by selecting
different subsets of the molecules. Both input and software molecules are designed to
have one DNA strand longer than the other, resulting in a single strand overhand called a
sticky end. Two molecules with complementary sticky ends can temporarily stick to
each other (a process known as hybridization), allowing DNA Ligase to permanently seal
them into one molecule. The sticky end of the input molecule encodes the current symbol
and the current state of the computation, whereas the sticky end of each software
molecule is designed to detect a particular state-symbol combination. A two-state, twosymbol
automaton has four such combinations. For each combination, the nanocomputer
has two possible next moves, to remain in the same state or to change to the other state,
allowing eight software molecules to cover all possibilities.
In each processing step the input molecule hybridizes with a software molecule
that has a complementary sticky end, allowing Ligase to seal them together using two
ATP molecules as energy. Then comes Fok-I, detecting a special site in the software
molecule known as the recognition site. It cleaves the input molecule in a location
determined by the software molecule, thus exposing a sticky end that encodes the next
input symbol and the next state of the computation. Once the last input symbol is
processed, a sticky end encoding the final state of the computation is exposed and
detected, again by hybridization and ligation, by one of two output display molecules.
The resulting molecule, which reports the output of the computation, is made visible to
the human eye in a process known as gel electrophoresis.
The automation is so small that 1012 automata sharing the same software run
independently and in parallel on inputs (which could in principle be distinct) in 120 1
solution at room temperature. Their combined rate is 109 transitions per second, their
transition fidelity is greater than 99.8% and together they consume less than 10-10
Using DNA for Basic Logical and Arithmetic
After the potential power of DNA computing has been described by Adleman and
Lipton, researchers have developed an interest in DNA computing for solving difficult
Guarnieri et al. and Vineet Gupta et.al have proposed DNA based methods to do
arithmetic and logical operations. But in their methods, the strands representing result
have to be polymerized for each and every instance of a specific operation, those strands
are not reusable. The limitation can be overcome by using sticker-based method to
perform arithmetic and logical operations. The advantage of the proposed method is
that output values are computed and stored parallely. The strands which represent the
output can be used repeatedly any number of times. The main idea of this method is
grouping the strands according to the output value are stored. The result tubes are the
tubes, which contain the result strands after completion of the annealing process with
Biological operations and Notations:
Some of the biological operations used in this paper and their notations are
Stickers corresponding to input blocks and memory strands are poured into a tube
to represent all possible inputs. initialize (No)
Particular Strands in a test tube are extracted based on whether the stickers stick
with specific region of memory strands or not
S (test tube label, Region, 1)
S (No, Io, 1) - extracts the strands from No with which sticker in the Io
S (No, In, 1) - extracts the strands from No with which sticker not stuck in the In
(Note : Sâ„¢ (No, Io, 1) = S (No, Io, 0))
Multiple copies of a particular sticker are poured with memory strands to make a
specific region double stranded. Set (N1, Rn+1, 1) - add multiple copies of sticker
complementary to Rn+1
th region in N1.
The strands in two or more tubes are poured into a single tube. No = merge (N1,
N2) - pour the strands in N1 and N2 into N0.
The proposed method
To perform arithmetic operations between two binary numbers of length k or
logical operations between two statements with k variables, start with 22k identical
ssDNA (single stranded DNA) memory strands each n(3k + 1) nucleotides long, where n
represent the number of nucleotides in a block. Each strand containing 3k +1 district
contiguous blocks I1, I2,.....Ik, O1, O2, ....Ik, R1, R2,....Rk+1. There are 3k+1 stickers S1, S2,
Input - I1, I2, .... Ik, Operand = O1, O2, ..... Ok
Output - O1, O2, .... Ik, wad.
Operand store - R1, R2, .......RK+1
Constructing the result tubes
The result tubes are constructed in three steps: initialization, separation and output
The memory strands and multiple copies of stickers S1.... S2k are poured together.
The stickers randomly anneal with memory strands making use of Watson-Crick
complementarily of DNA. If a sticker anneals with a particular region of the strand, it
assigns value 1 to the particular region of the strand. Otherwise it assigns the value zero.
Care to be taken to see that all possible combinations of annealing are obtained by this
random annealing process.
Algorithm for logical operations
Consider N0 as an initial tube. It contains all 22k strands, which are randomly
annealed with stickers S1.... S2k to represent all possible inputs. That is N0 is properly
initialized. Now, the strands are separated into two tubes N1 and Nâ„¢1. N1 contains the
strands with which sticker Sk is annealed (i.e. Kth position is encoded as 0). The strands
in tube N1 is separated into two tubes N2 and N2â„¢. N2 contains strands with which sticker
S2k is annealed (i.e. kth position is encoded as 0). The strands in tube N1 is empty. The
strands in N1â„¢ and N2 are poured into N1 together. The strands in N1 represents the
NAND operation between the numbers 0 & a, 1 & 0 or 0 & 0. The result for all above
operations should be one. To represent the result in strands, multiple copies of stickers
S3k+1 are poured into N1. They stick with all strands in N1 and set the value 1 for the
region Rk+1. The tube contains the strands representing the value 1 for the last digit of
output. The remaining strands in tube N2 represent NAND operation between the number
1 & 1. The result for this operation is 0. So the strands in tube N2 are left without any
modifications, because the region Rk+1 already has value zero by default. Then the
strands in N1 and N2 are poured together into N0. Now the tube N0 contains the strands,
which represent all possible inputs and the last digit of outputs. To represent the next
digit of output in the strands, the strands in N0 are separated into two groups based on
whether the sticker S3k should or should not stick with strands. That is, the strands are
separated into two groups to represent the value 0 or 1 for the next digit of output.
Multiple copies of sticker S3k is pured into corresponding tube to stick the sticker S3k with
the respective strands. Again all strands are poured together into N0. This process is
repeated until sticker S2k+2 sticks with respective strands. Now result tube N0 contains all
22k strands, which represent all possible input values with itâ„¢s corresponding output
values. Tube N0 is ready as a working area, particularly for NAND operation. The
algorithm describes the above process is as follows.
for n = k to 1
N1 = S (N0, In , 1)
Nâ„¢1 = Sâ„¢(N0, In, 1)
N2 = S (N1, On, 1)
Nâ„¢2 = Sâ„¢(N1, On, 1)
N1 = merge (Nâ„¢1, Nâ„¢2)
N1 = set (N1, Rn+1, 1)
N0 = merge(N1, N2)
result tube = N0
Similarly algorithms can be written to get the result tube corresponding to other
logical operations AND, OR, NOT, XOR, NOR etc. Since NAND operation is
functionally complete, separation and output step for NAND operation have been
described in detail above.
Notre Dame researchers have been developing an alternative approach which is
naturally suited to molecular devices, molecules do make excellent structured charge
containers. In the quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) paradigm information is
represented by the charge configuration of a molecule. A QCA molecule is designed so
that its ground-state charge configuration is determined by the state of its neighboring
molecules through the Coulomb interaction. Current does not move between molecular
cells. Instead, information moves without current flow. This approach is capable of
supporting general-purpose computing and offers the possibility of extremely low power
dissipation. In the QCA paradigm, the field from the charge configuration of one devices
alters the charge configuration of the next device.
An idealized QCA cell can be viewed as a set of four charge containers, or dots
positioned at the corners of a square. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons which
can quantum-mechanically tunnel between dots but, by design, cannot tunnel between
cells. The barrier between dots should be high enough so that charge can move only by
tunneling and is therefore localized in the dots and not in the connectors. The
configuration of charge within the cell is quantified by the cell polarization, which can
vary between P= -1, representing a binary 0, and P= +1, representing a binary 1
the potential of the QCA concept extends beyond Boolean circuits.
