POWER SYSTEM STABILITY STUDIES USING MATLAB full report
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power system studies using matlab.pdf (Size: 3.66 MB / Downloads: 2,291) Presented By PRANAMITA BASU AISWARYA HARICHANDAN National Institute of Technology Rourkela Under the guidance of PROF. P.C. PANDA ABSTRACT The stability of an interconnected power system is its ability to return to normal or stable operation after having been subjected to some form of disturbance. With interconnected systems continually growing in size and extending over vast geographical regions, it is becoming increasingly more difficult to maintain synchronism between various parts of the power system. Â¢ In our project and implimentation we have studied the various types of stability steady state stability, transient state stability and the swing equation and its solution using numerical methods using MATLAB and Simulink . Â¢ We have presented the solution of swing equation for transient stability analysis using three different methods  PointbyPoint method, Modified Euler method and RungeKutta method. Â¢ Modern power systems have many interconnected generating stations, each with several generators and many loads. So our study is not limited to onemachine system but we have also studied multimachine stability. Â¢ We study the smallsignal performance of a machine connected to a large system through transmission lines. We gradually increase the model detail by accounting for the effects of the dynamics of the field circuit. We have analysed the smallsignal performance using eigen value analysis. Â¢ Further a more detailed transient stability analysis is done whereby the classical model is slightly improved upon by taking into account the effect of damping towards transient stability response. Characteristics of the various components of a power system during normal operating conditions and during disturbances have been examined, and effects on the overall system performance are analyzed. INTRODUCTION Successful operation of a power system depends largely on the engineer's ability to provide reliable and uninterrupted service to the loads. The reliability of the power supply implies much more than merely being available. Ideally, the loads must be fed at constant voltage and frequency at all times. The first requirement of reliable service is to keep the synchronous generators running in parallel and with adequate capacity to meet the load demand. Synchronous machines do not easily fall out of step under normal conditions. If a machine tends to speed up or slow down, synchronizing forces tend to keep it in step. Conditions do arise, however, such as a fault on the network, failure in a piece of equipment, sudden application of a major load such as a steel mill, or loss of a line or generating unit., in which operation is such that the synchronizing forces for one or more machines may not be adequate, and small impacts in the system may cause these machines to lose synchronism. A second requirement of reliable electrical service is to maintain the integrity of the power network. The highvoltage transmisssion system connects the generating stations and the load centers. Interruptions in this network may hinder the flow of power to the load. This usually requires a study of large geographical areas since almost all power systems are interconnected with neighboring systems. Random changes in load are taking place at all times, with subsequent adjustments of generation. We may look at any of these as a change from one equilibrium state to another. Synchronism frequently may be lost in that transition period, or growing oscillations may occur over a transmission line, eventually leading to its tripping. These problems must be studied by the power system engineer and fall under the heading "power system stability". Chapter 2 STUDY OF SWING EQUATION 2.1 STABILITY The tendency of a power system to develop restoring forces equal to or greater than the disturbing forces to maintain the state of equilibrium is known as "STABILITY'. The problem of interest is one where a power system operating under a steady load condition is perturbed, causing the readjustment of the voltage angles of the synchronous machines. If such an occurrence creates an unbalance between the system generation and load, it results in the establishment of a new steadystate operating condition, with the subsequent adjustment of the voltage angles. The perturbation could be a major disturbance such as the loss of a generator, a fault or the loss of a line, or a combination of such events. It could also be a small load or random load changes occurring under normal operating conditions. Adjustment to the new operating condition is called the transient period. The system behavior during this time is called the dynamic system performance, which is of concern in defining system stability. The main criterion for stability is that the synchronous machines maintain synchronism at the end of the transient period. So we can say that if the oscillatory response of a power system during the transient period following a disturbance is damped and the system settles in a finite time to a new steady operating condition, we say the system is stable. If the system is not stable, it is considered unstable. This primitive definition of stability requires that the system oscillations be damped. This condition is sometimes called asymptotic stability and means that the system contains inherent forces that tend to reduce oscillations. This is a desirable feature in many systems and is considered necessary for power systems. The definition also excludes continuous oscillation from the family of stable systems, although oscillators are stable in a mathematical sense. The reason is practical since a continually oscillating system would be undesirable for both the supplier and the user of electric power. Hence the definition describes a practical specification for an acceptable operating condition. The stability problem is concerned with the behavior of the synchronous machines after a disturbance. For convenience of analysis, stability problems are generally divided into two major