Parasitic computing
Thread Rating:
  • 0 Vote(s) - 0 Average
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
Electrical Fan
Active In SP

Posts: 438
Joined: Aug 2009
10-09-2009, 05:38 PM

Parasitic computing refers to the technique of using the resources of one computer by another computer without the knowledge of the former . Distributed computing networks turn home users™ computers into part of a virtual super computer that can perform time-intensive operations. cont¦ Parasitic computing uses computation power of the computers connected to the internet in solving complex mathematical problem. Eg: Traveling salesman problem satisfiability problem theory To solve problems Generate large number of candidate solutions. Send the solutions to destination node. Test the candidates for their adequacy. If result is true, the solution is valid. else drop. The result from each were used to build a solution. cont¦ The mathematical problem is split into a large number of simple logic problems. They tag a logic problem onto check sum. Web server would process the request. If the check sum is false, then server would not respond to the request. The whole result combine to form the result of the mathematical problem. cont¦ The target nodes are answering logical questions without knowing of doing so. This does not violate the security of the unknowing server. Potential candidate protocol include TCP,HTTP, or encryption/decryption with secure socket layer. how to trick other computer™s? NIF ALU NIF ALU NIF ALU levels of communication Parasite node VALID Target web server HTTP TCP IP Network DROP HTTP TCP IP Network cont¦ A single parasite node coordinates the computations occurring remotely in the internet protocols. Each target node consist of Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) Network InterFace (NIF) A single home parasite initiates the computation, sends messages to the targets directing them to test and tabulates the result. Checksum computation Information sent across the internet is split it into small chunks, or packets, that travel-often independently of each other-to their destination. Each packet bears a header that contains Source address Destination address A numerical value related to the packet™s content When a computer receives a packet, it checks for errors by performing a calculation and comparing the result with the numerical value in the packet™s header. key Component establishing a TCP connection cont¦ A connection is established with 3 messages, “ The initiator sends a SYN to a remote node. “ If the remote node is willing to accept a new connection, it responds with a SYN/ACK message. “ Finally, the initiator sends an ACK message. computing with TCP checksum The message received by the target server contains an IP header a TCP header a candidate solution cont¦ Is a + b equal to c??? The checksum value in a TCP packet is determined by c. The data contains 16 bit words a and b. If a + b! =c, then TCP rejects the segment. A message is valid only if a + b=c. cont¦ The targeted computers are various web servers physically located in North America, Europe, and Asia. There is no negative acknowledgement. The sender will keep a copy of the message. In distributed system, it is not possible to distinguish between a lost message and delayed message. So a message is assumed to lost after some time out period. checksum computation The sender breaks the message consisting of N bits into 16 bit words. The K words are added together using binary arithmetic. The sender then performs a bit-wise complement on the checksum. The sender incorporates the complement of the checksum into the header of the message. cont¦ The receiving computer again breaks the received message into 16-bit segments and add them together. The checksum obtained by the receiver has to be 1111111111111111. If any bit along the message has been corrupted during transmission, the checksum obtained by the target will be different from all ones, in which case target drops the message. a N bits s1 s2 S1 Sk + + b S2 Sk sump 1110101011011011 0001010100100100 S2 = SUM p c sump sum p Create a new message of length N+16 s1 SUM T sk +S1+S2+¦..+Sk : : Message correct To HTTP d IF SUM = 1111111111111111 othrwise Message corrupt drop 2-SAT Problem cont¦ The 2-SAT problem involves 16 variables and the operations AND and XOR. In order to get a TRUE answer for P, each clause shown in separate parentheses needs to be independently TRUE. To evaluate the vale of we generate a 32 bit message M that contains all 16 variables, each preceded by a zero. TCP groups the bits in two 16 bit segments and add them together. The sum can have 4 outcomes. cont¦ If the clause has an XOR operator, is true only when the checksum is (01). If the clause has an AND operator, is true only when the checksum is (10). To turn a package into parasitic message the parasitic node prepares a package, preceded by a checksum, and continued by a 32 bit sequence(S1,S2). algorithm S=create TCP segment S. checksum = checksum For each x S. pad= pad with zeros (x) send S receive answer if answer=true write x is a solution implementation There are several ways to implement the basic algorithm. concurrency: Each concurrent computation requires a separate a TCP connection to http host. connection reuse: Before a TCP connection can be used, it must be established. Once established TCP segments can be sent to remote host. how it differs from others? In cluster computing, many computers pool in their resources willingly. Parasitic computing does not require the willingness of any target machine. In cluster computing, special softwares are needed. Here not needed. features Parasitic computing theoretically offers the chance to use the vast computational power of the whole internet. Several large computational problems can be solved by engaging various web servers physically located in different parts of the world, each of which unknowingly participated in the experiment. cont¦ Ethically challenging alternative for cluster computing, as it uses resources without consent of the computer™s owner Parasitic computing does not compromise the security of the targeted servers, and access only those parts of the servers that have been made explicitly available for Internet Communication problems For parasites Several computational cycles are taken to process the possible solutions Possibility of false negatives Possibility of false positives problems For servers Delays due to processing the parasitic messages could cause a denial of service Almost impossible to prevent someone from running a parasitic job on your server history Parasitic computing was developed by the scientist at the Notre Dame University, Indiana(USA). First Reported in journal ˜Nature™ in 2001 by Barabasi, Freech, Feong and Brockman. future Enabling all the computers to swap information and services they are needed could lead to unparalleled emergent behavior, drastically altering the current use of the internet. summary Parasitic computing moves computation onto what is logically the communication infrastructure of the internet, blurring the distinction between computing and communication. The current internet infrastructure permits one computer to instruct other computer to perform computational tasks that are beyond the target™s immediate scope
Use Search at wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
seminar paper
Active In SP