QCA Circuits can be created by putting QCA cells in proximity to each other. A
QCA binary wire is formed simply by creating a linear array of cells. The Coulomb
interaction makes nearby cells align in the same state. The corner interaction is antivoting
so it can be used to make an inverter. The natural logic gate is the three-input
majority gate. A full adder has been stimulated using the full self-consistent Schrodinger
equation, verifying that the adder works for all input possibilities. For complex circuits it
is useful to be able to clock the cells. Clocking consists of controlling the activity of the
cell by effectively raising and lowering the interdot barriers.
AC electrokinetic techniques such as dielectrophoresis and electrorotation have
been used for many years for the manipulation, separation and analysis of cellular-scale
particles. The phenomenon occurs due to the interaction of induced dipoles with electric
fields, and can be used to exhibit a variety of motions including attraction, repulsion and
rotation by changing the nature of the dynamic field. AC electrokinetics offers
advantages over scanning-probe methods of nanoparticle manipulation in that the
equipment used is simple, cheap and has no moving parts, relying entirely on the
electrostatic interactions between the particle and dynamic electric field.
Dielectrophoresis is the manipulation of polarisable particles in non-uniform
electric fields. It has been demonstrated to be effective for the manipulation of
nanometre - scale particles including polymer and metallic colloidal particles, DNA and
other macromolecules, viruses and also potential nanocomponents including carbon
nanotubes, semi conducting nanowires and carbon-60 molecules.
Consider a dielectric particle suspended in a spatially non-uniform electric field.
The applied field induces a dipole in the particle; the interaction of the induced charges
either side of the body with the electric field generates forces in opposite directions. Due
to the presence of a field gradient, these forces are not equal and there is a net movement.
If the particle is more polarisable than the medium around it, the dipole aligns with the
field and the force acts up the field gradient towards the region of highest electric field. If
the particle is less polarisable than the medium, the dipole aligns against the field and the
particle is repelled from regions of high electric field. The magnitude and direction of the
force is dependent on the induced dipole and is unaffected by the direction of the electric
field, responding only to the field gradient. Since the alignment of the field is irrelevant,
this force can also be generated in AC fields which has the advantage of reducing any
electrophoretic force (due to any net particle charge) to zero.
Optics, which is the science of light, is already used in computing, most often in
the fibre-optic glass cables that currently transmit data down Internet lines much more
quickly than traditional copper wires. In an optical computer, electrons are replaced by
photons, the sub-atomic bits of electromagnetic radiation that make up light.
Advantages of Optical Computing:
Compact and light weight
Current use of Optics for Computing
A group at Brown University and the IBM Almaden Research Center (San Jose,
CA) have used ultrafast laser pulses to build ultrafast data-storage devices and able to
achieve ultrafast switching down to 100ps. NEC (Tokyo, Japan) has developed a method
for interconnecting circuit boards optically using Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser
arrays (VCSEL). Optical data processing can be done much easier and less expensive in
parallel than can be done in electronics using a simple optical design, an array of pixels
can be transferred simultaneously in parallel from one point to another. Parallelism,
therefore, when associated with fast switching speeds, would result in staggering
Since photons are uncharged and do not interact with one another as readily as
electrons, light beams may pass through one another in full-duplex operation.
Signals in adjacent fibers or in optical integrated channels do not affect one
another nor do they pick up noise due to loops.
Finally, optical materials possess superior storage density and accessibility
over magnetic materials.
Ultrafast Pulse Shaping and Tb/sec Data Speeds
Generating ultra short laser pulses in the picosecond and femto second range
by sending it through a modulator is known as ultrafast pulse shaping.
If the optical pulse that we wish to shape has a temporal duration of fs or ps, then
we will need a modulator that works on this time scale. The idea of shaping a pulse by
sending it through a modulator, such as a Mach-Zehnder, is referred to as direct pulse
shaping. Current modulators can operate at 60GHz, which is much slower than necessary
to shape a femtosecond pulse. Therefore, the technique of indirect pulse shaping, which
includes Liquid Crystal Modulators (LCM pulse shaping), Acousto-Optic Modulator
(AOM pulse shaping) and time-stretched pulse shaping is used. The choice of which
pulse-shaping apparatus to use may depend on the particular application; each technique
has different advantages to it.
A grating spreads the pulse, so that each different spectral component maps onto a
different spatial position. The collimating lenses and grating pair are set up in a 4F
configuration (F being the focal length of the collimating lenses), and in the center of the
4-F system, an element is placed that will modulate the spectrum. In case of the AOM as
the encoding element, there is a huge difference between speed of sound and speed of
light in AOM crystal. Since the ratio between two is about 1 to 1 million, we can use
MHz electrical signal to achieve THz programmable modulation of an optical signal and
still keep a reasonable update speed. In practice, high resolution spectral encoding is, by
definition, a variation of the Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and can
be used to significantly improve the bandwidth efficiency. The idea can be illustrated in
the following way: If we start with a 100fs Full-Width at Half Maximum (FWHM)
optical pulse and encode, for example, 16 amplitude on-off-keying return-to zero (RZ)
format bits in its spectrum, which in the worst possible cases would broaden the pulse by
a factor of 16-to about 1.6 ps FWHM. The encoded pulses can, therefore be well
confined in a 4ps optical switching window, without much distortion to the encoded
spectrum. By doing this, the Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) system can benefit from
spectrum encoding by a factor of 16 and achievable Data Translation Rate (DTR) can be
as high as 4 Tbps.
Need for Nanotechnology:
Computer process combines several million transistors to form logic gates, adders,
memory in a highly ordered and complex fashion.
Such devices are fabricated using planar technology whereby masks are used to
define areas of
Electronic doping (the addition of electron donor or acceptor atoms),
Metallisation (the addition of conducting metal wires), or
Etching (the removal of unwanted material by chemical means).
The mask process is only applicable for the definition of devices half the size of
the wavelength of light used to expose the material through the mask. Since it is not
possible to focus high-frequency (short wavelength) energy with sufficient precision, the
limit of conventional fabrication (presently about 100nm) is fast approaching;
Nanotechnology allows the placement of small structures such as nanowires or
DNA molecules to be placed with precision, simplicity and low cost and which allows
the process of fabrication to be either completely automated or at least semi-automated.
Nano Scale Architectures and Quantum Computing
Techniques for Image Feature Extraction
Quantum computation, unlike classical logical devices, which only exist, in two
states (0/1), uses atoms that can have three states (0/1/01). Thus a superposition of the
first two states exists in quantum computation. The use of quantum computation is very
much useful in investigating properties of complex systems since quantum registers allow
all possible numbers to be stored in a given moment of time using quantum superposition.
The property that atom can also be prepared in a coherent superposition of the two states
is exploited in quantum computation, and the use of quantum registers increases the
storage capacity exponentially.
Image Feature Extraction Using Quantum Registers
In Image Feature Extraction, a large database is needed and processing using
conventional logic takes large amount of time. The use of nano scale architectures
employing quantum registers can drastically reduce the computation time without a
complex algorithm. By using an L bit quantum register a total of 2L numbers can be
stored at once. Thus by using a quantum register of size 16 bits a complete image feature
of size 256 x 256 can be stored at once.
