Personal Protection
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08-01-2011, 09:36 AM


ABSTRACT

In this present situation personal protection is an important factor. Although the primary approaches in any safety effort is the correction of the physical environment so that unwanted events cannot occur. It is sometimes necessary for economic or other expeditious reasons to safeguard personnel by equipping them individually with specialized personal protective equipment.

This seminar and presentation deals with some personal protections, Eye, Face Protection, Finger, Hand, Arm, Foot and Leg Protection, Noise Safeguards and Respiratory Protective Equipments etc…


.doc   personal protection.doc (Size: 2.64 MB / Downloads: 76)

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION
2. EYE PROTECTION
3. FACE AND EYE PROTECTION
4. FINGER, HAND, AND ARM PROPTECTION
5. FOOT AND LEG PROTECTION
6. NOISE SAFEGUARDS
7. RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
7.1 Selection of respiratory protective devices
7.2 Types of respiratory protective devices
8. CONCLUSION
9. REFERENCE

1. INTRODUCTION

Although the primary approaches in any safety effort is the correction of the physical environment so that unwanted events cannot occur. It is sometimes necessary for economic or other expeditious reasons to safeguard personnel by equipping them individually with specialized personal protective equipment.

For example, in machine shop it would be desirable to remove all sources of cause of flying particles so that possibility of eye injuries would be reduced to zero or, at worst, to a very insignificant degree. However in many machine shop situations it is either too expensive or otherwise not immediately practical to accomplish this objective satisfactorily. It may be necessary therefore, to protect the eye protection equipment. In other instances, it is practically impossible to devise a safe working procedure that can assure there will be no chance of avoidable injury. For example, in construction work there is the possibility of a hand tool, rivet or similarly relatively heavy object’s falling from an elevated level and striking the head of a person working below. It is necessary, therefore, that construction workers wear protective headgear.

It should be recognized that the use of personal protective equipment is an important and necessary consideration in the development of a safety program. However, since personal protection equipment must be relied on to a certain degree, occasionally there is a temptation to employ its use without first attempting to investigate thoroughly the possible methods of correcting the unsafe physical conditions. This results in substituting personal protective devices in place of safety engineering methods to correct the hazardous environment.


2. EYE PROTECTION

Specific equipment for protection against the possibility of the eyes being struck by hard, small objects exposed to irritant vapors; splashed by liquid irritants ; and irritated from exposure to radiant energy, such as the ultraviolet rays produced by the striking of an electrical arc in electrical welding operations, is available.

In general, protective eye equipment should fit comfortably and offer a maximum amount of protection to the eye. For example, protection against flying particle would require that the eye equipment fit closely around the eye socket, but ventilation holes are provided in appropriate places to keep the goggles will vary; in one case a wire mesh covering is used in place of glass lens because of its increased capacity for ventilation. However, if the exposure were to irritating vapors, it would be necessary for the protective device not only to fit snugly around the eye socket but to be so completely enclosed that the vapors in the air could not make contact with the eye.

Materials used in construction of a protective eye equipment should be non corrosive, easily cleaned, in many cases nonflammable, and the transparent portion should give the widest; possible field of vision without any appreciable distortion or prism effect.

In certain operations, such as welding or working on grinding wheels, the safety glass lenses will quite often become pitted. In order to protect the hardened safety lenses and to keep their visibility at a high level, it is desirable to place a disposable cover lens (a lens of thin glass or plastic) on the outside surface of the hardened safety glass.


Persons who must wear goggles while working in many surroundings and under humid conditions may be hampered and annoyed by the fogging of the lenses. In addition to designing the goggles that a maximum amount of ventilation reaches the inside of each lens, fogging may be further delayed or reduced to some degree by the use of antifogging compounds which the wearer spreads over the inside of the lens.

For protection against visible glare and radiant energy, such as ultraviolet, it is necessary that the filter lenses be used. The eye equipment should be fitted with opaque side4 shields in order to reduce the possibility of light being transmitted to the eye through the side and from the back of the lenses. Where conditions are such that there may be exposure to spattering materials or flying particles in addition to the visible glare or radiant energy, a heavy- duty , cup-type Google fitted with safety tempered filter lenses should be specified. There is a wide assortment of eye protection equipment available, each possessing certain advantages for suitable applications.

