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Posts: 3,541
Joined: Sep 2010
28-12-2010, 05:08 PM


.ppt   virtual functions.ppt (Size: 1.66 MB / Downloads: 86)


A virtual function is a member function that is declared within a base class and redefined by a derived class.

To create a virtual function, precede the function’s declaration in the base class with the keyword virtual.

When a class containing a virtual function is inherited, the derived class redefines the virtual function to fit its own needs.

Calling a Virtual Function Through a Base Class Reference

When a virtual function is called through a base-class
reference , the version of the function executed is
determined by the object being referred to at the time
of the call.

The Virtual Attribute Is Inherited

When a derived class that has inherited a virtual function is itself used as a base class for another derived class, the virtual function can still be overridden.

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Posts: 10,003
Joined: Apr 2012
18-04-2012, 02:26 PM


.ppt   UNIT-4.ppt (Size: 166.5 KB / Downloads: 42)

Defining a Package

A package is both a naming and a visibility control mechanism:
1) divides the name space into disjoint subsets It is possible to define classes within a package that are not accessible by code outside the package.
2) controls the visibility of classes and their members It is possible to define class members that are only exposed to other members of the same package.
Same-package classes may have an intimate knowledge of each other, but not expose that knowledge to other packages

Packages and Directories

Java uses file system directories to store packages.
Consider the Java source file:
package myPackage;
class MyClass1 { … }
class MyClass2 { … }
The byte code files MyClass1.class and MyClass2.class must be stored in a directory myPackage.
Case is significant! Directory names must match package names exactly.

Package Hierarchy

To create a package hierarchy, separate each package name with a dot:
package myPackage1.myPackage2.myPackage3;
A package hierarchy must be stored accordingly in the file system:
1) Unix myPackage1/myPackage2/myPackage3
2) Windows myPackage1\myPackage2\myPackage3
3) Macintosh myPackage1:myPackage2:myPackage3
You cannot rename a package without renaming its directory!

Accessing a Package

As packages are stored in directories, how does the Java run-time system know where to look for packages?
Two ways:
1) The current directory is the default start point - if packages are stored in the current directory or sub-directories, they will be found.
2) Specify a directory path or paths by setting the CLASSPATH environment variable.

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Joined: Nov 2012
01-11-2012, 02:31 PM

Object Oriented Programming

.ppt   Object Oriented 1.PPT (Size: 46.5 KB / Downloads: 18)

Instantiation Details

If we don’t instantiate our object,
it will have the special value null
Using a null object is incorrect
When we instantiate an object
We set aside memory for the object’s state information
We identify the methods
Create them if this is first of this object
Refer to them if they already exist
We perform any required initialization and processing

Class, Method, & Data Accessibility

Any method within a class can see any other method in that same class
Any data or object declared as a member of the class (not as a member of a method) is visible throughout the class
Any data declared within a method are local to that method and are not visible anywhere else.

Working With Classes

When we define a class
We define capabilities and state
We can further enhance and refine that class
We can make a modified class based on the original
This is a new and different plan,
Not just a new and different object
The Java keyword extends
Allows us to create a new class definition based on a previously existing one, and then refine that.

Java Inheritance

We use the keyword extends
class child extends parent
The child has access to all the features of the parent
No direct access to those identified as private

Class Enhancement

We use the keyword extends to create a new class based on a previous one
We get all of the public and protected data
We get all of the public and protected method
We can add more as our design requires
Objects versus Classes
We can make objects based on either one
The data is unique to each objet
except for static data

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