PN-Junction Diode Characteristics ppt
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seminar surveyer
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22-01-2011, 01:52 PM

.ppt   1167.ppt (Size: 154.5 KB / Downloads: 300)

PN-Junction Diode Characteristics

Forward Bias --- External battery makes the Anode more positive than the Cathode --- Current flows in the direction of the arrow in the symbol.
Reverse Bias --- External battery makes the Cathode more positive than the Anode --- A tiny current flows opposite to the arrow in the symbol.

Series-Connected Diodes

Use 2 diodes in series to withstand higher reverse breakdown voltage.
Both diodes conduct the same reverse saturation current, Is.

Diode Characteristics
Due to differences between devices, each diode has a different voltage across it.
Would like to “Equalize” the voltages.

smart paper boy
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06-08-2011, 02:24 PM

.ppt   P-N JUNCTION DIODE.ppt (Size: 2.46 MB / Downloads: 230)

1. describe the electrical properties of semiconductors and distinguish between p-type and n-type material;
2. explain the formation of a depletion layer at a p-n junction;
3. discuss the flow of current when the p-n junction diode is forward-biased or reverse-biased;
4. discuss the I-V characteristic of the p-n junction diode.
5. use the diode for half-wave rectification;
6. use the bridge rectifier (4 diodes) for full-wave rectification;
7. represent half-wave and full-wave rectification graphically;
8. discuss the use of a capacitor for smoothing a rectified ac wave;
9. answer questions and solve problems regarding the topics mentioned above.
In the modern world no other technology permeates every nook and cranny of our existence as does electronics. The p-n junction is at the heart of this technology. Most electronics is silicon based, that is, the devices are made of silicon. Silicon wafers are subjected to special procedures which result in what is called p-type silicon material and n-type silicon material. Where these two types of materials meet we have a p-n junction. The physical characteristics of this junction are responsible for all the electronic wizardry we have become accustomed to. Televisions, radios, stereo equipment, computers, scanners, electronic control systems (in cars for example), all these have silicon based technology as there foundation.

Semiconductors are materials whose electrical conductivities are higher than those of insulators but lower that those of conductors.
Silicon, Germanium, Gallium, Arsenide, Indium, Antimonide and cadmium sulphide are some commonly used semiconductors.
Semiconductors have negative temperature coefficients of resistance, i.e. as temperature increases resistivity deceases.

Forbidden band small for semiconductors.
Less energy required for electron to move from valence to conduction band.
A vacancy (hole) remains when an electron leaves the valence band.
Hole acts as a positive charge carrier.
Both silicon and germanium are tetravalent, i.e. each has four electrons (valence electrons) in their outermost shell.
Both elements crystallize with a diamond-like structure, i.e. in such a way that each atom in the crystal is inside a tetrahedron formed by the four atoms which are closest to it.
Each atom shares its four valence electrons with its four immediate neighbours, so that each atom is involved in four covalent bonds.
At zero Kelvin all of the four valence electrons of each atom in the silicon crystal form part of the covalent bond with the four neighboring atoms.
The valence band is completely full and the conduction band completely empty.
The semiconductor behaves as a
perfect insulator because there are
no conducting electrons present.
At temperatures above zero Kelvin some of the valence electrons are able to break free from their bonds to become free conduction electrons.
The vacancy that is left behind is referred to as a hole. This hole is treated as a positive carrier of charge.
Conduction due solely to thermally
generated electron-hole pairs is
referred to as intrinsic conduction.
An electron leaves its bond in position 7 (see i) and occupies the vacancy in position 6 (see ii). Hence the hole effectively moves from position 6 to position 7.
A pure or intrinsic conductor has thermally generated holes and electrons. However these are relatively few in number. An enormous increase in the number of charge carriers can by achieved by introducing impurities into the semiconductor in a controlled manner. The result is the formation of an extrinsic semiconductor. This process is referred to as doping. There are basically two types of impurities: donor impurities and acceptor impurities. Donor impurities are made up of atoms (arsenic for example) which have five valence electrons. Acceptor impurities are made up of atoms (gallium for example) which have three valence electrons.
Arsenic has 5 valence electrons, however, only 4 of them form part of covalent bonds. The 5th electron is then free to take part in conduction.
The electrons are said to be the majority carriers and the holes are said to be the minority carriers.
Gallium has 3 valence electrons, however, there are 4 covalent bonds to fill. The 4th bond therefore remains vacant producing a hole.
The holes are said to be the majority carriers and the electrons are said to be the minority carriers.
On its own a p-type or n-type semiconductor is not very useful. However when combined very useful devices can be made.
The p-n junction can be formed by allowing a p-type material to diffuse into a n-type region at high temperatures.
The p-n junction has led to many inventions like the diode, transistors and integrated circuits.

The diffusion of electrons and holes stop due to the barrier p.d (p.d across the junction) reaching some critical value.
The barrier p.d (or the contact potential) depends on the type of semiconductor, temperature and doping densities.
At room temperature, typical values of barrier p.d. are:
Ge ~ 0.2 – 0.4 V
Si ~ 0.6 – 0.8 V
When an external voltage is applied to the P-N junction making the P side positive with respect to the N side the diode is said to be forward biased (F.B).
The barrier p.d. is decreased by the external applied voltage. The depletion band narrows which urges majority carriers to flow across the junction.
A F.B. diode has a very low resistance.
When an external voltage is applied to the PN junction making the P side negative with respect to the N side the diode is said to be Reverse Biased (R.B.).
The barrier p.d. increases. The depletion band widens preventing the movement of majority carriers across the junction.
A R.B. diode has a very high resistance.
Only thermally generated minority carriers are urged across the p-n junction. Therefore the magnitude of the reverse saturation current (or reverse leakage current) depends on the temperature of the semiconductor.
When the PN junction is reversed biased the width of the depletion layer increases, however if the reverse voltage gets too large a phenomenon known as diode breakdown occurs.
seminar flower
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03-09-2012, 04:06 PM



A p-n junction diode conducts only in one direction. The V-I characteristics of the diode are curve between voltage across the diode and current through the diode. When external voltage is zero, circuit is open and the potential barrier does not allow the current to flow. Therefore, the circuit current is zero. When P-type (Anode is connected to +ve terminal and n- type (cathode) is connected to –ve terminal of the supply voltage, is known as forward bias. The potential barrier is reduced when diode is in the forward biased condition. At some forward voltage, the potential barrier altogether eliminated and current starts flowing through the diode and also in the circuit. The diode is said to be in ON state. The current increases with increasing forward voltage.
When N-type (cathode) is connected to +ve terminal and P-type (Anode) is connected –ve terminal of the supply voltage is known as reverse bias and the potential barrier across the junction increases. Therefore, the junction resistance becomes very high and a very small current (reverse saturation current) flows in the circuit. The diode is said to be in OFF state. The reverse bias current due to minority charge carriers.

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