categoriessteady state stability and transient state stability and transient state stability. CONCLUSION AND REFERENCES 8.1 CONCLUSION Thus we see that a twomachine system can be equivalently reduced to a one machine system connected to infinite bus bar. In case of a large multimachine system, to limit the computer memory and time requirements, the system is divided into a study subsystem and an external subsystem. The study subsystem is modeled in details whereas approximate modeling is carried out for the rest of the subsystem. The qualitative conclusions regarding system stability drawn from a twomachine or an equivalent onemachine infinite bus system can be easily extended to a multimachine system. It can be seen that transient stability is greatly affected by the type and location of a fault so that a power system analyst must at the very outset of a stability study decide on these two factors. For the case of onemachine system connected to infinite bus it can be seen that an increase in the inertia constant M of the machine reduces the angle through which it swings in a given time interval offering a method of improving stability. But this can not be employed in practice because of economic reasons and for the reason of slowing down of the response of the speedgovernor loop apart from an excessive rotor weight. For a given clearing angle, as the maximum power limit of the various power angles is raised, it adds to the transient stability limit of the system. The maximum steady power of a system can be increased by raising the voltage profile of a system and by reducing the transfer reactance. Thus we see that by considering the effect of rotor circuit dynamics we study the model in greater details. We have developed the expressions for the elements of the state matrix as explicit functions of system parameters. In addition to the statespace representation, we also use the block diagram representation to analyse the system stability characteristics. While this approach is not suited for a detailed study of large systems, it is useful in gaining a physical insight into the effects of field circuit dynamics and in establishing the basis for methods of enhancing stability through excitation control. We have explored a more detailed model for transient stability analysis taking into account the effect of damping which is clearly visible from the dynamic response of the system. We have included a damping factor in the original swing equation which accounts for the damping taking place at various points within the system. Our aim should be to improvise methods to increase transient stability. A stage has been reached in technology whereby the methods of improving stability have been pushed to their limits. With the trend to reduce machine inertias there is a constant need to determine availability, feasibility and applicability of new methods for maintaining and improving stability. 8.2 REFERENCES [I] Nagrath, I.J., and Kothari, D.P., Power System Engineering, New Delhi, Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Limited, l995. [2] Saadat, Hadi, Power System Analysis, New Delhi, Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Limited, 2002. [3] Wadhwa, C.L., Electrical Power Systems, New Delhi, New Age International publishers, 2005. [4] Yo, Yaonan, Electrical Power Systems Dynamics, Academic Press, New York, l983. [5] Anderson P.M., Analysis of Faulted Power Systems, IEEE Press, New York,l973. [6] ] Kundur Prabha, Power System Stability and Control, Tata McGrawHill, 2007. [7] W.D. Stevenson, Elements of Power System Analysis, 3rd Edition, McGrawHill,l975 [8] R.T. Byerly and E.W.Kimbark, Stability of Large Electric Power Systems, IEEE Press,l974 [9] E.R. Laithwaite and L.L.Freris, Electric Energy: Its Generation, Transmission and Use, McGrawHill (UK), l980 [l0] B.Stott, "Power System Dynamic Response Calculations", Proc IEEE, Vol.67, pp.2l024l, February l979 [II] N.Kakimoto, Y.Ohsawa, and M. Hayashi, "Transient Stability Analysis of Electric Power System Via Lure, Type Lyapunov Functions, Parts I and II," Trans. IEE of Japan, Vol.98, No.5l6, May/June l978 [l2] A.A. Fouad and S.E. Stanton, "Transient Stability of Multi machine Power System, Parts I and II," IEEE Trans., Vol. PASl00, pp. 34083424, July l98l Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion



diggi_777 Active In SP Posts: 3 Joined: Sep 2010 
12092010, 08:51 AM
can you give me the whole project and implimentation report of transient stability analysis of single machine system by rungekutta method in matlab



projectsofme Active In SP Posts: 1,124 Joined: Jun 2010 
07102010, 11:32 AM
This article is presented by:
Satish J Ranade Classical Analysis Equal Area Criterion Power System Dynamics and Transients
A generator connected to an infinite bus through a line. Initially Pm=PeStability is governed by the Swing Equation d2δ/dt2 = (πf/H) (PmPe) dδ /dt = ωωsyn Swing Equation Power Angle Equation Pe = E’ V sin (δ) /(X+XL) First swing stabilityEqual Area Criterion Stable Equilibrium—small increase in mechanical power At D ω is decreasing but > 0 δ increases further say to point E By now suppose ω is back to zero and decreasing Thus ω becomes < 0 as the generator continues to slow Since ω<0 δ decreases towards B First swing stable! For more information about this article,please follow the link: ece.nmsu.edu/~sranade/EE532_06_8.ppt 


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18102010, 12:53 PM
Recent Power Electronics upfc.pptx (Size: 51.91 KB / Downloads: 174) Recent Power Electronics/FACTS Installations toImprove Power System Dynamic Performance Introduction Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is used to control the power flow in the transmission systems by controlling the impedance, voltage magnitude and phase angle. This controller offers advantages in terms of static and dynamic operation of the power system. It also brings in new challenges in power electronics and power system design. The basic structure of the UPFC consists of two voltage source inverter (VSI); where one converter is connected in parallel to the transmission line while the other is in series with the transmission line. 


