Nanorobotics An insight into the future full report
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Nanorobotics: An insight into the future
Precise control of the structure of matter at the nanometer scale will have revolutionary implications for science and technology. Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) will be extremely small and fast, and have applications that range from cell repair to ultra strong materials to human internal fluids. This paper describes the first steps towards the construction of NEMS by assembling nanometer-scale objects using a Scanning Probe Microscope as a robot. This paper also describes different motions and mechanisms during the working of the Nanorobot. Our research takes an interdisciplinary approach that combines knowledge of macrorobotics and computer science with the chemistry and physics of phenomena at the nanoscale.
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Nanorobotics is an emerging field that deals with the controlled manipulation of objects with nanometer-scale dimensions. Typically, an atom has a diameter of a few Ã…ngstroms (1 Ã… = 0.1 nm = 10-10 m), a molecule's size is a few nm, and clusters or nanoparticles formed by hundreds or thousands of atoms have sizes of tens of nm. Therefore, Nanorobotics is concerned with interactions with atomic- and molecular-sized objects-and is sometimes called Molecular Robotics. We use these two expressions, plus Nanomanipulation, as synonyms in this article.
Another definition sometimes used is a robot which allows precision interactions with nanoscale objects, or can manipulate with nanoscale resolution.
Nanomachines are largely in the research-and-development phase, but some primitive molecular machines have been tested. An example is a sensor having a switch approximately 1.5 nanometers across, capable of counting specific molecules in a chemical sample
Potential applications for nanorobotics in medicine include early diagnosis and targeted drug delivery for cancer, biomedical instrumentation, surgery, pharmacokinetics, monitoring of diabetes, and health care.
Nanorobotics manipulation with ËœScanning Probe Microscopyâ„¢ is a promising field that can lead to revolutionary new science and technology. But it is clearly in its infancy.

¢ Nano-structuring is expected to bring about lighter, stronger and programmable materials.
¢ In medical field we will have microscopic robots floating in our blood streams fighting against cancer cells, AIDS HIV virus, genetic disorders or even ageing.
¢ Nanotech particles will penetrate living cells and accumulate in animal organs, and can perhaps enter the food chain.
¢ Their impact on environment is unknown.e.g. Nanotubes of carbon use gallium & arsenic and minute traces of gallium arsenide in the body could prove toxic.

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nanorobotics full report
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.docx   NANOROBOTICS.docx (Size: 499.88 KB / Downloads: 239)
“The technology for ultimate biomedical applications”

Nanotechnology can enable build the bridges for the human future through the use of microscopic robots comprised of nanocomponents.
Nanorobotics represents the next stage in miniaturization from micro machines. This paper presents certain distinct aspects that are used to achieve a successful nanorobotic system and their three dimensional visualization in real time.The nano-robots or nanobots, is expected to revolutionize the medical industry, with the ability to treat at a cellular level and make medical applications easy and effective.

Thought of Nano-robotics:
Nanorobotics deals with the controlled manipulation of objects with nanometer-scale dimensions. As an atom has a diameter of a few Ångstroms (1 Å = 0.1 nm = 10-10 m), and a molecule´s size is a few nanometers.
Nanorobotics is concerned with interactions with atomic- and molecular-sized objects, and is sometimes called molecular robotics.
The fact that enormous amounts of information can be carried in an exceedingly small space ,because in the tiniest cell, all of the information for the organization of a complex creature such as humans can be stored.
Paper Identification Number: SS-4.9
This peer-reviewed paper has been published by the Pentagram Research Centre (P) Limited. Responsibility of contents of this paper rests upon the authors and not upon Pentagram Research Centre (P) Limited. Copies can be obtained from the company.

Many of the cells are very tiny, but they are very active; they manufacture various substances, they walk around, they wiggle; and they do all kinds of marvelous things - all on a very small scale. Also, they store information. This thought lead to the launching of nanorobotics.
Medical nanotechnology is often expected to utilize nanorobots injected into the patient to perform their treatment on a cellular level. Instead, medical nanorobots may be manufactured in carefully controlled nanofactories in which nanoscale machines are solidly integrated into a desktop-scale machine that builds macroscopic products.

