OPTICAL CAMOUFLAGE A SEMINAR REPORT
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Computer Science Clay
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14-06-2009, 09:16 AM



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This article is presented by:
SUDEESH S
COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING
COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE &TECHNOLOGY,
KOCHI-682022

OPTICAL CAMOUFLAGE

ABSTRACT

While new high-performance, light-transmitting materials such as aerogel and light-transmitting concrete compel us to question the nature of solidity, a new technology developed by University of Tokyo seeks to make matter disappear altogether. Scientists at Tachi Laboratory have developed Optical Camouflage, which utilizes a collection of devices working in concert to render a subject invisible. Although more encumbering and complicated than Harry Potter™s invisibility cloak, this system has essentially the same goal, rendering invisibility by slipping beneath the shining, silvery cloth. Optical Camouflage requires the use of clothing “ in this case, a hooded jacket “ made with a retro-reflective material, which is comprised by thousands of small beads that reflect light precisely according to the angle of incidence. A digital video camera placed behind the person wearing the cloak captures the scene that the individual would otherwise obstruct, and sends data to a computer for processing. A sophisticated program calculates the appropriate distance and viewing angle, and then transmits scene via project and implimentationor using a combiner, or a half silvered mirror with an optical hole, which allows a witness to perceive a realistic merger of the project and implimentationed scene with the background “ thus rendering the cloak-wearer invisible.
INTRODUCTION
Invisibility has been on humanity's wish list at least since Amon-Ra, a deity who could disappear and reappear at will, joined the Egyptian pantheon in 2008 BC. With recent advances in optics and computing and with the advent of flexible electronics such as a flexible liquid crystal display, that would allow the background image to be displayed on the material itself, however, this elusive goal is no longer purely imaginary. In 2003, three professors at University of Tokyo ” Susumu Tachi, Masahiko Inami and Naoki Kawakami ” created a prototypical camouflage system in which a video camera takes a shot of the background and displays it on the cloth using an external project and implimentationor. They can even reflect images when the material is wrinkled. The same year Time magazine named it the coolest invention of 2003. It is an interesting application of optical camouflage and is called the Invisibility Cloak. Through the clever application of some dirt-cheap technology, the Japanese inventor has brought personal invisibility a step closer to reality. Their prototype uses an external camera placed behind the cloaked object to record a scene, which it then transmits to a computer for image processing. The key development of the cloak, however, was the development of a new material called retro- reflectum. Professor Tachi says that this material allows you to see a three-dimensional image. The computer feeds the image into an external project and implimentationor which project and implimentations the image onto a person wearing a special retro reflective coat. This can lead to different results depending on the quality of the camera, the project and implimentationor, and the coat, but by the late nineties, convincing illusions were created. That was only one invention created in this field and researches are still being carried out in order to implement it using nanotechnology.


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12-07-2009, 03:43 PM

Can I get the complete seminar and presentation report??? In this, the figures are not evident... will U help me out???
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13-07-2009, 06:28 PM

is dis d full report?
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OPTICAL CAMOUFLAGE - Invisibility Cloak.

What is Optical Camouflage?
Itâ„¢s developed by scientists at the University of Tokyo.
Optical camouflage is a kind of
camouflage in which one wears a cloth
which project and implimentations the background so that he
appears somehow invisible.


What is Invisibility Cloak?

The invisibility cloak renders the human partially invisible, when he/she slips

beneath the shining, silvery cloak.

How Invisibility Cloak is Real?

Optical camouflage requires a complicated arrangement. First, the person who wants to

be invisible (Person A) wears the cloak. An observer (Person B) stands before (Person

A) at a specific location. At that location, (Person A) appear to be partially

invisible to (Person B). If (Person B) were viewing from a slightly different

location, he would simply see (Person A) wearing a cloak.


The Invisibility Cloak

The cloak that enables optical camouflage to work is made from a special material

known as
retro-reflective material.

Principle :

Optical camouflage doesn't work by way of magic. It works by taking advantage of

something called augmented-reality technology.

Augmented Reality :

Augmented reality merely tries to supplement real world with additional, helpful

content.

Requirements :


A garment made from highly reflective material
A video camera
A computer
A project and implimentationor
A special, half-silvered mirror called a combiner

Video Camera :

Capturing the background image requires a video camera, which sits behind the person

wearing the cloak. The video from the camera must be in a digital format so it can be

sent to a computer for processing.

Computer :


All augmented-reality systems rely on powerful computers to synthesize graphics and

then superimpose them on a real-world image.
Computer :
For optical camouflage, the Computer must take the image from the video camera,

calculate the appropriate perspective to simulate reality to be project and implimentationed onto the

retro-reflective material.

Projector :


For optical camouflage, the central opening must be the size of a pinhole. This

ensures a larger depth of field so that the cloak can be located any distance from

the project and implimentationor.


Combiner :

A special mirror to both reflect the project and implimentationed image toward the cloak and to let

light rays bouncing off the cloak return to the user's eye. This special mirror is

called a beam splitter, or a combiner.

The combiner allows the user to perceive both the image enhanced by the computer and

light from the surrounding world.

Real World Applications

Pilots landing a plane could use this technology to make cockpit floors

transparent. This would enable them to see the runway and the landing gear simply by

glancing down.

Doctors performing surgery could use optical camouflage to see through their

hands and instruments to the underlying tissue.
Providing a view of the outside in windowless rooms is one of the more

fanciful applications of Optical Camouflage.
Drivers backing up cars could benefit one day from optical camouflage. A

quick glance backward through a transparent rear would make it easy to know when to

stop.

Disadvantages :


Surface is used as the reflector will be having the natural folds and

wrinkles in the material.
The target can only be in a certain field of view
Partial Invisibility
Requires Expensive Equipments.

Conclusion :


Although this is having some disadvantages, Optical Camouflage is a nice technology.

However further developments are being going on. I believe this is going to change

the entire world.
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Optical Camouflage


WHAT IS OPTICAL CAMOUFLAGE?

¢ Optical camouflage is a hypothetical type of active camouflage currently only in a very primitive stage of development. The idea is relatively straightforward: to create the illusion of invisibility by covering an object with something that project and implimentations the scene directly behind that object .
¢ Optical camouflage is a kind of active camouflage which completely envelopes the wearer. It displays an image of the scene on the side opposite the viewer on it, so that the viewer can "see through" the wearer, rendering the wearer invisible.
¢ Although optical is a term that technically refers to all forms of light, most proposed forms of optical camouflage would only provide invisibility in the visible portion of the spectrum. Prototype examples and proposed designs of optical camouflage devices range back to the late eighties at least, and the concept began to appear in fiction in the late nineties.