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18102010, 04:41 PM
POWER SYSTEM STABILITY Introduction Since the industrial revolution man's demand for and consumption of energy has increased steadily. The invention of the induction motor by Nikola Tesla in 1888 signaled the growing importance of electrical energy in the industrial world as well as its use for artificial lighting. A major portion of the energy needs of a modern society is supplied in the form of electrical energy. Industrially developed societies need an everincreasing supply of electrical power, and the demand on the North American continent has been doubling every ten years. Very complex power systems have been built to satisfy this increasing demand. The trend in electric power production is toward an interconnected network of transmission lines linking generators and loads into large integrated systems, some of which span entire continents. Indeed, in the United States and Canada, generators located thousands of miles apart operate in parallel. This vast enterprise of supplying electrical energy presents many engineering problems that provide the engineer with a variety of challenges. The planning, construction, and operation of such systems become exceedingly complex. Some of the problems stimulate the engineer's managerial talents; others tax his knowledge and experience in system design. The entire design must be predicated on automatic control and not on the slow response of human operators. To be able to predict the performance of such complex systems, the engineer is forced to seek ever more powerful tools of analysis and synthesis. This book is concerned with some aspects of the design problem, particularly the dynamic performance, of interconnected power systems. Characteristics of the various components of a power system during normal operating conditions and during disturbances will be examined, and effects on the overall system performance will be analyzed. Emphasis will be given to the transient behavior in which the system is described mathematically by ordinary differential equations. Requirements of a Reliable Electrical Power Service Successful operation of a power system depends largely on the engineer's ability to provide reliable and uninterrupted service to the loads. The reliability of the power supply implies much more than merely being available. Ideally, the loads must be fed at constant voltage and frequency at all times. In practical terms this means that both voltage and frequency must be held within close tolerances so that the consumer'sequipment may operate satisfactorily. For example, a drop in voltage of 1015% or a reduction of the system frequency of only a few hertz may lead to stalling of the motor loads on the system. Thus it can be accurately stated that the power system operator must maintain a very high standard of continuous electrical service. The first requirement of reliable service is to keep the synchronous generators running in parallel and with adequate capacity to meet the load demand. If at any time a generator loses synchronism with the rest of the system, significant voltage and current fluctuations may occur and transmission lines may be automatically tripped by their relays at undesired locations. If a generator is separated from the system, it must be resynchronized and then loaded, assuming it has not been damaged and its prime mover has not been shut down due to the disturbance that caused the loss of synchronism. Synchronous machines do not easily fall out of step under normal conditions. If a machine tends to speed up or slow down, synchronizing forces tend to keep it in step. Conditions do arise, however, in which operation is such that the synchronizing forces for one or more machines may not be adequate, and small impacts in the system may cause these machines to lose synchronism. A major shock to the system may also lead to a loss of synchronism for one or more machines. A second requirement of reliable electrical service is to maintain the integrity of the power network. The highvoltage transmisssion system connects the generating stations and the load centers. Interruptions in this network may hinder the flow of power to the load. This usually requires a study of large geographical areas since almost all power systems are interconnected with neighboring systems. Economic power as well as emergency power may flow over interconnecting tie lines to help maintain continuity of service. Therefore, successful operation of the system means that these lines must remain in service if firm power is to be exchanged between the areas of the system. For more information about this article,please follow the link: googleurl?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBUQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmedia.wiley.com%2Fproduct_data%2Fexcerpt%2F27%2F04712386%2F0471238627.pdf&ei=2yq8TOH6IYbJcb8vMwH&usg=AFQjCNG5jduzRJKEaGDFUd51_85C1pDg 