Nanorobotics Thrusts:

The primary emphasis is on precise actuation and control. Nanorobotics should be viewed as a long term research area with two primary thrusts. The first thrust is exploratory research into possible molecular based actuation. Examples include biological motors such as polymerase, microtubules, and myosin. The second thrust is for more near-term and applied but on a scale extending up to and including micromachines.

Nanorobotics encompasses:
programmable assembly of nanoscale components;
design and fabrication of nanorobots with overall dimensions at the centimeter, millimeter and micrometer ranges and made of nanoscopic components; and programming and coordination of large numbers of nanorobots. Microfabrication techniques can produce intricate micromachines, however, these devices tend to be limited to 2-D construction. Developing tools such as micro-grippers and piezoelectric manipulators with nanometer level precision will make it possible to assemble both micromachined components and nanoscale components (such as carbon nanotubes) into 3-dimensional systems. These micro-to-nano ‘transition’ nanorobots could be of tremendous aid in studying cells and biological systems as well as nanoparticles and fibers.

Nanorobotic Technology:
Nanorobotics, an emerging field in medicine which states that nanorobots travel inside our bodies, digging for information, finding defects or delivering drugs. Basically, we may observe two distinct kind of nanorobot utilization. One is nanorobots for the surgery intervention, and the other is nanorobot to monitor patients’ body. For the first case, a most suitable approach is the tele-operation of nanorobots as valuable tools for biomedical engineering problems. Hence, for example surgery experts guiding a minimally invasive medical procedure. For cases such as monitoring the human body, the nanorobots are expected to follow a defined set of specified activation rules for triggers of designed behaviors. In such case the nanorobot is designed to be able to interact with the 3D human body environment, in order to fulfil programmed tasks.
The nanorobots require specific controls, sensors and actuators, basically in accordance with each kind of biomedical application. Sensors may be wireless ultra fast, super sensitive, and non-invasive and may use chemical, electronic or photonic based detection
Nanorobot 3D design. The depicted bluecones shows the sensors “touching” areas that triggers the nanorobots’ behaviors. Computational nanoborotics approaches are being explored successfully in nanoscience and nanotechnology research, to provide researchers with an intuitive way to interact with materials and devices at the nanoscale.

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This article is presented by:
Xiaoyan Xu
Mark F. Flanagan
Member, IEEE
Norbert Goertz
Senior Member, IEEE
John Thompson

Joint Channel and Network Coding for Cooperative Diversity in a
Shared-Relay Environment

In this paper we propose a cooperative diversity scheme for the communication model of two sources sharing a single relay. The scheme uses algebraic code superposition relaying in the multiple access fading channel to create spatial diversity under the constraint of limited communications resources. We also describe in detail a novel computationally efficient message passing algorithm at the destination’s decoder which extracts the substantial spatial diversity contained in the code superposition and signal superposition. The decoder is based on a sliding window structure where certain a posteriori LLRs are retained to form a priori LLRs for the next decoding. We show that despite the simplicity of the proposed scheme, diversity gains are efficiently leveraged by the simple combination of channel coding at the sources and network coding at the relay.

IT is well known that spatial diversity can effectively combat the deleterious effect of fading . In recent years, there has been increasing interest in applying the idea of algebraic code superposition, also called “network coding” to the cooperative communications scenario. The network coding approach provides an efficient way to generate spatial diversity under the constraint of limited resources. One challenge is the problem of decoder design which should be able to cope with the complicated decoding situation at the destination . The work of proposed the convolutional code method to decode algebraically superposed code words, where a 64-state convolutional code is used for the XORed codeword composed of two 8-state encoders at the destination node. In , a code superposition scheme employing low-density generator matrix (LDGM) codes is proposed to reduce the decoding complexity at the destination. But in order to do the graph-based decoding, the systematic bits must be retained without superposition which means that the potential superposition diversity is lower than that obtainable from fully superposed codewords. In a combined low-density parity-check (LDPC) code construction scheme including two channel code components and one network code component is produced by random parity-check matrix generation under certain constraints. The network codes are actually the parity checks for two channel codewords; this necessitates more complicated relay operations than simple superposition. In this work, we consider the two-source one-relay cooperative model where the source-destination transmission and relay-destination transmission use a fading multiple access channel (MAC). We propose a cooperative coding scheme which is different from the previous work of where superposed codewords experience a channel orthogonal to that of the original transmission, and also different from the previous work of where simple codeword retransmission is employed in the multiple access Gaussian relay channel. Our scheme allows continuous transmission of superposed codewords by the relay and at the same time targets the challenge of coping with the interference introduced by the multiple access channel, thus making efficient use of communication resources to leverage spatial diversity gains. A corresponding sliding-window factor graph based decoding algorithm is used at the destination node to extract available spatial diversity gains. Computationally efficiency of the decoding algorithm is achieved through separation of the relevant SISO decoder modules and efficient connectivity via factor nodes corresponding to code and signal superposition operations. For convolutional codes, this separation affords a complexity advantage over decoding of the “nested code” ; for LDPC codes it affords a more efficient Tanner graph schedule than fully parallel decoding .