HOW DOES IT WORK?

Creating complete optical camouflage across the visible light spectrum would require a coating or suit covered in tiny cameras and project and implimentationors, programmed to gather visual data from a multitude of different angles and project and implimentation the gathered images outwards in an equally large number of different directions to give the illusion of invisibility from all angles. For a surface subject to bending like a flexible suit, a massive amount of computing power and embedded sensors would be necessary to continuously project and implimentation the correct images in all directions. This would almost certainly require sophisticated nanotechnology, as our computers, project and implimentationors, and cameras are not yet miniaturized enough to meet these conditions.

Secret of Invisibility Cloak

¢ If you're a fan of Harry Potter, then you're quite familiar with the concept of an invisibility cloak With optical-camouflage technology developed by scientists at the University of Tokyo, the invisibility cloak is already a reality.

INVISIBILITY CLOAK

¢ The cloak that enables optical camouflage to work is made from a special material known as retro-reflective material.
¢ A retro-reflective material is covered with thousands and thousands of small beads. When light strikes one of these beads, the light rays bounce back exactly in the same direction from which they came.
¢ To understand why this is unique, look at how light reflects off of other types of surfaces. A rough surface creates a diffused reflection because the incident (incoming) light rays get scattered in many different directions. A perfectly smooth surface, like that of a mirror, creates what is known as a specular reflection -- a reflection in which incident light rays and reflected light rays form the exact same angle with the mirror surface. In retro-reflection, the glass beads act like prisms, bending the light rays by a process known as refraction. This causes the reflected light rays to travel back along the same path as the incident light rays. The result: An observer situated at the light source receives more of the reflected light and therefore sees a brighter reflection

WHAT DO WE NEED FOR AN INVISIBILITY CLOAK?

¢ Optical camouflage doesn't work by way of magic. It works by taking advantage of something called augmented-reality technology
¢ Augmented-reality systems add computer-generated information to a user's sensory perceptions
¢ Most augmented-reality systems require that users look through a special viewing apparatus to see a real-world scene enhanced with synthesized graphics. They also require a powerful computer. Optical camouflage requires these things, as well, but it also requires several other components
¢ Here's everything needed to make a person appear invisible:
¢ A garment made from retro-reflective material
¢ A video camera
¢ A computer
¢ A project and implimentationor
¢ A special, half-silvered mirror called a combiner


More Invisibility Cloak Components

Video Camera
¢ Capturing the background image requires a video camera, which sits behind the person wearing the cloak. The video from the camera must be in a digital format so it can be sent to a computer for processing.
Computer
¢ For optical camouflage to work, the hardware/software combo must take the captured image from the video camera, calculate the appropriate perspective to simulate reality and transform the captured image into the image that will be project and implimentationed onto the retro-reflective material.
Once a person puts on the cloak made with the retro-reflective material, here's the sequence of events:
¢ A digital video camera captures the scene behind the person wearing the cloak.
¢ The computer processes the captured image and makes the calculations necessary to adjust the still image or video so it will look realistic when it is project and implimentationed.
¢ The project and implimentationor receives the enhanced image from the computer and shines the image through a pinhole-sized opening onto the combiner.
¢ The silvered half of the mirror, which is completely reflective, bounces the project and implimentationed image toward the person wearing the cloak.
¢ The cloak acts like a movie screen, reflecting light directly back to the source, which in this case is the mirror.
¢ Light rays bouncing off of the cloak pass through the transparent part of the mirror and fall on the user's eyes. Remember that the light rays bouncing off of the cloak contain the image of the scene that exists behind the person wearing the cloak.
¢ The person wearing the cloak appears invisible because the background scene is being displayed onto the retro-reflective material. At the same time, light rays from the rest of the world are allowed reach the user's eye, making it seem as if an invisible person exists in an otherwise normal-looking world.

HOW MUTUAL TELEXISTENCE WORKS

¢ Human user A is at one location while his telexistence robot A is at another location with human user B.
¢ Human user B is at one location while his telexistence robot B is at another location with human user A.
¢ Both telexistence robots are covered in retro-reflective material so that they act like screens.
¢ With video cameras and project and implimentationors at each location, the images of the two human users are project and implimentationed onto their respective robots in the remote locations.
¢ This gives each human the perception that he is working with another human instead of a robot.
¢ Right now, mutual telexistence is science fiction, but it won't be for long as scientists continue to push the boundaries of the technology.

Real-World Applications

¢ Doctors performing surgery could use optical camouflage to see through their hands and instruments to the underlying tissue.
¢ Providing a view of the outside in windowless rooms is one of the more fanciful applications of the technology, but one that might improve the psychological well-being of people in such environments.
¢ Pilots landing a plane could use this technology to make cockpit floors transparent. This would enable them to see the runway and the landing gear simply by glancing down.
¢ Drivers backing up cars could benefit one day from optical camouflage. A quick glance backward through a transparent rear hatch or tailgate would make it easy to know when to stop.

RECOGNITION OF OPTICAL CAMOUFLAGE

¢ In 2003, three professors at University of Tokyo ” Susumu Tachi, Masahiko Inami and Naoki Kawakami ” created a prototypical camouflage system in which a video camera takes a shot of the background and displays it on a cloth using an external project and implimentationor. The same year Time magazine named it the coolest invention of 2003. [1] With flexible electronics such as a flexible liquid crystal display that would permit display of the background image by the material itself, this form of optical camouflage may closely resemble its fictional counterparts.

ADVANTAGE

¢ Optical Camouflage can be used on surgical globes or equipments so they don™t block surgeon™s view during delicate operations.
¢ In aviation, cockpit floors could become 'invisible' to assist pilots during landing.


DISADVANTAGE

¢ The weak point of this technique is that the observer needs to look through a half-mirror. The current system needs a half-mirror and project and implimentationors, which were fixed on the ground.


CONCLUSION

¢ Now all of us have had a small tour of the interesting world of optical camouflage.
¢ A lot of interesting thing have been done and already we have seen that anyone can be almost invisible with this technology.
¢ But the future promises us a lot more.
¢ Research work is going on and soon we will have even more astonishing results.
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OPTICAL CAMOUFLAGE


PRESENTED BY
A.ABHINAYA, M. AYESHA,
III year (ECE)
SIDDHARTH INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHOLOGY,
NARAYANAVANAM ROAD, PUTTUR.