Classical Image Feature Extraction Algorithm
The classical image feature extraction algorithm uses nano scale architectures
with quantum registers, etc., but the algorithm that they run will not involve quantum
mechanics. One such algorithm is given in this paper, where quantum structures are used
for data storage tasks but non-quantum mechanics algorithms are used.
Merging Existing Non-Quantum Computing Tools and
Nano Scale Architectures
Embedded systems designed for image feature extraction should reply back within
a bounded time. The algorithms that govern the Feature extraction should
Minimize the time of processing,
Minimize the computations necessary to predict/extract a feature with high
degree of accuracy i.e should be robust
Handle large volume of data.
The first and third factor can be achieved easily by using nano scale architectures for
data storage tasks. The second factor is achieved by using existing Computing tools such
as Genetic Algorithms or Neural Network which are implicitly robust and which can
predict results with good accuracy even in ill-defined problems. The proper combination
of existing computing structure for robustness and nano scale architectures for
minimizing time will become inevitable in any embedded system developed for image
processing applications such as feature extraction in future.
Nano scale architectures are less robust due to the reason that quantum nano
computers store data in the form of atomic quantum states or spin and instantaneous
electron energy states are difficult to predict and even more difficult to control. A
sophisticated and subtle programming of the nano machines is required and hence proper
computing paradigms are needed in order to help us gain the benefits of nano scale
structures. This can be done easily since both robust computing techniques and nano
scale architectures are parallel tasks and one can assist the other.
Classical Quantum Structure Based Image Feature
Store Total Features characterizing the image in a particular terrain in Quantum
For (Feature = 1; Feature < = M; Feature++)
For (i = 1, i< = SAM ; i++)
Read feature [i] from quantum registers
Relational Matrix Declaration:
Store relational matrix upto higher order in quantum registers
For (i =1; i<M;i++)
For (j=1; j<M;j++)
Read a[i] [i] from ith relation matrix table
Call Decision Loop:
Use relation matrix for Image feature prediction and Robust computing subroutine
Robust computing Subroutine:
Function Robust (k)
Set Rob [input] = kth sample
If (Rob[output] = 1)
Set flag = 1
Flag = 0
In optical fibre communication systems:
Nanotechnology has played a vital role in dramatically advancing optical fibre
communication systems using bulk gallium arsenide lasers and multimode fibre with
transmission distances of a few kilometers and bit rates of a few megabits per second.
Now the systems have single mode fibre with bit rates a thousand times greater and
distance is no object. This is possible by two developments in nanotechnology
The development of the multiquantum well laser based on indium phosphide
technology which operates in single longitudinal mode and has good thermal
The discovery of erbium doped fibre amplifier and the use of nanoscale fibre gratings
to provide uniform amplification over a substantial fraction of the low loss fibre
Competitive models in nanocomputing:
Unlike the hofield energy function approach that requires the researchers to
define the constraints of the problem and then go through an imprecise and obscuring
energy function to define the weights, these nano-networks have properties that can be
directly defined and controlled.
Basic idea of the network:
The network used here was a neuron-matrix type neural network. Here the
neurons are arranged in the form of a matrix and each layer of the matrix were linked
with switching mosfet which was switched by the status of the linking registers. The
linking register was an array of flip-flops which can be selected and can be made set or
reset. When it was set the switching mosfet connected to it will be ON and the node
connected to it will be connected to the next node adjacent to it.
Neuron hardwired circuit:
It will select any of the weights through shift-register which run through the length
and breadth of the neuron matrix. Now it will compare the existing output and ideal
one which will also be given in the learning mode. If error occurs it generates a
perturbation signal. This happens when the clock is high.
When the clock goes low, it will activate the compare and correction block of the
learning circuit and it will compare
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A nanometer is one billionth of a meter. If you blew up a baseball to the size of the
earth, the atoms would become visible, about the size of grapes. Some 3- 4 atoms fit
lined up inside a nanometer. Nanotechnology is about building things atom by atom,
molecule by molecule. The trick is to be able to manipulate atoms individually, and
place them where you wish on a structure.
Nanotechnology uses well known physical properties of atoms and molecules to make
novel devices with extraordinary properties. The anticipated pay off for mastering this
technology is beyond any human accomplishment thus far.
Nature uses molecular machines to create life.Scientists from several fields including
chemistry, biology, physics, and electronics are driving towards the precise
manipulation of matter on the atomic scale. How do we get to nanotechnology Several
approaches seem feasible. Ultimately a combination may be the key.
The goal of early nanotechnology is to produce the first nano-sized robot arm capable
of manipulating atoms and molecules into a useful product or copies of itself.
Nanotechnology finds applications as nanotubes, in nanomedicine and so on.Soon you
have trillions of assemblers controlled by nano super computers working in parallel
assembling objects quickly.
Ultimately, with atomic precision, everything could be made. It's all a matter of
-AN INTERDISCIPLINARY SUBJECT
* BOTTOM-UP TECHNOLOGY
* STEWART PLATFORM
* VISUAL IMAGES IN NANO TECNOLOGY
* ETHICAL ISSUES
A nanometer is one billionth of a meter. That's a thousand, million times smaller than a meter. If
you blew up a baseball to the size of the earth, the atoms would become visible, about the size of
grapes. Some 3- 4 atoms fit lined up inside a nanometer. Nanotechnology is about building things
atom-by-atom, molecule-by-molecule. The trick is to be able to manipulate atoms individually, and
place them where you wish on a structure. Thus nanotechnology can be defined as:
Thorough, inexpensive control of the structure of matter based on molecule-by-molecule
control of products and byproducts; the products and processes of molecular manufacturing.
LEARNING FROM NATURE
Technology-as-we-know-it is a product of industry, of manufacturing and chemical
engineering. Industry-as-we-know-it takes things from natureâ€ore from mountains, trees
from forestsâ€and coerces them into forms that someone considers useful. Trees become
lumber, then houses. Mountains become rubble, then molten iron, then steel, then cars. Sand
becomes a purified gas, then silicon, and then chips. And so it goes. Each process is crude,
based on cutting, stirring, baking, spraying, etching, grinding, and the like.
Trees, though, are not crude: To make wood and leaves, they neither cut, grind, stir, bake,
spray, etch, nor grind. Instead, they gather solar energy using molecular electronic devices,
the photosynthetic reaction centers of chloroplasts. They use that energy to drive molecular
machinesâ€active devices with moving parts of precise, molecular structureâ€which process
carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and molecular building blocks. They use other
molecular machines to join these molecular building blocks to form roots, trunks, branches,
twigs, solar collectors, and more molecular machinery. Every tree makes leaves, and each
leaf is more sophisticated than a spacecraft, more finely patterned than the latest chip from
Silicon Valley. They do all this without noise, heat, toxic fumes, or human labor, and they
consume pollutants as they go. Viewed this way, trees are high technology. Chips and
Trees give a hint of what molecular nanotechnology will be like, but nanotechnology won't
be biotechnology. Like biotechnologyâ€or ordinary treesâ€molecular nanotechnology will
use molecular machinery, but unlike biotechnology, it will not rely on genetic meddling.
We humans are huge creations with no direct experience of the molecular world, and this can
make nanotechnology hard to visualize, hence hard to understand. The nano in
nanotechnology comes from nanos, the Greek word for dwarf. In science, the prefix nanomeans
one-billionth of something, as in nanometer and nanosecond, which are typical units
of size and time in the world of molecular manufacturing. Lets try to visualize: you say,
"Shrink me!", and the world seems to expand.