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hiii im kamala i urgently require a ppt for nanorobotics please send me as soon as possible its a question of my life please send it as soon as possible
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you give me full report on nanoroboticcs
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please visit the below thread for more details on 'Nanorobotics An insight into the future'

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Like primitive engineers faced with advanced technology, medicine must ‘catch up' with the technology level of the human body before it can become really effective. Since the human body is basically an extremely complex system of interacting molecules (i.e., a molecular machine), the technology required to truly understand and repair the body is molecular machine technology. A natural consequence of this level of technology will be the ability to analyze and repair the human body as completely and effectively as we can repair any conventional machine today
Nanotechnology is “Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular and macromolecular levels in the length scale of approximately 1 -100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nanoscale and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size.”
This paper will describe a micro/nano scale medical robot that is within the range of current engineering technology. It is intended for the treatment and/or elimination of medical problems where accumulation of undesired organic substances interferes with normal bodily function.
In this paper, we will describe a NanoRobot that can be created with existing technology , that can be used to seek out and destroy inimical tissue within the human body that cannot be accessed by other means.
The construction and use of such devices would result in a number of benefits. Not only would it provide either cures or at least a means of controlling or reducing the effects of a number of ailments, but it will also provide valuable empirical data for the improvement and further development of such machines. Practical data garnered from such operations at the microscopic level will allow the elimination of a number of false trails and point the way to more effective methods of dealing with the problems inherent in operation at that level.
We will address and propose the method of entry into the body, means of propulsion, means of maintaining a fixed position while operating, control of the device, power source, means of locating substances to be eliminated, mans of doing the elimination and how to remove the device from the body afterward.
It is the application of nanotechnology (engineering of tiny machines) to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human bodys. More specifically, it is the use of engineered nanodevices and nanostructures to monitor, repair, construct and control the human biological system on a molecular level. The most elementary of nanomedical devices will be used in the diagnosis of illnesses. A more advanced use of nanotechnology might involve implanted devices to dispense drugs or hormones as needed in people with chronic imbalance or deficiency states. Lastly, the most advanced nanomedicine involves the use of Nanorobots as miniature surgeons. Such machines might repair damaged cells, or get inside cells and replace or assist damaged intracellular structures. At the extreme, nanomachines might replicate themselves, or correct genetic deficiencies by altering or replacing DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules.
Introduce the device into the body:
We need to find a way of introducing the nanomachine into the body, and allowing it access to the operations site without causing too much ancillary damage. We have already made the decision to gain access via the circulatory system.
The first is that the size of the nanomachine determines the minimum size of the blood vessel that it can traverse. We want to avoid damaging the walls of whatever blood vessel the device is in, we also do not want to block it much, which would either cause a clot to form, or just slow or stop the blood flow. What this means is that the smaller the nanomachine the better. However, this must
circulatory system
be balanced against the fact that the larger the nanomachine the more versatile and effective it can be. This is especially important in light of the fact that external control problems become much more difficult if we are trying to use multiple machines, even if they don't get in each other's way.
The second consideration is we have to get it into the body without being too destructive in the first place. This requires that we gain access to a large diameter artery that can be traversed easily to gain access to most areas femoral artery
of the body in minimal time. The obvious candidate is the femoral artery in the leg. This is in fact the normal access point to the circulatory system for operations that require access to the bloodstream for catheters, dye injections, etc., so it will suit our purposes.
Move the device around the body:
We start with a basic assumption: that we will use the circulatory system to allow our device to move about. We must then consider two possibilities: (a) carried to the site of operations,(b) to be propelled