seminar class Active In SP Posts: 5,361 Joined: Feb 2011 
26022011, 11:26 AM
ram.doc (Size: 30 KB / Downloads: 131) POWER SYSTEM STABILITY STUDIES USING MATLAB ABSTRACT : The stability of an interconnected power system is its ability to return to normal or stable operation after having been subjected to some form of disturbance. With interconnected systems continually growing in size and extending over vast geographical regions, it is becoming increasingly more difficult to maintain synchronism between various parts of the power system. Â¢ In our project and implimentation we have studied the various types of stability steady state stability, transient state stability and the swing equation and its solution using numerical methods using MATLAB and Simulink . Â¢ We have presented the solution of swing equation for transient stability analysis using three different methods  PointbyPoint method, Modified Euler method and Runge[censored] method. Â¢ Modern power systems have many interconnected generating stations, each with several generators and many loads. So our study is not limited to onemachine system but we have also studied multimachine stability. Â¢ We study the smallsignal performance of a machine connected to a large system through transmission lines. We gradually increase the model detail by accounting for the effects of the dynamics of the field circuit. We have analysed the smallsignal performance using eigen value analysis. Â¢ Further a more detailed transient stability analysis is done whereby the classical model is slightly improved upon by taking into account the effect of damping towards transient stability response. Characteristics of the various components of a power system during normal operating conditions and during disturbances have been examined, and effects on the overall system performance are analyzed. INTRODUCTION Successful operation of a power system depends largely on the engineer's ability to provide reliable and uninterrupted service to the loads. The reliability of the power supply implies much more than merely being available. Ideally, the loads must be fed at constant voltage and frequency at all times. The first requirement of reliable service is to keep the synchronous generators running in parallel and with adequate capacity to meet the load demand. Synchronous machines do not easily fall out of step under normal conditions. If a machine tends to speed up or slow down, synchronizing forces tend to keep it in step. Conditions do arise, however, such as a fault on the network, failure in a piece of equipment, sudden application of a major load such as a steel mill, or loss of a line or generating unit., in which operation is such that the synchronizing forces for one or more machines may not be adequate, and small impacts in the system may cause these machines to lose synchronism. A second requirement of reliable electrical service is to maintain the integrity of the power network. The highvoltage transmisssion system connects the generating stations and the load centers. Interruptions in this network may hinder the flow of power to the load. This usually requires a study of large geographical areas since almost all power systems are interconnected with neighboring systems. Random changes in load are taking place at all times, with subsequent adjustments of generation. We may look at any of these as a change from one equilibrium state to another. Synchronism frequently may be lost in that transition period, or growing oscillations may occur over a transmission line, eventually leading to its tripping. These problems must be studied by the power system engineer and fall under the heading "power system stability". Chapter 2 STUDY OF SWING EQUATION 2.1 STABILITY The tendency of a power system to develop restoring forces equal to or greater than the disturbing forces to maintain the state of equilibrium is known as "STABILITY'. The problem of interest is one where a power system operating under a steady load condition is perturbed, causing the readjustment of the voltage angles of the synchronous machines. If such an occurrence creates an unbalance between the system generation and load, it results in the establishment of a new steadystate operating condition, with the subsequent adjustment of the voltage angles. The perturbation could be a major disturbance such as the loss of a generator, a fault or the loss of a line, or a combination of such events. It could also be a small load or random load changes occurring under normal operating conditions. Adjustment to the new operating condition is called the transient period. The system behavior during this time is called the dynamic system performance, which is of concern in defining system stability. The main criterion for stability is that the synchronous machines maintain synchronism at the end of the transient period. So we can say that if the oscillatory response of a power system during the transient period following a disturbance is damped