NANOTECHNOLOGY-AS AN INTERDISCIPLINARY SUBJECT
Another feature of nanotechnology is that it is the one area of research and development that
is truly multidisciplinary. Research at the nanoscale is unified by the need to share
knowledge on tools and techniques, as well as information on the physics affecting atomic
and molecular interactions in this new realm. Materials scientists, mechanical and electronic
engineers and medical researchers are now forming teams with biologists, physicists and
The two fundamentally different approaches to nanotechnology are graphically termed 'top
down' and 'bottom up'. 'Top-down' refers to making nanoscale structures by machining and
etching techniques, whereas 'bottom-up', or molecular nanotechnology, applies to building
organic and inorganic structures atom-by-atom, or molecule-by-molecule. Top-down or
bottom-up is a measure of the level of advancement of nanotechnology
Manufactured products are made from atoms. The properties of those products depend on
how those atoms are arranged. If we rearrange the atoms in coal we can make diamond. If we
rearrange the atoms in sand (and add a few other trace elements) we can make computer
chips. If we rearrange the atoms in dirt, water and air we can make potatoes.
In future we'll be able to snap together the fundamental building blocks of nature easily,
inexpensively and in most of the ways permitted by the laws of physics. This will be
essential if we are to continue the revolution in computer hardware beyond about the next
decade, and will also let us fabricate an entire new generation of products that are cleaner,
stronger, lighter, and more precise.
'Top-down' refers to making nano scale structures
by machining and etching techniques.
Microscopic irregularities will always be present.
Bonds cannot be manipulated. Thus new materials
cannot be formed.
Eg. Silicon crystal slicedrequired atomic
scale silicon wafer obtained.
'Bottom-up', or molecular nanotechnology,
applies to building organic and inorganic
structures atom-by-atom, or molecule-bymolecule.
Atomic scale manufacturing is devoid of all
Manipulation of bonds enables creation of new
materials with desired properties.
Eg. Silicon atoms assembled by suitable
techniques required atomic scale silicon wafer
Thus molecular nanotechnology should let us :
Get essentially every atom in the right place.
Make almost any structure consistent with the laws of physics that we can specify in
Have manufacturing costs not greatly exceeding the cost of the required raw materials
There are basically two ways to fabricate nanodevices:
The ability of chemists to synthesize what they want by stirring things together is truly
remarkable. Imagine building a radio by putting all the parts in a bag, shaking, and pulling
out the radio -- fully assembled and ready to work! Self assembly -- the art and science of
arranging conditions so that the parts themselves spontaneously assemble into the desired
structure -- is a well established and powerful method of synthesizing complex molecular
A basic principle in self assembly is selective stickiness: if two molecular parts have
complementary shapes and charge patterns -- one part has a hollow where the other part has a
bump, and one part has a positive charge where the other part has a negative charge -- then
they will tend to stick together in one particular way. By shaking these parts around --
something which thermal noise does for us quite naturally if the parts are floating in solution
-- the parts will eventually, purely by chance, be brought together in just the right way and
combine into a bigger part. This bigger part can combine in the same way with other parts,
letting us gradually build a complex whole from molecular pieces by stirring them together
Many viruses use this approach to make more viruses -- if you stir the parts of the T4
bacteriophage together in a test tube, they will self assemble into fully functional viruses.
Positional devices and positionally controlled reactions
While self assembly is a path to nanotechnology, by itself it would be hard pressed to make
the very wide range of products promised by nanotechnology. During self assembly the parts
bounce around and bump into each other in all kinds of ways, and if they stick together when
we don't want them to stick together, we'll get unwanted globs of random parts.
Many types of parts have this problem, so self assembly won't work for them. These parts
can't be allowed to randomly bump into each other (or much of anything else, for that matter)
because they'd stick together when we didn't want them to stick together and form messy
blobs instead of precise molecular machines.
We can avoid this problem if we can hold and position the parts. Even though the molecular
parts that are used to make diamond are both indiscriminately and very sticky (more
technically, the barriers to bond formation are low and the resulting covalent bonds are quite
strong), if we can position them we can prevent them from bumping into each other in the
When two sticky parts do come into contact with each other, they'll do so in the right
orientation because we're holding them in the right orientation. In short, positional control at
the molecular scale should let us make things which would be difficult or impossible to make
If we are to position molecular parts we must develop the molecular equivalent of "arms" and
"hands." We'll need to learn what it means to "pick up" such parts and "snap them together.
One of the first questions we'll need to answer is: what does a molecular-scale positional
device look like Current proposals are similar to macroscopic robotic devices but on a much
smaller scale. The illustrations show a design for a molecular-scale robotic arm proposed by
Eric Drexler, a pioneering researcher in the field. Only 100 nanometers high and 30
nanometers in diameter, this rather squat design has a few million atoms and roughly a
hundred moving parts. It uses no lubricants, for at this scale a lubricant molecule is more like
a piece of grit.
Our molecular arms will be buffeted by something we don't worry about at the macroscopic
scale: thermal noise. This makes molecular-scale objects wiggle and jiggle, just as Brownian
motion makes small dust particles bounce around at random.
The critical property we need here is stiffness. Stiffness is a measure of how far something
moves when you push on it.
Unfortunately, as we make our positional devices smaller and smaller, they will be more and
more subject to thermal noise. To make something that's both small and stiff is more
challenging. It helps to get the stiffest material you can find. Diamond, as usual, is stiffer
than almost anything else and is an excellent material from which to make a very small, very
stiff positional device. Theoretical analysis gives firm support to the idea that positional
devices in the 100 nanometer size range able to position their tips to within a small fraction
of an atomic diameter in the face of thermal noise at room temperature should be feasible.
While Drexler's proposal for a small robotic arm is easy to understand and should be
adequate to the task, more recent work has focused on the Stewart platform. This positional
device has the great advantage that it is stiffer than a robotic arm of similar size.
If we want a full six degrees of freedom (X, Y, Z, roll, pitch and yaw) then we must be able
to independently adjust the lengths of six different edges of the polyhedron. If we further
want one triangular face of the polyhedron to remain of fixed size and hold a "tool," and a
second face of the polyhedron to act as the "base" whose size and position is fixed, then we
find that the simplest polyhedron that will suit our purpose is the octahedron.
The advantage of the Stewart platform can now be seen: because the six adjustable-length
edges are either in pure compression or pure tension and are never subjected to any bending
force, this positional device is stiffer than a long robotic arm which can bend and flex. The
Stewart platform is also conceptually simpler than a robotic arm, having fewer different types
of parts; for this reason, we can reasonably expect that making one will be simpler than
making a robotic.
Self replication: making things inexpensively
Positional control combined with appropriate molecular tools should let us build a truly
staggering range of molecular structures -- but a few molecular devices built at great expense
would hardly seem to qualify as a revolution in manufacturing. How can we keep the costs
The requirement for low cost creates an interest in self replicating manufacturing systems.
These systems are able both to make copies of themselves and to manufacture useful
products. If we can design and build one such system the manufacturing costs for more such
systems and the products they make (assuming they can make copies of themselves in some
reasonably inexpensive environment) will be very low.
Once the product has been assembled by assemblers and time of production quickened using
replicators, the assemblers are no more needed in them. The miniature devices used to
dissemble these assemblers are known as DISSEMBLERS. They function opposite to the
assemblers by breaking bonds between the atoms of assemblers and reducing them to junk
VISUAL IMAGES IN NANOTECHNOLOGY
Nanogears no more than a nanometer wide could be used to construct a matter compiler, which
could be fed raw material to arrange atoms and build a macro-scale structure.