Posts: 6,455
Joined: Feb 2012
05-03-2012, 11:13 AM

to get information about the topic PARASITIC COMPUTING full report ppt and related topic refer the link bellow

seminar and presentationproject and implimentationsattachment.php?aid=203


seminar and presentationproject and implimentationsattachment.php?aid=202





Important Note..!

If you are not satisfied with above reply ,..Please


So that we will collect data for you and will made reply to the request....OR try below "QUICK REPLY" box to add a reply to this page

Quick Reply
Type your reply to this message here.

Image Verification
Please enter the text contained within the image into the text box below it. This process is used to prevent automated spam bots.
Image Verification
(case insensitive)

Possibly Related Threads...
Thread Author Replies Views Last Post
  difference between soc and aoc in mobile computing jaseelati 0 341 20-12-2014, 01:12 PM
Last Post: jaseelati
  Cloud Computing abstract seminar tips 4 5,292 20-06-2014, 03:40 PM
Last Post:
  Towards Secure and Dependable Storage Services in Cloud Computing FULL REPORT seminar ideas 5 4,152 24-03-2014, 02:51 PM
Last Post: seminar project topic
  Introduction to Cloud Computing project uploader 4 4,675 22-03-2014, 05:27 PM
Last Post: navasfiroz
  Green computing; balancing energy in processing, storage, and Transport PPT seminar projects maker 0 520 26-09-2013, 04:09 PM
Last Post: seminar projects maker
  Report on Autonomic Computing  seminar projects maker 0 419 19-09-2013, 04:44 PM
Last Post: seminar projects maker
  Perceptive Computing ppt seminar projects maker 0 342 19-09-2013, 04:11 PM
Last Post: seminar projects maker
  Mobile Learning (mLearning) Based on Cloud Computing: mLearning as a Service (mLaaS) seminar projects maker 0 472 11-09-2013, 03:40 PM
Last Post: seminar projects maker
  Pervasive Computing: Vision and Challenges pdf study tips 0 417 14-08-2013, 02:58 PM
Last Post: study tips
  Green Cloud Computing in Developing Regions pdf study tips 0 457 12-08-2013, 04:59 PM
Last Post: study tips