Abstract:
This paper describes a kind of active camouflage system named Optical Camouflage. Initially, Camouflage is made understood and then the theory of optical camouflage is developed. Optical Camouflage uses the Retro-reflective Projection Technology, a project and implimentationion based augmented“reality system, composed of a project and implimentationor with a small iris and a retro reflective screen. The concept of optical camouflage is straightforward: to create the illusion of invisibility by covering an object with something that project and implimentations the scene directly behind that object. This system was conceived with the primary view in mind of concealing stationary or moving objects such as men, vehicles, or aircraft from view and has practical military, law enforcement, and security applications.
Introduction:
Various methods have been proposed to integrate the visual space. In the field of Mixed Reality, one of the most popular topics is about displaying a virtual object into real world .However making objects virtually transparent, like in H.G. Wellsâ„¢ Invisible Man can also be seen as dream of human being. In this paper, we describe what could be called a camouflage technique named Optical Camouflage.
Camouflage:
Camouflage is the method which allows an otherwise visible organism or object to remain indiscernible from the surrounding environment. Examples include a tiger's stripes and Battledress of a modern soldier. Camouflage is a form of deception. The word camouflage comes from the French word 'camoufler' meaning 'to disguise'.
Natural camouflage:
In nature, there is a strong evolutionary pressure for animals to blend into their environment or conceal their shape; for prey animals to avoid predators and for predators to be able to sneak up on prey. Natural camouflage is one method that animals use to meet these aims.
Anolis caroliensis showing blending
Camouflage and counter shading
Military camouflage:
These were intended to daunt the enemy, attract recruits, foster unit cohesion, and allow easier identification of units in the fog of war. The British in India in 1857 were forced by casualties to dye their red tunics to neutral tones, initially a muddy tan called khaki. The United States was quick to follow the British, going khaki in the same year. Later in 20th century, digital camouflage patterns have been experimented on helicopters, battledresses & other vehicles. It is termed "digital" because much of the design was done on a computer and unlike other camouflage patterns; it is blocky and appears almost pixelated.
Theory of Camouflage:
MacKay's statement above remains one of the most important elements in the theory of camouflage ” an exact match with the environment's colours is less crucial than the patterning of the regions of colour themselves. Ideally, camouflage should be made to break up and thereby conceal the structural lines of the object which it hides. Thus, the patterns often seen on camouflage clothing, masking cloth and vehicle paints are carefully constructed to deceive the human eye by breaking up the boundaries that define sharp edges and human silhouettes. This is called high difference or disruptive camouflage. This mix of blending and disruptive patterns is called coincident disruption - the aim of modern military camouflage. The opposite of camouflage is making a person or object more visible and easier to recognize, for example with retro reflectors and high-visibility clothing...
What is Optical Camouflage
Optical camouflage is a kind of active camouflage. This idea is very simple. If you project and implimentation Background image onto the masked object, you can observe the masked object just as if it were virtually transparent. Although optical is a term that technically refers to all forms of light, most proposed forms of optical camouflage would only provide invisibility in the visible portion of the spectrum. The most intriguing prototype uses an external camera placed behind the cloaked object to record a scene, which it then transmits to a computer for image processing. The computer feeds the image into an external project and implimentationor which project and implimentations the image onto a person wearing a special retro reflective coat. This can lead to different results depending on the quality of the camera, the project and implimentationor, and the coat, but by the late nineties, convincing illusions were created. The downside is the large amount of external hardware required, along with the fact that the illusion is only convincing when viewed from a certain angle. Creating complete optical camouflage across the visible light spectrum would require a coating or suit covered in tiny cameras and project and implimentationors, programmed to gather visual data from a multitude of different angles and project and implimentation the gathered images outwards in an equally large number of different directions to give the illusion of invisibility from all angles. For a surface
Subject to bending like a flexible suit, a massive amount of computing power and embedded sensors would be necessary to continuously project and implimentation the correct images in all directions. This would almost certainly require sophisticated nanotechnology, as our computers, project and implimentationors, and cameras are not yet miniaturized enough to meet these conditions. Although the suit described above would provide a convincing illusion to the naked eye of a human observer, more sophisticated machinery would be necessary to create perfect illusions in other electromagnetic bands, such as the infrared band. Sophisticated target-tracking software could ensure that the majority of computing power is focused on project and implimentationing false images in those directions where observers are most likely to be present, creating the most realistic illusion possible.
Fig.1
Fig. 2
This shows the principle of the optical camouflage using Xâ„¢tal vision. You can select camouflaged object to cover with retro reflector. Moreover, to project and implimentation a stereoscopic image, the observer looks at the masking object more transparent.
Fig 3
In the above shown figure, this transparent cloak makes you see as if the cloak is transparent by project and implimentationing the shooting image behind the person onto the cloak i.e. it looks like three men walking behind are seen through the body of the person. So, actually, the cloak is not really transparent.
How does it work
First, putting the video camera behind the person in the cloak, and capturing his background. Then, project and implimentationing the captured image onto the cloak from the project and implimentationor. So, if you see from the peephole, you will see as if the cloak is transparent. Because the image is project and implimentationed by the technology called Retro-reflective Projection Technology (RPT), you can see the reflection only on the cloak and clearly even in brightness.