The first possibility is to allow the device to be carried to the site of operations by means of normal blood flow. There are a number of requirements for this method . We must be able to navigate the bloodstream; to be able to guide the device so as to make use of the blood flow. This also requires that there be an uninterrupted blood flow to the site of operations. In the case of tumors, there is very often damage to the circulatory system that would prevent our device from passively navigating to the site. In the case of blood clots, of course, the flow of blood is dammed and thus our device would not be carried to the site without the capability for active movement. Another problem with this method is that it would be difficult to remain at the site without some means of maintaining position, either by means of an anchoring technique, or by actively moving against the current.
There are a number of means available for active propulsion of our device.
An electric motor that fit within a cube 1/64th of an inch on a side is used . This is probably smaller than we would need for our preliminary microrobot. One or several of these motors could be used to power propellers that would push (or pull) the microrobot through the bloodstream. We would want to use a shrouded blade design so as to avoid damage to the surrounding tissues (and to the propellers) during the inevitable collisions
we are using some sort of vibrating cilia
(similar to those of a paramecium) to propel the device. A variation of this method would be to use a fin-shaped appendage. While this may have its attractions at the molecular level of operation,
3.Crawl along surface:
Rather than have the device float in the blood, or in various fluids, the device could move along the walls of the circulatory system by means of appendages with specially designed tips, allowing for a firm grip without excessive damage to the tissue. It must be able to do this despite surges in the flow of blood caused by the beating of the heart, and do it without tearing through a blood vessel or constantly being torn free and swept away.
For any of these techniques to be practical, they must each meet certain requirements:
The device must be able to move at a practical speed against the flow of blood.
The device must be able to move when blood is pooling rather than flowing steadily.
The device must be able to move in surges, so as to be able to get through the heart without being stuck, in the case of emergencies.
The device must either be able to react to changes in blood flow rate so as to maintain position, or somehow anchor itself to the body so as to remain unmoving while operating.
Movement of the device :
The next problem to consider is exactly how to detect the problem tissue that must be treated. We need two types of sensors. Long-range sensors will be used to allow us to navigate to the site of the unwanted tissue. We must be able to locate a tumor, blood clot or deposit of arterial plaque closely enough so that the use of short-range sensors is practical. These would be used during actual operations, to allow the device to distinguish between healthy and unwanted tissue.. Another important use for sensors is to be able to locate the position of the microrobot in the body. First we will examine the various possibilities for external sensors. These will be at least partially external to the microrobot, and their major purpose will be twofold. The first is to determine the location of the operations site; that is, the location of the clot, tumor or whatever is the unwanted tissue. The second purpose is to gain a rough idea of where the microrobot is in relation to that tissue. This information will be used to navigate close enough to the operations site that short-range sensors will be useful
This technique can be used in either the active or the passive mode. In the active mode, an ultrasonic signal is beamed into the body, and either reflected back, received on the other side of the body, or a combination of both. The received signal is processed to obtain information about the material through which it has passed.
In the passive mode, an ultrasonic signal of a very specific pattern is generated by the microrobot. By means of signal processing techniques, this signal can be tracked with great accuracy through the body, giving the precise location of the microrobot at any time. The signal can either be continuous or pulsed to save power, with the pulse rate increasing or being switched to continuous if necessary for more detailed position information.
This technique involves the application of a powerful magnetic field to the body, and subsequent analysis of the way in which atoms within the body react to the field.
It usually requires a prolonged period to obtain useful results, often several hours, and thus is not suited to real-time applications. While the performance can be increased greatly, the resolution is inherently low due to the difficulty of switching large magnetic fields quickly, and thus, while it may be suited in some cases to the original diagnosis, it is of only very limited use to us at present.
X-rays as a technique have their good points and bad points. On the plus side, they are powerful enough to be able to pass through tissue, and show density changes in that tissue. This makes them very useful for locating cracks and breaks in hard, dense tissue such as bones and teeth. On the other hand, they go through soft tissue so much mobile Xray
more easily that an X-ray scan designed to show breaks in bone goes right through soft tissue without showing much detail. On the other hand, a scan designed for soft tissue can’t get through if there is any bone blocking the path of the x-rays.
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