and the system settles in a finite time to a new steady operating condition, we say the system is stable. If the system is not stable, it is considered unstable. This primitive definition of stability requires that the system oscillations be damped. This condition is sometimes called asymptotic stability and means that the system contains inherent forces that tend to reduce oscillations. This is a desirable feature in many systems and is considered necessary for power systems. The definition also excludes continuous oscillation from the family of stable systems, although oscillators are stable in a mathematical sense. The reason is practical since a continually oscillating system would be undesirable for both the supplier and the user of electric power. Hence the definition describes a practical specification for an acceptable operating condition. The stability problem is concerned with the behavior of the synchronous machines after a disturbance. For convenience of analysis, stability problems are generally divided into two major categoriessteady state stability and transient state stability and transient state stability. 8.1 CONCLUSION Thus we see that a twomachine system can be equivalently reduced to a one machine system connected to infinite bus bar. In case of a large multimachine system, to limit the computer memory and time requirements, the system is divided into a study subsystem and an external subsystem. The study subsystem is modeled in details whereas approximate modeling is carried out for the rest of the subsystem. The qualitative conclusions regarding system stability drawn from a twomachine or an equivalent onemachine infinite bus system can be easily extended to a multimachine system. It can be seen that transient stability is greatly affected by the type and location of a fault so that a power system analyst must at the very outset of a stability study decide on these two factors. For the case of onemachine system connected to infinite bus it can be seen that an increase in the inertia constant M of the machine reduces the angle through which it swings in a given time interval offering a method of improving stability. But this can not be employed in practice because of economic reasons and for the reason of slowing down of the response of the speedgovernor loop apart from an excessive rotor weight. For a given clearing angle, as the maximum power limit of the various power angles is raised, it adds to the transient stability limit of the system. The maximum steady power of a system can be increased by raising the voltage profile of a system and by reducing the transfer reactance. Thus we see that by considering the effect of rotor circuit dynamics we study the model in greater details. We have developed the expressions for the elements of the state matrix as explicit functions of system parameters. In addition to the statespace representation, we also use the block diagram representation to analyse the system stability characteristics. While this approach is not suited for a detailed study of large systems, it is useful in gaining a physical insight into the effects of field circuit dynamics and in establishing the basis for methods of enhancing stability through excitation control. We have explored a more detailed model for transient stability analysis taking into account the effect of damping which is clearly visible from the dynamic response of the system. We have included a damping factor in the original swing equation which accounts for the damping taking place at various points within the system. Our aim should be to improvise methods to increase transient stability. A stage has been reached in technology whereby the methods of improving stability have been pushed to their limits. With the trend to reduce machine inertias there is a constant need to determine availability, feasibility and applicability of new methods for maintaining and improving stability 


lokesh kumar mannu Active In SP Posts: 1 Joined: Feb 2011 
27022011, 08:49 AM
please send me some new topic about mini project and implimentation.



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14052011, 11:23 PM
aoa kindly send me link 0f further iformation and matlab code of power system stability and transiet analysis.



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16072011, 03:38 PM
PRESENTED BY