Nanogears no more than a nanometer wide could be used to construct a matter compiler,
which could be fed raw material to arrange atoms and build a macro-scale structure.
A NANO-PUMP A DIFFERENTIAL A FINE MOTION
"One molecule thick letters written using
Octadecanethiol is the ink and gold is the
substrate. Visualized with an atomic force
A BEARING A HYDROCARBON JOINT
A NANO PUMP A DIFFERENTIAL GEAR A FINE MOTION
NANOTECHNOLOGY AS AN ANALOGY
Nanotechnology is likely to change the way almost everything, including medicine,
computers and cars, are designed and constructed. Nanotechnology is anywhere from five to
15 years in the future, and we won't see dramatic changes in our world right away. But let's
take a look at the potential effects of nanotechnology:
The first products made from nanomachines will be stronger fibers. Eventually,
Technology Function Molecular Examples
struts, beams, casins transmit force, hold positions cell walls, microtubules
cables transmit tension collagen, silk
fasteners, glue connect parts intermolecular forces
solenoids, actuators move things muscle actin, myosin
motors turn shafts flagellar motor
drive shafts transmit torque bacterial flagella
bearings support moving parts single bonds
clamps hold workpieces enzymatic binding sites
tools modify workpieces enzymes, reactive molecules
production lines control devices enzyme systems, ribosomes
numerical control systems store and read programs genetic system
we will be able to replicate anything, including diamonds, water and food. Famine
could be eradicated by machines that fabricate foods to feed the hungry.
In the computer industry, the ability to shrink the size of transistors on silicon
microprocessors will soon reach its limits. Nanotechnology will be needed to
create a new generation of computer components. Molecular computers could
contain storage devices capable of storing trillions of bytes of information in a
structure the size of a sugar cube.
Nanotechnology may have its biggest impact on the medical industry. Patients
will drink fluids containing nanorobots programmed to attack and reconstruct the
molecular structure of cancer cells and viruses to make them harmless. There's
even speculation that nanorobots could slow or reverse the aging process, and life
expectancy could increase significantly. Nanorobots could also be programmed to
perform delicate surgeries -- such nanosurgeons could work at a level a thousand
times more precise than the sharpest scalpel. By working on such a small scale, a
nanorobot could operate without leaving the scars that conventional surgery does.
Additionally, nanorobots could change your physical appearance. They could be
programmed to perform cosmetic surgery, rearranging your atoms to change your
ears, nose, eye color or any other physical feature you wish to alter.
Nanotechnology has the potential to have a positive effect on the environment.
For instance, airborne nanorobots could be programmed to rebuild the thinning
ozone layer. Contaminants could be automatically removed from water sources,
and oil spills could be cleaned up instantly. Manufacturing materials using the
bottom-up method of nanotechnology also creates less pollution than
conventional manufacturing processes. Our dependence on non-renewable
resources would diminish with nanotechnology. Many resources could be
constructed by nanomachines. Cutting down trees, mining coal or drilling for oil
may no longer be necessary. Resources could simply be constructed by
One challenge to effective drug treatment is getting the medication to exactly the
right place. To that end, researchers have been investigating myriad new methods
to deliver pharmaceuticals. New findings indicate that tiny nanocontainers
composed of polymers may one day distribute drugs to specific spots within
New findings suggest that artificial leaves comprised of nanocrystals may one day
remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere--even in the dark
Research suggests that the diminutive tubes can hold twice as much energy as
graphite, the form of carbon currently used as an electrode in many rechargeable
Things behave substantially differently in the micro domain. Forces related to
volume, like weight and inertia, tend to decrease in significance. Forces related to
surface area, such as friction and electrostatics, tend to become large. And forces
like surface tension that depend upon an edge become enormous. It takes awhile
to get one's micro intuition sorted out. Some people have come up with obstacles
which raise doubts about the question:
Will it work
Will Thermal Vibrations Mess Things Up"
Will Quantum Uncertainty Mess Things Up"
"Will Loose Molecules Mess Things Up"
Will Chemical Instability Mess Things Up
Some people have recently, publicly (and belatedly) realized that nanotechnology might create new
concerns that we should address.
Deliberate abuse, the misuse of a technology by some small group or nation to cause great harm, is
best prevented by measures based on a clear understanding of that technology. Nanotechnology
could, in the future, be used to rapidly identify and block attacks. Distributed surveillance systems
could quickly identify arms buildups and offensive weapons deployments, while lighter, stronger, and
smarter materials controlled by powerful molecular computers would let us make radically improved
versions of existing weapons able to respond to such threats.
Replicating manufacturing systems could rapidly churn out the needed defenses in huge quantities.
Such systems are best developed by continuing a vigorous R&D program, which provides a clear
understanding of the potential threats and countermeasures available.
Besides deliberate attacks, the other concern is that a self-replicating molecular machine could
replicate unchecked, converting most of the biosphere into copies of itself. Some precautionary
measures include such common sense principles as: artificial replicators must not be capable of
replication in a natural, uncontrolled environment; they must have an absolute dependence on an
artificial fuel source or artificial components not found in nature; they must use appropriate error
detection codes and encryption to prevent unintended alterations in their blueprints; and the like.
The promises of nanotechnology sound great, don't they Maybe even unbelievable But
researchers say that we will achieve these capabilities within the next century. And if
nanotechnology is, in fact, realized, it might be the human race's greatest scientific
achievement yet, completely changing every aspect of the way we live.
Nanotechnology's potential to improve the human condition is staggering: we would be
shirking our duty to future generations if we did not responsibly develop it.
Electronics for you
Unbounding the future
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22-08-2010, 05:59 AM
hi this is krishna reddy from visakhapatnam.i would like present a seminar and presentation in A.U next month so i request u to send me the full seminar and presentation topic about nano technology.it would be so helpfull if u send early...
Mohammed. A. Kapasi|
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This report is just out standing... i salute the people helping us student from various sources.. this site rockss....
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NanoTechnology (Download Full Seminar Report)
P. SHRAVAN KUMAR
MD. SHAHNAWAZ PARVEZ AHMED
Nanotechnology is molecular manufacturing one atom or molecule at a time with programmed nanoscopic robot arms. It is a very vast field and is the merger of all known technologies that we have today.
Nanotechnology utilizes well-understood chemical properties of atoms & molecules to construct devices that posses extraordinary properties .
Nanotechnology is an essential technology for designing, fabricating and applying Nanometer-scale systems.
Nanotechnology was conceived in 1959,when Nobel Laureate physicist Richard P. Feynman gave a lecture titled
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19-10-2010, 10:43 AM
MOLECULAR MANUFACTURING IN NANO TECHNOLOGY
ABSTRACT: By building an object atom by atom or molecule by molecule, molecular manufacturing , also called molecular nanotechnology, can produce new materials with improved performance over existing materials. For example, an airplane strut must be very strong, but also lightweight. A molecular fabricator could build the strut atom by atom out of carbon, making a lightweight material that is stronger than a diamond. Remember that a diamond is merely a lattice of carbon atoms held together by bonds between the atoms. By placing carbon atoms, one after the other, in the shape of the strut, such a fabricator could create a diamond-like material that is lightweight and stronger than any metal.
