Non Conventional Energy System
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03-09-2009, 10:57 PM


Non Conventional Energy System




Throughout the history of human kind, energy has been an important factor is development. The availability and exploitation of new energy sources has made possible major economic and social changes. Modern societies requiring a large amount of energy used in agricultural, industrial and transport uses. Energy sources can be classified as commercial energy sources and non-commercial energy sources. Commercial sources includes fossil fuels (coal, oil, Naturalgas) while non-commercial energy sources includes wood, animal waste agricultural waste etc.. In industrialized countries like the USA, Commercial energy sources are used. In industry less country like India commercial energy sources and non-commercial energy sources are equal.

Commercial energy sources has led to the better quality of life, but it has also created many problems. The most series problem is the harmful effect on the environment. To avoid this problem renewable energy sources are used. The renewable energy sources include solar energy, wind, ocean thermal etc. These energy sources made good economic and social growth
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27-09-2010, 12:39 PM




.ppt   PROJECT SEMINAR BJR.ppt (Size: 320 KB / Downloads: 361)
ELECTRICITY GENERATED BYNON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES(SOLAR ENERGY)



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05-03-2011, 11:06 AM

presented by:
D.Rambabu
V.Pullaiah Chowdary


.doc   ram18.doc (Size: 100.5 KB / Downloads: 174)
NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES
ABSTRACT
:
Everything that happens in the world is the expression of flow of energy in one of its forms . From ages past conventional fuels like coal, natural gas oil have been used for energy production because their yield ratio is high . There was minimal usage in the past. Generation capacity was meager 1362 MW but because of industrialization , growing population urbanization etc. demand has increased enormously and it has become difficult to meet these increasing demands with conventional energy sources, because there are mostly non-renewable exhaustive or non-reliable. The present day demands exceeds supply by 7.1% in terms of total requirement. Installed capacity of 1,12,058 MW needs to be tripled to meet the soaring demand over the next two decades.
Thus there is a need for the utilization of non-conventional energy sources like solar power ,wind energy , nuclear power , energy from biomass , geothermal energy ,tidal energy etc .some of their applications ,some advantages &disadvantages were also present.
ENERGY: It is the primary and the most universal measure of all kinds of work by human beings and nature. Everything that happens in the world is the expressive of flow of energy in one of it forms .
CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY: For ages now coal, natural gas , oil have been used as fuels for energy production as their yield ratio is high .These can be referred to as conventional energy sources .
NON –CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES: Sources of energy production like solar energy , wind energy , nuclear energy , geo- thermal energy and biomass energy are not used to their optimum level because of their non economic nature , hi-fi technology involved . prospect for future and bright provided proper research is carried out in this area .
NEED FOR NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION:
* Minimal usage in the past .
* Consumption levels were low (200 units per capital) because of their inadequate distribution networks.
*generation capacity was a meager 1365MW for the generation of the hydral power, coal were used.
*But in the present day demands exceeds supply by 7.1% in terms of total requirements.
*If the increase in demands continues the installed capacity of 112058MW may not be sufficient.
REASONS FOR INCREASE IN DEMAND:
* Industrialization .
* urbanization.
* over population.
Also hurdles for increase of supply at expected rate to be studied for understanding the need for alternative sources.
* Depletion of natural resources like coal deposits etc .
* Prevailing drought conditions.
Thus the need for proper utilization of alternative , non-conventional sources of energy production which are renewable arises.
ADVANTAGES OF NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGYSOURCES
Main threat to fossil fuels is their exhaustive nature . Hence there is a need to search for alternate fuel for energy production. All these sources are renewable. Considering each of these sources the prospects for future and present drawbacks of each of these sources can be studied. These are non-polluting an adequately available.
Some of these energy sources are:
*Solar Energy
*Nuclear Energy
*Geothermal Energy
*Wind Energy
*Biomass Energy