RAHUL VISWAM SHILPA.K.M SIJIN SIVADASAN SREEDEVI.K.P SREEDEVI MADHAVAN POWER SYSTEM STABILITY DESIGN_4trtretytrfyty_2.pptx (Size: 426.43 KB / Downloads: 80) introduction Stability : Ability to return to normal or stable operation Transient stability: Ability to remain stable for large disturbance . Determines whether or not synchronism is maintained. Disturbances: Switching of heavy loads Switching of long transmission line Change in speeds of rotor Changes in power angle Loss of large loads. Need for power flow studies Involves determination of 1. magnitude and phase angle of voltage at each bus. 2. active and reactive power flow Give information about line and transformer loads. Necessary for planning, economic scheduling, future expansion and control of existing system Types of buses Load Bus (PQ bus) A bus without any generators connected to it. the real power and reactive power are known. Generator Bus (PV bus) a bus with at least one generator connected to it the real power generated PG and the voltage magnitude V is known. Slack Bus (VQ bus) one arbitrarilyselected bus that has a generator. the only bus at which the system reference phase angle is defined Problem description GaussSeidel method Iterative algorithm for obtaining load flow solution. Repeats till the solution converges within the accuracy Equations used in GS method: Magnitude of voltage, Vp(k+1)=1/Ypp [ (PpjQp)/(Vpk) ∑Ypq Vq(k+1)∑Ypq Vqk ] Phase angle of voltage, p(k+1) = tan1 [Im. Part of Vp(k+1) /Re part of Vp(k+1) ] Introduction to matlab Refers to Mathematical Laboratory. Numerical computing environment. fourthgeneration programming language. Developed by MathWorks. Simulink adds graphical multidomain simulation and ModelBased Design for dynamic and embedded systems. Allows interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, Java, and Fortran. Power flow programs – HadI SAADAT TOOL BOX Program for GS method is lfgauss : designed for direct use of load and generation in MW and Mvar, busvoltage in p.u and angle in degree. lfybus : converts impedence to admittance busout : produces bus output result in tabulated form lineflow : designed to display active and reactive power flow. eacfault : for obtaining power angle curve before,during ,after the fault clearence. problem Design a configuration plan for power system in Happy Island shown in figures below. Run load flow for transmission system that is designed. Using suitable software program conduct the power flow analysis of system. Analyze the transient stability when there is a transient fault in the midpoint of the line between buses 3 and 4. location System description Numbers 1 to 5 represents the load generation points. The bus data in table 1 list values for P,Q and V at each bus for base case. Parameters of all power generation and capacitor in table 2. The transmission lines length from point to point in the system in table 3. Transmission line parameters in table 4. Voltage limit of ±5% of normal and thermal limits of 100MVA for all lines. PROBLEM ANALYSIS Basemva=100; accuracy=0.001; accel=1.8; maxiter=100; % 5BUS TEST SYSTEM (American Electric Power) % Bus Bus Voltage Angle Load Generator Static Mvar % No code Mag. Degree MW Mvar MW Mvar Qmin Qmax +Qc/Ql busdata= [ 1 1 1.04 0.0 65.0 30.0 0.0 0.0 999 999 40 2 0 1.0 0.0 115.0 65.0 0.0 0.0 60 150 0 3 2 1.02 0.0 70.0 40.0 180.0 0.0 20 50 0 4 0 1.0 0.0 85.0 40.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 5 0 1.0 0.0 70.0 30.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 ]; % Line code % Bus bus R X 1/2 B 1 for lines % nl nr p.u. p.u. p.u. > 1 or < 1 tr. tap at bus nl linedata= [ 1 2 0.042 0.167 0.0 1 1 3 0.026 0.104 0.0 1 1 4 0.133 0.531 0.0 1 1 5 0.013 0.125 0.0 1 2 3 0.013 0.125 0.0 1 2 4 0.115 0.4602 0.0 1 2 5 0.08397 0.335 0.0 1 3 4 0.08391 0.3346 0.0 1 3 5 0.0525 0.209 0.0 1 4 5 0.0629 0.2509 0.0 1 ]; lfybus % form the bus admittance matrix lfgauss % Load flow solution by GaussSeidel method busout % Prints the power flow solution on the screen lineflow % Computes and displays the line flow and losses RESULT Line Flow and Losses Line Power at bus & line flow Line loss Transformer from to MW Mvar MVA MW Mvar tap 1 167.888 167.248 236.977 2 60.463 46.521 76.289 2.260 8.986 3 17.262 45.673 48.827 0.573 2.292 4 26.015 18.816 32.106 1.268 5.061 5 64.128 56.450 85.435 0.877 8.436 2 115.000 65.000 132.098 1 58.203 37.534 69.256 2.260 8.986 3 60.339 26.166 65.768 0.631 6.066 4 7.677 3.741 8.540 0.094 0.377 5 4.194 5.286 6.748 0.043 0.171 Line Power at bus & line flow Line loss Transformer from to MW Mvar MVA MW Mvar tap 3 110.000 7.553 110.259 1 16.689  43.381 46.481 0.573 2.292 2 60.969 32.232 68.965 0.631 6.066 4 34.277 14.702 37.297 1.191 4.749 5 31.517 4.161 31.791 0.541 2.155 4 85.000  40.000 93.941 1 24.747 13.755 28.313 1.268 5.061 2 7.583 3.365 8.296 0.094 0.377 3 33.086 9.953 34.551 1.191 4.749 5 19.593 12.817 23.412 0.410 1.635 Line Power at bus & line flow Line loss Transformer from to MW Mvar MVA MW Mvar tap 5 70.000 30.000 76.158 1 63.251 48.015 79.411 0.877 8.436 2 4.237 5.457 6.909 0.043 0.171 3 30.976 2.006 31.041 0.541 2.155 4 20.002 14.452 24.677 0.410 1.635 Total loss 7.888 39.926 Calculation of transient stability EI Xt=0.2 1 XL1 =0.515 2 V=1.0 З Xid =0.3 XL2 =0.335 PROGRAM: Pm =0.8; E=1.17; V=1.0; X1=0.76; X2=1.8; X3=0.76; eacfault(Pm ,E ,V, X1, X2, X3) RESULT To find tc enter Inertia Constant H, (or 0 to skip) H = 5 Initial power angle = 31.309 Maximum angle swing = 148.691 Critical clearing angle = 77.863 Critical clearing time = 0.232 sec. 


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