Researchers believe that molecular manufacturing also has the potential to revolutionize medicine. For example, sensors that are smaller than blood cells could be produced inexpensively. When released into a patient's blood stream in large numbers, these sensors could provide very accurate diagnoses. Nano robots could be built using molecular manufacturing to perform surgical procedures in a more precise way. By working at the cellular level, such nano robots could prevent much of the damage caused by the comparatively clumsy scalpel . Molecular manufacturing is the use of programmable chemistry to build exponential manufacturing systems and high-performance products. There are several ways this can be achieved, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. This technology is coming soon—almost certainly within 20 years, and perhaps in less than a decade. When it arrives, it will come quickly. Molecular manufacturing can be built into a self-contained, table top factory that makes cheap products efficiently at molecular scale. The time from the first assembler to a flood of powerful and complex products may be less than a year. The potential benefits of such a technology are immense. Unfortunately, the risks are also immense.
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Nanosystem Design with Dynamic Collision Detection for Autonomous Nanorobot Motion Control using Neural Networks
The starting point of nanotechnology to achieve the main goal of building nanoscale systems is the development of autonomous molecular machine systems. The presented paper describes the design and simulation of autonomous multi-robot teams operating at atomic scales with distinct assembly tasks. Teams must cooperate with each other in order to achieve a productive result in assembling biomolecules into larger biomolecules. These biomolecules will be delivered to â€œorgansâ€ (into a set of predefined organ inlets), and such deliveries must also be coordinated in time.
Building patterns and manipulating atoms with the use of Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPM) as in Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  is a promising approach for the construction of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) with 3D precision at up to 0.01 nm resolution. However, these manual manipulations require much time and at present such repetitive tasks give imprecise results when performed manually on a large number of molecules. Approaches for nano-planning systems have been presented  as a first step towards automating 2D assembly tasks in nanorobotics, and the possible use of artificial intelligence as the appropriate means to enable some aspects of intelligent behaviour for the control of nanorobots in molecular manufacturing automation has been discussed in the nano community . Theoretical work in molecular manufacturing has emphasized the need for very small and very accurate manipulators which simultaneously have a wide range of motion to enable the task of assembling molecular components . More recent work in the possible automation of nanoscale manipulation has produced a fully autonomous motion manipulator system capable of performing 200,000 accurate measurements per second at the atomic scale .
•Â 2. NANOMEDICINE
The principal focus in medicine is going to shift from medical science to medical engineering, where the design of medically-active microscopic machines will be the consequent result of the techniques provided from human molecular structure knowledge derived during the 20th (and the beginning of the 21st) century . For the feasibility of such achievements in nanomedicine  two primary capabilities are required: fabrication of parts and assembly of parts. Through the use of different approaches such as biotechnology, supramolecular chemistry, and scanning probes, both capabilities had been demonstrated in limited fashion as early as 1998 . Despite quantum effects which impose a relative uncertainty to electron positions, such objections are resolved by recognizing that the quantum probability function of electrons in atoms tends to drop off exponentially with distance outside the atom, giving atoms a moderately sharp "edge". Even in most liquids at their boiling points, each molecule is free to move only ~0.07 nm from its average position . Recent developments in the field of biomolecular computing  have demonstrated positively the feasibility of processing logic tasks by bio-computers , which is a promising first step to enable future nanoprocessors with increasing complexity, and nanoscale information storage and data processing capacity, which could be considered as an indispensable component of a real autonomous nanosystem. Other advances in the sense of building biosensors  and nano-kinetic devices  have advanced recently too, which could be considered as well a prerequisite for making nano-automation feasible and enabling nanorobotics control and locomotion. Many classical objections to the feasibility of nanotechnology, such as quantum mechanics, thermal motions and friction, have already been considered and resolved . The presented nanorobot will be required to perform a pre-established set of tasks in the human body as is a ribosome, which is a natural molecular machine system .
•Â 3. PROPOSED DESIGN
A multi-robot molecular machine system could be described as a system to perform molecular manufacturing at the atomic scale, whose constituent entities are capable of cooperating collectively. Three main design approaches for nano manipulation in the liquid or air environments are: robotic arm, Stewart platform and a five-strut crank model. For our experiments we chose nano-manipulation in a liquid environment, which is most relevant within the presented application in nanomedicine. It was demonstrated that computation is relatively cheap for macroscale robotic actuators while arm motion is relatively cheap for nanoscale robotic actuators. Thus the moment-by-moment computer control of arm trajectories is the appropriate paradigm for macroscale robots, but not for nanoscale robots . For nanoscale robots, the appropriate manipulator control is often trajectory trial and error, also known as sensor based motion control .
Virtual Reality was used for the nanorobot design where the use of macro- and microrobotic concepts is considered a practical approach once the theoretical and practical assumptions here have focused on its domain of application. The design should be robust enough to operate in a complex environment with movement in six-degrees-of-freedom. Nanoscale object manipulation systems have been applied with the use of computer graphics for teleoperation. The requirements for such systems have been clearly established . A starting point for our hypotheses and experiments was to consider the robot design derived from biological models and comprised of some basic nanoscale components such as molecular sorting rotors and a telescoping manipulator (robot arm) . The robot design adopted concepts provided from underwater robotics  keeping in mind however the kinetics assumptions that the nanorobot lives in a world of viscosity, where friction, adhesion, and viscous forces are paramount and gravitational forces are of little or no importance . The obstacles will be located in unknown positions (figure 1). The delivery positions that represent organ inlets requiring proteins to be injected are located in a well-known position for the nanorobot teams if these organ inlets are (or are not) scheduled for injection at time t, they will change their colours, indicating the opening or closing of the team A (blue nanorobots) and Bâ€™s (yellow nanorobots) delivery orifice, which will indicate for the agents if they could perform their delivery in the correct order (figure 2). The trajectories and positions of each molecule are generated randomly and each molecule also has a probabilistic motion acceleration. The nanorobot navigation uses plane surfaces (three fins total) and bi-directional propellers, which are comprised of two simultaneously counter-rotating screw drives for the propulsion . Considering the liquid environment, a sonar approach seems to be the most appropriate choice of sensor device for nanorobots in nanomedicine , thereby for navigational purposes the blue cones shown in figure 3 represent regions that the robotâ€™s sonar can â€œhearâ€. Scientific visualization techniques permit rapid and precise geometric analysis for a sonar classification system . The nanorobot sensors report collisions and identify when an encountered object is an obstacle to be avoided or a molecule to be caught. While some molecules are being captured (figure 3), other molecules will be assembled internally by the robot arm.
3.2 Physically Based Simulation
The study of non-penetrating rigid bodies in virtual reality for dynamic constrained simulation is a field of research in computer graphics that has an enormous impact for physically based simulation and a large range of works in this field have achieved good results. Particularly in calculating motions of many objects that move under changing constraints and frequently make collisions, one of the key issues of dynamic simulation methods is calculation of collision impulse between rigid bodies. The correlation between contact force and relative normal acceleration could be expressed as a linear programming problem , which permits calculation of the collision impulse between rigid bodies colliding at multiple points. Furthermore the relation between collision impulse and relative normal velocity could be also expressed as a linear complementary problem. A simple and fast algorithm for calculating contact force with friction by formulating the relation between force and relative acceleration as a linear complementary problem was equally demonstrated , and this model was based on Dantzigâ€™s algorithm (solving the linear complementary problem). Baraffâ€™s algorithm has achieved great performance for real-time and interactive simulation of two-dimensional mechanisms with contact force, friction force and collision impulse, although friction impulse at collision was not completely covered in such a model.
for more ::->
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22-10-2010, 01:33 PM
NANO ENGR 220.pdf (Size: 1.2 MB / Downloads: 211)
Scale Changes Everything
• Four important ways in which nanoscale materials may differ from
– Gravitational forces become negligible and electromagnetic
– Quantum mechanics is the model used to describe motion and
energy instead of the classical mechanics model
– Greater surface area to volume ratios
– Random molecular motion becomes more important
What Does This All Mean?