Fig .4
Cloakâ„¢s Secret!
This Cloaking System is designed to conceal an object from view by placing a thin video screen between the observer and the object being concealed and at the same time presenting a full colour image of the background on the screen for view by the observer, thus creating the illusion that the object is not there. The special material is used as screen for RPT. Thatâ„¢s different from the screen in the cinemas. This material is called ËœRetro-reflective Materialâ„¢, and also used for the cloak. The surface of Retro-reflective Material is covered with very small beads. If the light strikes the material, the light reflects only in the same direction as it has come. So, the image is reflected clearly even in brightness. Optical camouflage requires the viewer to be in position with a sensor. The illusion is broken if you are a few meters off the mark, so this isn't exactly ready for military use. This can be used for two purposes. The first of which being showing a representation of something behind an object, on top of said object. The second is to actually change what you're looking at. This is accomplished with a reflective coating applied to the objects to receive the camouflage. Mirrors work even better. The selected background is filmed, and then project and implimentationed back onto the source exactly. This is nearly unnoticeable until a highly reflective surface passes by. You then see only a little more than a shimmering outline. In fact, we can find a lot of things using Retro-reflective Material around you. Traffic signs, bicycleâ„¢s reflector and the lighting part of the raincoat are made from Retro reflective Material. As like the transparent cloak, it can be seen from far away because they shine brightly by little light of the cars.
Retro-reflective Projection Technology (RPT):
Now that we Ëœve seen how does optical camouflage works using RPT & Xâ„¢stal vision, let us illustrate RPT. When using a See-Through Head-mounted Display (STHMD) to merge virtual and real environments, the operator may see the image of a virtual object that is meant to be located behind a real object. This contradicts our intuition of depth, since the project and implimentationed image of an object located behind another object in one's field of view will be obstructed at least partially. This depth cue is called occlusion, and is critical for the effectiveness of the presentation of virtual objects in three dimensions. To solve the occlusion contradiction problem, we developed RPT. The three key techniques of RPT are the followings:
¢To use an object covered by retro-reflective material as a screen;
¢To place a project and implimentationor into a position optically conjugated with the observer's eye by using a half-mirror;
¢To make the project and implimentationor's iris as small as possible (by using a pinhole).
Each of these points provides the following advantages, respectively:
Fig.5
Fig.6
Fig.5 and Fig.6 shows the principles of RPT.
The image of a virtual object is project and implimentationed
Through a pinhole. The project and implimentationed image is reflected by the half-mirror on a right angle and then retro-reflected by the retro-reflective screen.
Fig.7 optical camouflaged hap tic display
Fig 7 shows the hap tic display (real object) hiding the virtual object, but Optical Camouflage techniques permit to make the hap tic display to become transparent. However the operatorâ„¢s hand is not made transparent, which implies that it is possible to use this technology.
Applications:
¢Used in Stealth technology, to make airplane invisible to Radar
¢Utilization of this technology also has three important secondary energy saving by-products
:
(a) As a security instrument it can protect national strategic resources from theft and
sabotage by concealing both the resource and a much reduced security force from view by either presenting the natural background on the screen or by presenting an artificial image of the resource on the screen.
(b) Its variable reflective capability could assist in heating or cooling the facility, thus realizing considerable energy savings; and
© Environmental enhancement of industrial facilities using Chameleon screens in lieu of artificial buildings/landscaping and enhancement of working spaces allowing artificial scenes on the wall and/or outside views without the need for windows.
¢Technical Advantages -
The need for the camouflage aspect of this system arises out of the present state of the art of military camouflage in the visible light spectrum which is generally limited to techniques involving painting, colouring, and/or contour shaping to allow an object to better blend in with the background; such methods do little to conceal moving objects as their appearance must be constantly controlled from the viewpoint of the observer to blend in with the changing background.
¢Others-
1. For example, if this technique is used in cockpit for making the floor transparent at landing, the pilot can land safely with seeing runway. Also, used for other vehicles like car. If you can see through the back of car, you will put the car into the garage successfully. This technique was invented from the study that skilfully mixing the real world and the world made artificially, and trying to let your life and work convenient.
2. The idea appears in many fictional works, such as the William Gibson novel Necromancer, where it is referred to as a "polychromatic suit," but achieved recognition in the successful James Bond movie. Die Another Day. The car of James bond, Aston Martin Vanquish V-12 is equipped with all the usual refinements including front-firing rockets, hood mounted guns, and passenger ejector seat in homage to the original Aston Martin DB5 driven by Bond in Gold finger. The car was also equipped with an adaptive camouflage device that allowed it to become invisible to the naked eye at the push of a button (although it could still be detected in infrared.)
Similar camouflage is also used by the creatures in the Predator movies, though in that case light is bent around the camouflage.
¢Optical Camouflage can be used on surgical globes or equipments so they don™t block surgeon™s view during delicate operations.
¢Conclusion:
Creating a truly realistic optical illusion would likely require Phase Array Optics, which would project and implimentation light of a specific amplitude and phase and therefore provide even greater levels of invisibility. The weak point of this technique is that the observer needs to look through a half-mirror. The current system needs a half-mirror and project and implimentationors, which were fixed on the ground. We may end up finding optical camouflage to be most useful in the environment of space, where any given background is generally less complex than earthly backdrops and therefore easier to record, process, and project and implimentation.
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Optical Camouflage

Presented BY
B.V.Krishna Kowsic(I.T)
&
G.Hem Sagar(E.C.M)
FROM
KONERU LAKSHMAIAH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Vaddeswaram,Guntur Dist.
ABSTRACT:

Optical Camouflage delivers a similar experience to Harry Potterâ„¢s invisibility cloak, but using it requires a slightly more complicated arrangement. First, the person who want be invisible (letâ„¢s call his/her person A) dons a garment that resembles a hooded raincoat. The garment is made of a special material. Next, an observer (Person B) stands before a person A at a specific location. At that location, instead of seeing person A wearing a hooded raincoat, person B sees right through the cloak, making person A appear to be invisible. If person B were viewing from a slightly different location, he would simply see person A wearing a silver garment. Still, despite its limitations, this is a cool piece of technology.
Principle:
If you project and implimentation background image on to the masked object, you can observe the masked object just as if it were virtually transparent. This shows the principle of the optical camouflage using Xâ„¢tal Vision.
Altered Reality:
Optical camouflage doesn't work by way of magic. It works by taking advantage of something called augmented-reality technology -- a type of technology that pulls graphics out of your television screen or computer display and integrate them into real-world environments.
Augmented-reality systems add computer-generated information to a user's sensory perceptions. Imagine, for example, that you're walking down a city street. As you gaze at sites along the way, additional information appears to enhance and enrich your normal view. Perhaps it's the day's specials at a restaurant or the show times at a theater or the bus schedule at the station. What's critical to understand here is that augmented reality is not the same as virtual reality, While virtual reality aims to replace the world, augmented reality merely tries to supplement it with additional, helpful content
Most augmented-reality systems require that users look through a special viewing apparatus to see a real-world scene enhanced with synthesized graphics. They also require a powerful computer. Optical camouflage requires these things, as well, but it also requires several other components. Here's everything needed to make a person appear invisible:
¢ A garment made from highly reflective material
¢ A video camera
¢ A computer
¢ A project and implimentationor
¢ A special, half-silvered mirror called a combiner
Let's look at each of these components in greater detail
The Cloak:
The cloak that enables optical camouflage to work is made from a special material known as retro-reflective material. A retro-reflective material is covered with thousands and thousands of small beads. When light strikes one of these beads, the light rays bounce back exactly in the same direction from which they came.
A rough surface creates a diffused reflection because the incident (incoming) light rays get scattered in many different directions. A perfectly smooth surface, like that of a mirror, creates what is known as a specula reflection -- a reflection in which incident light rays and reflected light rays form the exact same angle with the mirror surface. In retro-reflection, the glass beads act like prisms, bending the light rays by a process known as refraction. This causes the reflected light rays to travel back along the same path as the incident light rays. The result: An observer situated at the light source receives more of the reflected light and therefore sees a brighter reflection. Retro-reflective materials are actually quite common. Traffic signs, road markers and bicycle reflectors all take advantage of retro-reflection to be more visible to people driving at night. Movie screens used in most modern commercial theaters also take advantage of this material because it allows for high brilliance under dark conditions. In optical camouflage, the use of retro-reflective material is critical because it can be seen from far away and outside in bright sunlight -- two requirements for the illusion of invisibility.
The Video Camera:
The retro-reflective garment doesn't actually make a person invisible -- in fact, it's perfectly opaque. What the garment does is create an illusion of invisibility by acting like a movie screen onto which an image from the background is project and implimentationed. Capturing the background image requires a video camera, which sits behind the person wearing the cloak. The video from the camera must be in a digital format so it can be sent to a computer for processing.
Computer:
All augmented-reality systems rely on powerful computers to synthesize graphics and then superimpose them on a real-world image. For optical camouflage to work, the hardware/software combo must take the captured image from the video camera, calculate the appropriate perspective to simulate reality and transform the captured image into the image that will be project and implimentationed onto the retro-reflective material.
The Projector:
The modified image produced by the computer must be shone onto the garment, which acts like a movie screen. A project and implimentationor accomplishes this task by shining a light beam through an opening controlled by a device called an iris diaphragm. An iris diaphragm is made of thin, opaque plates, and turning a ring changes the diameter of the central opening. For optical camouflage to work properly, this opening must be the size of a pinhole. Why? This ensures a larger depth of field so that the screen (in this case the cloak) can be located any distance from the project and implimentationor.
The Combiner:
The system requires a special mirror to both reflect the project and implimentationed image toward the cloak and to let light rays bouncing off the cloak return to the user's eye. This special mirror is called a beam splitter, or a combiner -- a half-silvered mirror that both reflects light (the silvered half) and transmits light (the transparent half). If properly positioned in front of the user's eye, the combiner allows the user to perceive both the image enhanced by the computer and light from the surrounding world. This is critical because the computer-generated image and the real-world scene must be fully integrated for the illusion of invisibility to seem realistic. The user has to look through a peephole in this mirror to see the augmented reality.
The Complete System:
Now let's put all of these components together to see how the invisibility cloak appears to make a person transparent. The diagram below shows the typical arrangement of all of the various devices and pieces of equipment.
Once a person puts on the cloak made with the retro-reflective material, here's the sequence of events:
1. A digital video camera captures the scene behind the person wearing the cloak.
2. The computer processes the captured image and makes the calculations necessary to adjust the still image or video so it will look realistic when it is project and implimentationed.
3. The project and implimentationor receives the enhanced image from the computer and shines the image through a pinhole-sized opening onto the combiner.
4. The silvered half of the mirror, which is completely reflective, bounces the project and implimentationed image toward the person wearing the cloak.
5. The cloak acts like a movie screen, reflecting light directly back to the source, which in this case is the mirror.
6. Light rays bouncing off of the cloak pass through the transparent part of the mirror and fall on the user's eyes. Remember that the light rays bouncing off of the cloak contain the image of the scene that exists behind the person wearing the cloak.
The person wearing the cloak appears invisible because the background scene is being displayed onto the retro-reflective material. At the same time, light rays from the rest of the world are allowed reach the user's eye, making it seems as if an invisible person exists in an otherwise normal-looking world.
Head-mounted Displays:
Of course, making the observer stand behind a stationary combiner is not very pragmatic -- no augmented-reality system would be of much practical use if the user had to stand in a fixed location. That's why most systems require that the user carry the computer on his or her person, either in a backpack or clipped on the hip. It's also why most systems take advantage of head-mounted displays, or HMDs, which assemble the combiner and optics in a wearable device.
There are two types of HMDs: optical see-through displays and video see-through displays. Optical see-through displays look like high-tech goggles, sort of like the goggles Cyclops wears in the X-Men comic books and movies. These goggles provide a display and optics for each eye, so the user sees the augmented reality in stereo. Video see-through displays, on the other hand, use video-mixing technology to combine the image from a head-worn camera with computer-generated graphics.
In this arrangement, video of the real world is mixed with synthesized graphics and then presented on a liquid-crystal display. The great advantage of video see-through displays is that virtual objects can fully obscure real-world objects and vice versa.
The scientists who have developed optical-camouflage technology are currently perfecting a variation of a video see-through display that brings together all of the components necessary to make the invisibility cloak work.
Real-World Applications:
While an invisibility cloak is an interesting application of optical camouflage, it's probably not the most useful one. Here are some practical ways the technology might be applied:
¢ Pilots landing a plane could use this technology to make cockpit floors transparent. This would enable them to see the runway and the landing gear simply by glancing down.
¢ Doctors performing surgery could use optical camouflage to see through their hands and instruments to the underlying tissue.
¢ Providing a view of the outside in windowless rooms is one of the more fanciful applications of the technology, but one that might improve the psychological well-being of people in such environments.
¢ Drivers backing up cars could benefit one day from optical camouflage. A quick glance backward through a transparent rear hatch or tailgate would make it easy to know when to stop.
One of the most promising applications of this technology, however, has less to do with making objects invisible and more about making them visible. The concept is called mutual telexistence: working and perceiving with the feeling that you are in several places at once. Here's how it works:
¢ Human user A is at one location while his telexistence robot A is at another location with human user B.
¢ Human user B is at one location while his telexistence robot B is at another location with human user A.
¢ Both telexistence robots are covered in retro-reflective material so that they act like screens.
¢ With video cameras and project and implimentationors at each location, the images of the two human users are project and implimentationed onto their respective robots in the remote locations.
This gives each human the perception that he is working with another human instead of a robot.
Conclusion:
Through optical camouflage we may step into a more advanced phase of todayâ„¢s teleconferencing. In future we may have a New World where we can have the same person at different places at the same time.
Reference:
news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/3791795.stm
project and implimentations.star.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/project and implimentations/MEDIA/xv/oc.html
science.howstuffworksinvisibility-cloak.htm
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1. Introduction:


1.1 RECOGNITION OF OPTICAL CAMOUFLAGE:

In 2003, three professors at University of Tokyo ” Susumu Tachi, Masahiko Inami and Naoki Kawakami ” created a prototypical camouflage system in which a video camera takes a shot of the background and displays it on a cloth using an external project and implimentationor. The same year Time magazine named it the coolest invention of 2003. With flexible electronics such as a flexible liquid crystal display that would permit display of the background image by the material itself, this form of optical camouflage may closely resemble its fictional counterparts.
Various methods have been proposed to integrate the visual space. In the field of Mixed Reality, one of the most popular topics is about displaying a virtual object into real world.However making objects virtually transparent, like in H.G. Wellsâ„¢ Invisible Man can also be seen as dream of human being. In this paper, we describe what could be called a camouflage technique named Optical Camouflage.

