Optical Switching
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computer science crazy
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21-09-2008, 10:28 AM


Explosive information demand in the internet world is creating enormous needs for capacity expansion in next generation telecommunication networks. It is expected that the data- oriented network traffic will double every year.

Optical networks are widely regarded as the ultimate solution to the bandwidth needs of future communication systems. Optical fiber links deployed between nodes are capable to carry terabits of information but the electronic switching at the nodes limit the bandwidth of a network. Optical switches at the nodes will overcome this limitation. With their improved efficiency and lower costs, Optical switches provide the key to both manage the new capacity Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) links as well as gain a competitive advantage for provision of new band width hungry services. However, in an optically switched network the challenge lies in overcoming signal impairment and network related parameters. Let us discuss the present status, advantages and challenges and future trends in optical switches.

A fiber consists of a glass core and a surrounding layer called the cladding. The core and cladding have carefully chosen indices of refraction to ensure that the photos propagating in the core are always reflected at the interface of the cladding. The only way the light can enter and escape is through the ends of the fiber. A transmitter either alight emitting diode or a laser sends electronic data that have been converted to photons over the fiber at a wavelength of between 1,200 and 1,600 nanometers.

Today fibers are pure enough that a light signal can travel for about 80 kilometers without the need for amplification. But at some point the signal still needs to be boosted. Electronics for amplitude signal were replaced by stretches of fiber infused with ions of the rare-earth erbium. When these erbium-doped fibers were zapped by a pump laser, the excited ions could revive a fading signal. They restore a signal without any optical to electronic conversion and can do so for very high speed signals sending tens of gigabits a second. Most importantly they can boost the power of many wavelengths simultaneously.

Now to increase information rate, as many wavelengths as possible are jammed down a fiber, with a wavelength carrying as much data as possible. The technology that does this has a name-dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM ) - that is a paragon of technospeak.Switches are needed to route the digital flow to its ultimate destination. The enormous bit conduits will flounder if the light streams are routed using conventional electronic switches, which require a multi-terabit signal to be converted into hundreds of lower-speed electronic signals. Finally, switched signals would have to be reconverted to photons and reaggregated into light channels that are then sent out through a designated output fiber.
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gagan gupta
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07-08-2010, 12:51 AM

Undecided:more info abt topic
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12-07-2012, 01:36 PM

can you please get me the ppt of optical switching with proper slides so that i can present it in my class
thank you
project girl

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12-12-2012, 06:47 PM

Optical Switching

.pptx   optical switch.pptx (Size: 441.04 KB / Downloads: 14)

The need for Optical Switching

High bit rate transmission must be matched by switching capacity
Optical or Photonic switching can provide such capacity

Switching In Optical Networks. Electronic switching

Most current networks employ electronic processing and use the optical fibre only as a transmission medium. Switching and processing of data are performed by converting an optical signal back to electronic form.
Electronic switches provide a high degree of flexibility in terms of switching and routing functions.
The speed of electronics, however, is unable to match the high bandwidth of an optical fiber (Given that fibre has a potential bandwidth of approximately 50 Tb/s – nearly four orders of magnitude higher than peak electronic data rates).
An electronic conversion at an intermediate node in the network introduces extra delay.
Electronic equipment is strongly dependent on the data rate and protocol (any system upgrade results in the addition/replacement of electronic switching equipment).

Network Applications

Protection switching
Optical Cross-Connect (OXC)
Optical Add/Drop Multiplexing (OADM)
Optical Spectral Monitoring (OSM)

Parameters of an Optical Switch

Switching time

Insertion loss: the fraction of signal power that is lost because of the switch. Usually measured in decibels and must be as small as possible. The insertion loss of a switch should be about the same for all input-output connections (loss uniformity).
Crosstalk: the ratio of the power at a specific output from the desired input to the power from all other inputs.
Extinction ratio: the ratio of the output power in the on-state to the output power in the off-state. This ratio should be as large as possible.
Polarization-dependent loss (PDL): if the loss of the switch is not equal for both states of polarization of the optical signal, the switch is said to have polarization-dependent loss. It is desirable that optical switches have low PDL.
Other parameters: reliability, energy usage, scalability (ability to build switches with large port counts that perform adequately), and temperature resistance.

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