• The following factors are key for understanding nanoscale-related
– Dominance of electromagnetic forces
– Importance of quantum mechanical models
– Higher surface area to volume ratio
– Random (Brownian) motion
• It is important to understand these four factors when researching
new materials and properties
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Nanotechnology_in_Mechanical_Engineering.ppt (Size: 3.32 MB / Downloads: 359)
UEET 101 Introduction to Engineering
in Mechanical Engineering
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Northern Illinois University
DeKalb, IL 60115
Major Topics in Mechanical Engineering
Statics : Deals with forces, Moments, equilibrium of a stationary body
Dynamics: Deals with body in motion - velocity, acceleration, torque, momentum, angular momentum.
Structure and properties of material (Including strengths)
Thermodynamics, power generation, alternate energy (power plants, solar, wind, geothermal, engines)
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Application of Nanotechnology.
First A. Author: Depinder Kohli Second B. Author: Deepika
This paper explains that the goal of nanotechnology(molecular manufacturing) is to build engineerable high-performance products of all sizes, rapidly and inexpensively, with nanoscale features and atomic precision. Molecular manufacturing is the only branch of nanotechnology that intends to combine kilogram-scale products, atomic precision, and engineered programmable structure at all scales.It is a technological breakthrough of transformative power.
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This paper focusses on the research, developments, advantages and disadvantages of Nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is perceived as one of the key technologies of the 21st century with a potential to flourish in the near future.The aim of nanotechnology is to build the future, atom by atom.The very thought,“There is plenty of room at the bottom” took the trend towards this miniaturization.When we get to the very, very small world of atoms,we have a lot of new things that would happen that represent completely new opportunities for design. Atoms on a small scale satisfy the laws of quantum mechanics. So, as we go down and fiddle around with the atoms down there, we are working with different laws, and we can expect to do different things. We can manufacture in different ways. Another thing we will notice is that, if we go down far enough, all of our devices can be mass produced so that they are absolutely perfect copies of one another. We cannot build two large machines so that the dimensions are exactly the same. At this atomic level, we have new kinds of forces and new kinds of possibilities, new kinds of effects. The problems of manufacture and reproduction of materials will be quite different. In a few decades, this emerging technology will let us inexpensively arrange atoms and molecules in most of the ways permitted. It will let us make supercomputers that fit on the head of a pin and fleets of medical nanorobots smaller than a human cell able to eliminate cancer, infections, clogged arteries, and even old age. Hence nanotechnology is a development that cannot be avoided. We are just at the beginning of the road, and a few commercial products are using one-dimensional nano-structures (nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanolayers, and superlattices). New concepts and economical manufacturing of two- and three-dimensional nanostructures are challenging issues for the future. Since all objects establish their foundation at the nanoscale, and their properties could be tailored at that scale for given purposes, nanotechnology may revolutionize production of almost all manmade objects. People will look back on this era with the same feelings we have toward medieval times--when technology was primitive and almost everyone lived in poverty and died young. Described as 'a new industrial revolution', nanotechnologies have the potential to produce sweeping changes to all aspects of human society inspite of the minor flaws.
Though the technology has developed rapidly over the years there are still some challenges which are to be met. Some of them are
Conventional manufacturing is expensive as it uses large amounts of material and energy and its cost of capital, land and labour are high. In addition to this it creates more pollution.And nonrenewable resources are exploitated by man to such an extent that they will be exhausted in the near future. Also surgical instruments of high precision – that could operate on even cells and molecules are to be invented.Living systems should be explored and analysed more clearly than even before.Moore proposed in 1965 that computer processing power would double every 18 months which means the transistors must be scaled down to at least 9 nanometers by around 2016.Storage devices should also have the capacity of storing lump some data in a relatively less space. Pollution check using eco friendly techniques has become a great challenge in 21st century and it should be met. Ozone layer ,greatly damaged due to human activity needs an immediate check.Micro structural study of several metals reveals many interesting facts about their properties. Hence we should probe into micro structural level.
All these challenges could be efficiently met only by scaling down the existing technologies to the next level of precision & miniaturiasation which can be achieved by a newly emerging weapon
Nanotechnology is a creation of functional materials, devices and systems through control of matter on nanometer scale .It is often termed as “MOLECULAR MANUFACTURING”. When solids, liquids, and gases are confined to regions smaller than 100 nm, for instance, their behavior can be modified by the confinement. Properties such as thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, optical absorption and emission spectra, mechanical strength, and viscosity are size dependent. Hence nanotechnology works at nanometer scale which is very small. The tip of probe of scanning tunneling microscope, used to record surface topography has a diameter of 10 nanometers----that’s 0.01 micrometer or 10000 across on tip of a pin! Nanotechnology includes integration of nanoscale structures into larger architectures that could be used in industry, medicine, and environmental protection. Nanotechnology is the amalgamation of knowledge from chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, and various engineering fields.What has nanotechnology got to do with mechanical engineering? In fact, quite a bit of nanoscale science and engineering is already performed by mechanical engineers. For example, mechanical engineers have been essential in developing instruments such as nanoindentors and atomic force microscopes, which are used for mechanical testing, nanoscale imaging, and metrology.Mechanical engineering issues extend to instruments for nanoparticle and aerosol detection and characterization, as well as to various forms of nanoscale imaging. Magnetic data storage technology already has many features that fall well into the nanometer size range, and requires mechanical engineering knowledge and expertise to further its development. Mechanical engineering concepts also come into play in designing magnetic data storage, which currently requires heads to fly over a disk with spacing of about 10 nm. Maintaining such flying heights without crashing calls for exquisite design and manufacturing of disks and heads, and fundamental understanding of dynamics, non-continuum fluid mechanics, and surface forces. This has always been part of mechanicalengineering and is expected to remain so even as the scales involved shrink. Another field where nanotechnology may need mechanical engineers is information processing and storage. When transistors reach the scales of 20 to 30 nano-meters (a scale that will be necessary to keep up with Moore's law) quantum effects such as electron tunneling will lead to electron leakage, and this will cost power. Higher speeds will also require electromagnetic isolation, which will necessitate the use of materials that have extremely low thermal conductivities.
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Nanotechnology.doc (Size: 1.56 MB / Downloads: 200)
An adage is well known to all, “change is the only permanent thing in the nature”. The sheer beauty and economy of nature enables complicated polymers first to be fabricated then, living processes. The harnessing of these secretes has now led to the availability of new polymers which can impart living characteristics into an inanimate.
The break through, path braking and revolutionary developments (the leapfrogging technologies) make sense where technological advances driven by the market demands. One of the leapfrogging technologies today is “nano technology”, which is believed to reinvigorate discoveries and innovation in almost every host areas. It provides the unprecedented way of manufacturing materials, which may not be seen earlier in nature.
The latest technical buzzword in textiles too is nano technology (fibres, finishes, & so on).World’s toughest fibre carbon nano fibre is currently being paid more attention due to their unique physical, mechanical, and chemical properties, obtained by an “eSpin” technology i.e. electrostatic spinning technology.
This paper summarizes the recent development of nanotechnology in textile areas including textile formation and textile finishing. Details on two major technical aspects, using nanosize entities and employing specific techniques to create nanosize structure inside textile materials, have been elucidated. A number of nanosize fillers and their resultant performances have been reviewed. Particularly, nanolayer assembly, a new concept of textile surface coating, has been introduced. At the end, perspectives regarding future development of nanotechnologv for smart and intelligent textiles have been addressed.