1.2 WHERE HAVE U SEEN OPTICAL CAMOUFLAGE:

¢ Ghost in the Shell.
¢ 2000 video game Deus Ex.
¢ 2002 James Bond movie Die Another Day
¢ Metal Gear Solid and Halo video game series.
¢ The video game Phantom Crash.
¢ The Predator movie.

Invisible - A Reality or fiction

Is becoming invisible confined only to the world or fiction or can it be achieved in reality The answer is YES! Thanks to the technology -Optical Camouflage with retro-reflective project and implimentationion. Today invisibility is no more a fictional concept.

What makes objects visible

Before going into the concept of invisibility, let us first see what makes the objects around us visible
¢ Why are we able to see objects around us
Scattering of light
¢ A look at the law of reflection.
The law of reflection states that when a ray of light reflects off a surface, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
¢ What do we mean by Retro-reflection
Retroreflection is a special kind of reflection where the light is reflected.
Finally lets come to OPTICAL CAMOUFLAGE.

2. WHAT IS OPTICAL CAMOUFLAGE

¢ Optical camouflage is a hypothetical type of active camouflage currently only in a very primitive stage of development. The idea is relatively straightforward: to create the illusion of invisibility by covering an object with something that project and implimentations the scene directly behind that object .
¢ Optical camouflage is a kind of active camouflage which completely envelopes the wearer. It displays an image of the scene on the side opposite the viewer on it, so that the viewer can "see through" the wearer, rendering the wearer invisible.
¢ Although optical is a term that technically refers to all forms of light, most proposed forms of optical camouflage would only provide invisibility in the visible portion of the spectrum. Prototype examples and proposed designs of optical camouflage devices range back to the late eighties at least, and the concept began to appear in fiction in the late nineties.
Optical camouflage is a kind of active camouflage. This idea is very simple. If you project and implimentationbackground image onto the masked object, you can observe the masked object just as if it were virtually transparent. Although optical is a term that technically refers to all forms of light, most proposed forms of optical camouflage would only provide invisibility in the visible portion of the spectrum.
The most intriguing prototype uses an external camera placed behind the cloaked object to record a scene, which it then transmits to a computer for image processing. The computer feeds the image into an external project and implimentationor which project and implimentations the image onto a person wearing a special retroreflective coat. This can lead to different results depending on the quality of the camera, the project and implimentationor, and the coat, but by the late nineties, convincing illusions were created.The downside is the large amount of external hardware required, along with the fact that the illusion is only convincing when viewed from a certain angle.
Creating complete optical camouflage across the visible light spectrum would require a coating or suit covered in tiny cameras and project and implimentationors, programmed to gather visual data from a multitude of different angles and project and implimentation the gathered images outwards in an equally large number of different directions to give the illusion of invisibility from all angles. For a surface subject to bending like a flexible suit, a massive amount of computing power and embedded sensors would be necessary to continuously project and implimentation the correct images in all directions. This would almost certainly require sophisticated nanotechnology, as our computers, project and implimentationors, and cameras are not yet miniaturized enough to meet these conditions.
Although the suit described above would provide a convincing illusion to the naked eye of a human observer, more sophisticated machinery would be necessary to create perfect illusions in other electromagnetic bands, such as the infrared band. Sophisticated target-tracking software could ensure that the majority of computing power is focused on project and implimentationing false images in those directions where observers are most likely to be present, creating the most realistic illusionpossible.

3.HOW DOES IT WORK

Creating complete optical camouflage across the visible light spectrum would require a coating or suit covered in tiny cameras and project and implimentationors, programmed to gather visual data from a multitude of different angles and project and implimentation the gathered images outwards in an equally large number of different directions to give the illusion of invisibility from all angles. For a surface subject to bending like a flexible suit, a massive amount of computing power and embedded sensors would be necessary to continuously project and implimentation the correct images in all directions. This would almost certainly require sophisticated nanotechnology, as our computers, project and implimentationors, and cameras are not yet miniaturized enough to meet these conditions.

First, putting the video camera behind the person in the cloak, and capturing his background. Then, project and implimentationing the captured image onto the cloak from the project and implimentationor. So, if you see from the peephole, you will see as if the cloak is transparent. Because the image is project and implimentationed by the technology called Retro-reflective Projection Technology (RPT), you can see the reflection only on the cloak and clearly even in brightness.

3.1 Retro-reflective Projection Technology(RPT) :

Now that we Ëœve seen how does optical camouflage works using RPT& Xâ„¢stal vision ,let us illustrate RPT. When using a See-Through Head-mounted Display(STHMD) to merge virtual and real environments, the operator may see the image of a virtualobject that is meant to be located behind a real object. This contradicts our intuition of depth,since the project and implimentationed image of an object located behind another object in one's field of view will be obstructed at least partially. This depth cue is called occlusion, and is critical for the effectiveness of the presentation of virtual objects in three dimensions. To solve the occlusion contradiction problem, we developed RPT.
The three key techniques of RPT are the followings:
¢To use an object covered by retro-reflective material as a screen;
¢To place a project and implimentationor into a position optically conjugated with the observer's eye by using
a half-mirror;
¢To make the project and implimentationor's iris as small as possible (by using a pinhole).
Each of these points provides the following advantages, respectively:
Fig:5 Fig:6

Fig.5 and Fig.6 shows the principles of RPT.
The image of a virtual object is project and implimentationed through a pinhole. The project and implimentationed image is reflected by the half-mirror on a right angle and then retro-reflected by the retro-reflective screen.

Fig.7 optical camouflaged haptic display
Fig 7 shows the haptic display (real object) hiding the virtual object, but Optical Camouflage
Techniques permit to make the haptic display to become transparent. However the operatorâ„¢s
hand is not made transparent, which implies that it is possible to use this technology.