Research should be done into prospects of maximum utilization of these energy sources which are ever available, enormously powerful non-polluting. The need for such a thing is understood when it is realized that soaring demand for power will necessitate tripling of installed generation capacity over next two decades.
SOLAR ENERGY:
“ let the world focus its constant attention at the center of the planetary system, where the sun the supreme power of universe resides.”…………… Rig veda
Light and heat from the sun, fuel life on earth.
Solar energy has the greatest potential of all the sources of renewable energy. It will one of the most important supplies of energy even when all the sources are depleted. The solar power where the sun hits atmosphere is 10^17 watt , where as the solar power on the earth’s surface is 10^10watt. The total worldwide power demand of all needs of civilization is 10^13watt.Direct solar is available as radiant flux and on a bright sunny day it’s energy is 1 KW/sq m. This energy can be transferred into heat, electrical, chemical, magnetic, mechanical energy and this can be utilized for different for purposes. Solar thermal electric conversion system is producing over 90% of solar energy.
APPLICATIONS:
Solar water heater is based on the principle of thermosiphon by natural circulation. They provide a very inexpensive way of meeting hot water needs.
A solar cooker uses solar energy for cooking, solar cooking is eco-friendly and does not cause Greenhouse effect, reduce the fuel wood consumption.
Solar stills are the water distillation machines & produce saline water.
Photo voltaic system directly converts solar radiations into electricity with the help of solar cells.
DRAWBACKS IN THE PRESENT DAY:
1.Large space required.
2.Uncertainty of availability of energy at constant rate due to clouds, winds, haze etc..
NUCLEAR POWER:
Nuclear energy is energy from the atomic nucleus .The conversion of nucleus mass energy is consistent with the mass energy formula E=m©^2
Nuclear energy is released by three exothermic processes .
*Radioactive decay, where a proton or neutron in the radioactive nucleus decays spontaneously by emitting a particle.
*Fusion two atomic nuclei fusion together to form a heavier nucleus
*Fusion the breaking of heavy nucleus into to nuclei.
ADVANTAGES :
*Fission of 1 gram of uranium-235 releases as much energy as the burning of more than 190oliters of oil.
*Water head up through the core produces stream, which turns a turbine.
LIMITATIONS:
* High capital cost of nuclear power plants.
*Limited availability of raw materials like uranium deposits.
*Difficulties associated with disposal of radioactive wastes.
*Shortage of well trained personnel to handle nuclear power plants.
FUTURE PROSPECTS:
8 Nuclear power plants under construction are 2*540 MWe PHWR units at tarapur, Maharashtra, 2*220 MWe PHWR units at Kota, Rajasthan, 2*220 MWe PHWR units at Kaiga, Karnataka & 2*1000 MWe LWR(VVER) units at Kudankulam, Tamil Nadu
GEO- THERMAL ENERGY:
Energy present in the earth’s crust, the readily accessible heat in the uppermost (10K.m) or so of the crust constitutes a potentially useful and almost inexhaustible source of energy .Average temperature at a depth of 10K.m is about 200degrees Celsius.
The total amount of energy in outer 10K.m of the earth’s crust exceeds greatly that obtainable from combustion of coal, oil & natural gas.
Though geothermal reserves are less in number it’s contribution to the energy resources is significant. Presently total power production by this is about 4850MW & power consumption is likely to increase up to 100,000MW by next century. With advances in technology more geothermal energy reserves may become available which can help in meeting the demand.
If precautions are not taken this process may results in pollution & related effects. But this is for the mere information that it is difficult, it is not difficult to solve.
Summarizing Geo thermal energy can be:
* Cheaper compared to fossil fuels .
*Have greater amount of net energy then fossil fuels.
*Have annual load factors of 85% to 90% compared to45% to 50% of conventional fuels.
*Least polluting proper precautions are taken.
*Of multiple uses from a single resource.
*Renewable one.
WIND ENERGY:
Wind is essentially an is motion from high to low atmospheric pressure areas caused by differential absorption and reflection of the solar radiations by the atmosphere. Wind results from uneven heating of earth & atmosphere by unlimited energy from the sun. It is believed that in 1850’s there existed over 6 million wind mills in U.S.A. alone.
Wind possesses energy by virtue of its motion. Any device capable of slowing down the mass of moving air , like a propeller can extract part of energy of wind to mechanical energy. Three factors which determine the output from wind energy converter are :
*Wind speed
*cross-section of wind swept by rotor and
*The overall conversion efficiency of rotor, transmission system and generator or pump
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