Nanotechnology is an emerging interdisciplinary technology that has been booming in many areas during the recent decade, including materials science, mechanics, electronics, optics, medicine, plastics, energy, electronics, and aerospace. Its profound societal impact has been considered as the huge momentum to usher in a second industrial revolution.
The "nano" in nanotechnolgy comes from the Greek word "nanos" that means dwarf. Scientists use this prefix to indicate 10'*' or one-billionth. One nanometer is one-billionth meter that is about 100,000 times smaller than the diameter of a single human hair. Nanotechnology endeavors are aimed at manipulating atoms, molecules and nanosize particles in a precise and controlled manner in order to build materials with a fundamentally new organization and novel properties. The embryo of nanotechnology is "atomic assembly", which was first publicly articulated in 1959 by physicist Richard Feynman. Nanotechnology is called a "bottom up" technology by which bulk materials can be built precisely in tiny building blocks, different from the traditional manufacture — "top down" technology. Therefore, resultant materials have fewer defects and higher quality.
The fundamentals of nanotechnology lie in the fact that properties of substances dramatically change when their size is reduced to the nanometer range. When a bulk material is divided into small size particles with one or more dimension
length, width, or thickness) in the nanometer range or even smaller, the individual particles exhibit unexpected properties, different from those of the bulk material. It is known that atoms and molecules possess totally different behaviors than those of bulk materials; while the properties of the former are described by quantum mechanics, the properties of the latter are governed by classic mechanics. Between these two distinct domains, the nanometer range is a murky threshold for the transition of a material's behavior. For example, ceramics, which normally are brittle, can easily be made deformable when their grain size is reduced to the low nanometer range. A gold particle of 1 nm across shows red color. Moreover, a small amount of nanosize species can interfere with matrix polymer that is usually in the similar size range, bringing up the performance of resultant system to an unprecedented level. These are the reasons why nanotechnology has attracted large amounts of federal funding, research activity and media attention.
The textile industry has already impacted by nanotechnology. Research involving nanotechnology to improve performances or to create unprecedented functions of textile materials are flourishing. These research endeavors are mainly focused on using nanosize substances and generating nanostructures during manufacturing and finishing processes.
Application of Nanofibres in textile
Textiles are becoming multifunctional thanks to nanofibres so that textiles are now having applications apart from apparel use these are used in the high performance technical textiles, biomedical textiles and how we can forget about ecofriendly textiles. For instance in textile clothing such as in fire protective composites, in the high visibility garments, biodegradable nanofibres, defence clothing, etc.
“Scientists are figuring out how to organize polymer chain molecules—the basic stuff of textile fiber—for higher strength, higher melting points, and chemical and antibacterial impermeability”, for application as firefighter suit
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25-02-2011, 10:07 AM
NT.ppt (Size: 1.77 MB / Downloads: 283)
what is Nanotechnology
technology is the useage and knowledge of tools, techniques or crafts or methods
an area of science, research and technology concerned with extremely small things
the study of controlling of matter on atomic or molecular scale
the future of manufacturing technology based on manipulation of materials at the nano level
Objects In Nano-Scale
a process by which the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules is developed
Concepts of NT
Concept behind Nanotechnology
NT is the concept of engineering functional mechanical systems at the molecular scale.
building machines at the molecular scale designed and built atom-by-atom.
process by which the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules might be developed.
first found in “There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" a talk by physicist Richard Feynman.
NT and nanoscience started in the early 1980s with Cluster Science and Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM).
Fullerenes in 1985 and Carbon Nanotubes later.
Nano crystals, quantum dots and Atomic Force Microscope in the early 90’s.
Study of nanomaterials.
Bottom-up approach methods : arranging smaller components into more complex assemblies.
Top-down approach methods : creating smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly.
Chemistry and environment
Information and communication
Potential risks of NT can broadly be grouped into three areas:
Health issues - the effects of nanomaterials on human biology
Environmental issues - the effects of nanomaterials on the environment
Societal issues - the effects that the availability of nanotechnological devices will have on politics and human interaction
NT And Computer Science
University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) researchers have developed new nanoscale structures that will help to speed up computers.
creating more powerful microprocessors that will use less energy.
block co-polymer lithography techniques
Nano-RAM, novel semiconductor devices
novel optoelectronic devices, displays (carbon nanotubes), Quantum computers
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25-02-2011, 11:06 AM
Nano-Technology.DOC (Size: 45.5 KB / Downloads: 111)
1.Micro electro chemical system is the integration of mechanical elements,sensors and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology.
2.Nano mems are the nanostructured electro mechanical devices, which relates nanotechnologies with mem systems.
3.It is focusing on project and implimentations, I which can be implemented in bettering ourlives.
4.Why would be develop It.
Optical fibre technology
1.Used for tasks ranging from in-dewelling pressure monitorig to active suspension for automobiles.
2.Used in inkjet bio-printing & biosensing , bio engineering of surface acoustic wave sensors.
Observations say that when a device is made on a smaller scale we got the best of everything. Here we are going to introduce those technologies and their advancements and application,which will make it possible on atomic precision. This is the new developoing technology,which combines the Engineering and chemistry for new industrial revolution. MEMS,or Micro electrical and mechanical systems, are i8ntegrated systems combining both electrical and mechanical components. Microelectromechanical systems is the integration of mechanical elements, sensor, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology.
NANO-MEMS are the nanostructured electromechanical devices, which relates nanotechnology with micro electro mechanical systems. NANO-MEMS should let us make almost every manufactured product faster, lighter, stronger, smarter and cleaner. It is focusing on project and implimentations, I which can be implemented in bettering our lives.
WHY WOULD WE DEVELOP IT?
Precision has been mentioned as benefit of molecular machnaics and is one of the keys to understanding why we would want to develop this technology. Technology hs never had this kind of precise control; all of our tecvhnologies today are bulk technologies. We take a lump of something and add or remove pices until we are left with whatever object we were trying to create. In this application, precision menas that there is a palce for every atom and every atom is in its place. Schematics will be detailed, and there will be no unnecessary parts anywhere in the design. We wil use machanics of precision to create products of equal precision. With this precision, we should be able to recycle all of the waste products produced by the manufacturing process and put them to go use elsewhere. Manufacturing will also become less expensive as a result additional benefits arise when we consider the size of devices that we will able to create. Once we are working on the atomic scale, we can create machines that will go polaces into smaller and smaller spaces, and we will be able to do much with much less. NANO-MEMS promises unprecedented and efficient control over our environment, but taking advantage of anticipated developments requires forethought and planning.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION IN VARIOUS FIELDS:
OPTICAL FIBER TECHNOLOGY:
The communication technology market is and will continue to experience as explosive growth in the optical fiber communication arena; NANO-MEMS will play a key and critical role in the creation of the all-optical networks. In the near future one will also find NANO-MEMS in wire less personal communication system. To further enable NANO-MEMS solution for these and other application two critical technology are required; micro actuators and three dimensional silicon micro machining based on integrated circuit fabrication techniques. A new fabrication process that integrates silicon bulk micro machining with poly silicon surface, micro machining has been developed to create complex three dimensional silicon structures. Fiber Optics telecommunication is a major application of optical fibers. Optical fibers also finding applications in local area network; imaging and display; fiber coupled medical devices and medical lasers and other fiber coupled optical diagnostic medical devices; and, fiber-based sensor technology.