4.Secret of Invisibility Cloak:

If you're a fan of Harry Potter, then you're quite familiar with the concept of an invisibility cloak With optical-camouflage technology developed by scientists at the University of Tokyo, the invisibility cloak is already a reality.
This Cloaking System is designed to conceal an object from view by placing a thin video
screen between the observer and the object being concealed and at the same time presenting a
full color image of the background on the screen for view by the observer, thus creating the
illusion that the object is not there.
The special material is used as screen for RPT. Thatâ„¢s different from the screen in thecinemas. This material is called ËœRetro-reflective Materialâ„¢, and also used for the cloak. The surface of Retro-reflective Material is covered with very small beads. If the light strikes the material, the light reflects only in the same direction as it has come. So, the image is reflected clearly even in brightness.Optical camouflage requires the viewer to be in position with sensor.
The illusion is broken if you are a few meters off the mark, so this isn't exactly ready for military use. This can be used for two purposes. The first of which being showing a representation of something behind an object, on top of said object. The second is to actually change what you're looking at. This is accomplished with a reflective coating applied to the objects to receive the camouflage. Mirrors work even better. The selected background is filmed, and then project and implimentationed back onto the source exactly. This is nearly unnoticeable until a highly reflective surface passes by. You then see only a little more than a shimmering outline.
In fact, we can find a lot of things using Retro-reflective Material around you. Traffic
signs, bicycleâ„¢s reflector and the lighting part of the raincoat are made from Retro reflective
Material. As like the transparent cloak, it can be seen from far away because they shine brightly by little light of the cars .

5.WHAT DO WE NEED FOR AN INVISIBILITY CLOAK

Optical camouflage doesn't work by way of magic. It works by taking advantage of something called augmented-reality technology Augmented-reality systems add computer-generated information to a user's sensory perceptions Most augmented-reality systems require that users look through a special viewing apparatus to see a real-world scene enhanced with synthesized graphics. They also require a powerful computer. Optical camouflage requires these things, as well, but it also requires several other components
Here's everything needed to make a person appear invisible:
¢ A garment made from retro-reflective material
¢ A digital video camera
¢ A computer
¢ A project and implimentationor
¢ A half silvered mirror called Combiner
5.1 Garment made from a highly reflective material: The cloak that enables Optical Camouflage to work is made from a special material called retro-reflective material. A retro-reflective material is covered with thousands and thousands of small beads. When light strikes one of these beads, the light rays bounce back exactly in the same direction they came from .

In retro-reflection, the glass beads act like prisms, bending the light rays by a process known as refraction. This causes the reflected light rays to travel back along the same path as the incident light rays. The result: An observer situated at the light source receives more of the reflected light and therefore sees a brighter reflection.
Retro-reflective materials are actually quite common. Traffic signs, road markers and bicycle reflectors all take advantage of retro-reflection to be more visible to people driving at night. Movie screens used in most modern commercial theaters also take advantage of this material because it allows for high brilliance under dark conditions. In optical camouflage, the use of retro-reflective material is critical because it can be seen from far away and outside in bright sunlight.

Types of retro-reflective materials :

¢ Corner cube arrays
¢ Micro - beads
Retro-reflection in Corner Cube Arrays : Incident Light.

Retro-reflectiveGarment inMicroBeads:

Consists of thousands of micro-beads which are of 50 micro meter diameter.
¢ Micro-beads with refractive index of 2 have a retro reflective character.
¢ These micro-beads act like prisms and reflect all the rays incident on them in the same direction of the incident rays.

Types of Micro-Beads :

There are two types-
¢ Cloth type
¢ Paint type
How it all happens -Half Mirror

The role played by the Half Mirror :

¢ The project and implimentationed image is reflected by a half mirror on the right angle onto the screen (the retro-reflective material) which then retro-reflects this image.
¢ The mirror has a tiny hole in it. When the user views through this hole he can see right through the retro-reflective screen
¢ Thus if properly positioned in front of the user™s eye, the half mirror allows the user to perceive both the image enhanced by the computer and the real-world scene.


2. Video Camera:
The retro-reflective garment doesn't actually make a person invisible -- in fact, it's perfectly opaque. What the garment does is create an illusion of invisibility by acting like a movie screen onto which an image from the background is project and implimentationed. Capturing the background image requires a video camera, which sits behind the person wearing the cloak. The video from the camera must be in a digital format so it can be sent to a computer for processing.

3. The Projector:
The modified image produced by the computer must be shone onto the garment, which acts like a movie screen. A project and implimentationor accomplishes this task by shining a light beam through an opening (controlled by a device called an iris diaphragm) which must be the size of a pinhole. This ensures a larger depth of field so that the screen (in this case the cloak) can be located any distance from the project and implimentationor.

4. The Combiner:
The system requires a special mirror to both reflect the project and implimentationed image toward the cloak and to let light rays bouncing off the cloak return to the user's eye. This special mirror is called a beam splitter, or a combiner -- a half-silvered mirror that both reflects light (the silvered half) and transmits light (the transparent half). If properly positioned in front of the user's eye, the combiner allows the user to perceive both the image enhanced by the computer and light from the surrounding world. This is critical because the computer-generated image and the real-world scene must be fully integrated for the illusion of invisibility to seem realistic. The user has to look through a peephole in this mirror to see the augmented reality

More Invisibility Cloak Components:
Video Camera

¢ Capturing the background image requires a video camera, which sits behind the person wearing the cloak. The video from the camera must be in a digital format so it can be sent to a computer for processing.

Computer

¢ For optical camouflage to work, the hardware/software combo must take the captured image from the video camera, calculate the appropriate perspective to simulate reality and transform the captured image into the image that will be project and implimentationed onto the retro-reflective material.

6.The Complete System:

Once a person puts on the cloak made with the retro-reflective material, here's the sequence of events:
¢ A digital video camera captures the scene behind the person wearing the cloak.
¢ The computer processes the captured image and makes the calculations necessary to adjust the still image or video so it will look realistic when it is project and implimentationed.

¢ The project and implimentationor receives the enhanced image from the computer and shines the image through a pinhole-sized opening onto the combiner.
¢ The silvered half of the mirror, which is completely reflective, bounces the project and implimentationed image toward the person wearing the cloak.
¢ The cloak acts like a movie screen, reflecting light directly back to the source, which in this case is the mirror.
¢ Light rays bouncing off of the cloak pass through the transparent part of the mirror and fall on the user's eyes. Remember that the light rays bouncing off of the cloak contain the image of the scene that exists behind the person wearing the cloak.
¢ The person wearing the cloak appears invisible because the background scene is being displayed onto the retro-reflective material. At the same time, light rays from the rest of the world are allowed reach the user's eye, making it seem as if an invisible person exists in an otherwise normal-looking world.

7.HOW MUTUAL TELEXISTENCE WORKS:

¢ Human user A is at one location while his telexistence robot A is at another location with human user B.
¢ Human user B is at one location while his telexistence robot B is at another location with human user A.
¢ Both telexistence robots are covered in retro-reflective material so that they act like screens.
¢ With video cameras and project and implimentationors at each location, the images of the two human users are project and implimentationed onto their respective robots in the remote locations.
¢ This gives each human the perception that he is working with another human instead of a robot.
¢ Right now, mutual telexistence is science fiction, but it won't be for long as scientists continue to push the boundaries of the technology.

8.APPLICATIONS:

¢Used in Stealth technology,to make airplane invisible to Radar
¢Utilization of this technology also has three important secondary energy saving byproducts:
(a) as a security instrument it can protect national strategic resources from theft and sabotage by concealing both the resource and a much reduced security force from view by either presenting the natural background on the screen or by presenting an artificial
image of the resource on the screen.
(b) its variable reflective capability could assist in heating or cooling the facility, thusrealizing considerable energy savings; and
© environmental enhancement of industrial facilities using Chameleo screens in lieu of artificial buildings/landscaping and enhancement of working spaces allowing artificialscenes on the wall and/or outside views without the need for windows.
¢Technical Advantages - The need for the camouflage aspect of this system arises out of the present state of the art of military camouflage in the visible light spectrum which isgenerally limited to techniques involving painting, coloring, and/or contour shaping to allow an object to better blend in with the background; such methods do little to conceal moving objects as their appearance must be constantly controlled from the viewpoint of the observer to blend in with the changing background.
¢Others-
1. For example, if this technique is used in cockpit for making the floor transparent at
Landing , the pilot can land safely with seeingrunway. Also, used for other vehicles like car. If you can see through the back of car, you will put the car into the garage successfully.This technique was invented from the study that skillfully mixing the real world and the world made artificially, and trying to let your life and work convenient.
2.Drivers backing up cars could benefit one day from optical camouflage. A quick glance backward through a transparent rear hatch or tailgate would make it easy to know when to stop.

9.FUTURE SCOPE:

The weak point of this technique is that the observer needs to look through a half-mirror. The current system needs a half-mirror and project and implimentationors, which were fixed on the ground.Research is currently going on to enable a person to observe the background image from various viewpoints with H.M.P. (Head-Mounted Projector)

ADVANTAGES:

¢ Optical Camouflage can be used on surgical globes or equipments so they don™t block surgeon™s view during delicate operations.
¢ In aviation, cockpit floors could become 'invisible' to assist pilots during landing.

DISADVANTAGES:

¢ The weak point of this technique is that the observer needs to look through a half-mirror. The current system needs a half-mirror and project and implimentationors, which were fixed on the ground.

Conclusion :

Creating a truly realistic optical illusion would likely require Phase Array Optics,which would project and implimentation light of a specific amplitude and phase and therefore provide even greater levels of invisibility. The weak point of this technique is that the observer needs to look through a half-mirror. The current system needs a half-mirror and project and implimentationors, which were fixed on the ground. We may end up finding optical camouflage to be most useful in the environment of space, where any given background is generally less complex than earthly backdrops and therefore easier to record, process, and project and implimentation.

REFERENCES

¢ en.wikipediawiki/Optical_camouflage
¢ project and implimentations.star.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/project and implimentations/MEDIA/xv/oc.html
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26-08-2010, 09:55 AM

please mail me the entire report of opical camouflage includind block diagrams and everything as i have to present it by saturday...
thank you
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.doc   optical_camouflage.doc (Size: 355.5 KB / Downloads: 112)


Optical Camouflage




presented BY

B.V.Krishna Kowsic(I.T)
&
G.Hem Sagar(E.C.M)
FROM

KONERU LAKSHMAIAH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Vaddeswaram,Guntur Dist.


ABSTRACT:


Optical Camouflage delivers a similar experience to Harry Potter’s invisibility cloak, but using it requires a slightly more complicated arrangement. First, the person who want be invisible (let’s call his/her person A) dons a garment that resembles a hooded raincoat. The garment is made of a special material. Next, an observer (Person B) stands before a person A at a specific location. At that location, instead of seeing person A wearing a hooded raincoat, person B sees right through the cloak, making person A appear to be invisible. If person B were viewing from a slightly different location, he would simply see person A wearing a silver garment. Still, despite its limitations, this is a cool piece of technology.





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.pdf   OPTICAL CAMOUFLAGE.pdf (Size: 365.83 KB / Downloads: 227)
This article is presented by:
P SUDHEER KUMAR.
SIVA PRASAD PATRO
DEPARTMENT OF ECE
RAGHU ENGINEERING COLLEGE
VISAKHAPATNAM
OPTICAL CAMOUFLAGE

ABSTRACT
This paper describes a kind of active camouflage system named Optical Camouflage. Initially,Camouflage is made understood and then the theory of optical camouflage is developed.Optical Camouflage uses the Retro-reflective Projection Technology, a project and implimentationionbased augmented–reality system, composed of a project and implimentationor with a small iris and a retroreflective screen.The concept of optical camouflage is straightforward : to create the illusion of invisibility by covering an object with something that project and implimentations the scene directly behind that object. This system was conceived with the primary view in mind of concealing stationary or moving objects such as men, vehicles, or aircraft from view and has practical military, law enforcement, and security applications.

INTRODUCTION
Various methods have been proposed to integrate the visual space. In the field of Mixed Reality, one of the most popular topics is about displaying a virtual object into real world .However making objects virtually transparent, like in H.G. Wells’ “Invisible Man” can also be seen as dream of human being. In this paper, we describe what could be called a camouflage technique named Optical Camouflage.
Camouflage is the method which allows an otherwise visible organism or object to remain indiscernible from the surrounding environment. Examples include a tiger's stripes and PDF created the battledress of a modern soldier. Camouflage is a form of deception. The word camouflage comes from the French word 'camoufler' meaning 'to disguise'.

Natural camouflage : In nature, there is a strong evolutionary pressure for animals to blend into their environment or conceal their shape; for prey animals to avoid predators and for predators to be able to sneak up on prey. Natural camouflage is one method that animals use to meet these aims.
Military camouflage : These were intended to daunt the enemy, attract recruits, foster unit cohesion, allow easier identification of units in the fog of war.The British in India in 1857 were forced by casualties to dye their red tunics to neutral tones, initially a muddy tan called khaki. The United States was quick to follow the British, going khaki in the same year.Later in 20th century , digital camouflage patterns have been exprerimented on helicopters, battledresses & other vehicles. It is termed "digital" because much of the design was done on a computer and unlike other camouflage patterns, it is blocky and appears almost pixelated.

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please send me complete seminar and presentation report and slides of optical camouflage
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hi Rohisha,
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send me powerpoint slides of optical camouflage
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to get information about the topic optical camouflage full report ,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

topicideashow-to-optical-camouflage-a-seminar and presentation-report

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