Types of eye protection equipment

TYPES DESCRIPTION
Goggle



Cover goggle
Anatomically shaped eyecups held close to the eye socket by means of an elastic headband

Transparent plastic covers which fit well out from the eyes, allowing the wearing of corrective or filter spectacles underneath. Tinted plastic may be obtained for use in operations where the sunlight is strong or where there is excessive illumination.



Antiglare-radiant energy




Chemical






Combination






Dust





Head frame





Chemical vapour





Wire mesh

Protects against glare, injurious light rays, flying sparks and scale-used in the following operations: acetylene welding and cutting, burning, brazing, electric arc and open-health furnace operation, electric arc welding and carbon arc welding.

Constructed of corrosion-resistant materials into, which are set lenses, which are resistant to impact. Uses side shields with indirect ventilation-protects against splash and spray from any direction. Used for such operations as handling acid or caustics and in picking, plating, galvanizing, and so on.

Have two sets of lenses, one protecting against glare, the other against impact. The impact lenses are mounted directly in the eyecups, while the antiglare lenses are hinged over them so that they can be raised or lowered as desired. Used in welding and foundry works.

Constructed with special screens for ventilation so as to safeguard the eyes from all directions against dust powder and small flying particles. Used in woodworking, scaling, grinding of metals, dressing of non-quartz stone.

Designed for convenience for welders, grinders, chippers and others whose work requires frequent removal of eye protection for inspection work. Lenses of either the impact or antiglare type are used, depending upon circumstances.

Lenses are molded into a rubber frame, which fits snugly around the contours of the upper face. No ventilation is provided, and goggle, therefore, offers protection against gases, fumes or vapors. Used for acid handling, dipping and japanning operations.

The eyes are covered and protected by a strong wire mesh screen, which permits much better ventilation than a perforated side shield and thereby reduces fogging. Used in mines and tanneries and other operations where there is extreme humidity and relatively high temperatures.

3. FACE AND EYE PROTECTION


In some operations it is necessary to choose protection that will cover the entire face, and in certain instances it is required that the face protection be sufficiently heavy flying particles. The face shields are generally suspended from a hand band and may be hinged so that they can raised or lowered as desired. In most instances the protective materials is plastic specifications should require that the plastic be nonflammable and that its surfaces should be relatively to being scratched during normal usage.

There are several types of protective equipment for the face and eyes welders’ helmets are special protection against the splashing of molten metal and from the radiation produced by the welding operation. Such helmets should be made of materials that will insulate against heat and electricity and will not readily burn (metallic shields are undesirable for they will heat up as they absorb the radiation from the welding operations). The shields should encompass the faces sufficiently far on each side so that the ears are protected also.

Hoods are a type of face and eye protection used in highly specialized situations. The hood is made of materials impervious to the conditions that present the hazard, and a window is fitted in front of the hood through which the wearer sees. Operations that involve the handling of highly caustic chemicals or exposure to great heat, such as fire fighting, require the use of such hoods.



4. FINGER, HAND, AND ARM PROTECTION

About one third of the occupational disabling injuries that occur in the nation annually involve the fingers, hands and arms; and their cost is almost 20 percent of the total compensation paid in the United States. Because of the apparent vulnerability of the fingers, hands and arms, the use of protective apparels is often required. Manufactures offer a wide variety of such equipment to suit many specialized occupations but the most common type is the glove or some adaptation of it.

In general, it should be remembered the gloves are not recommended for operators working around rotating machinery, because the glove is apt to be caught in the spinning parts and pull the worker’s hand into the machine. Gloves should be carefully selected for specific operations and protection of the product should not be secured at the cost of hazard to employ.





Finger, Hand and Arm Protective Equipment.

TYPE DESCRIPTION

Finger cots or stalls










Gloves –band cuff




Guard cuff
Asbestos



Fabric



Leather


Metal

Plastic



Individual finger or thump protectors for protection for two or more working fingers from heat, rough or sharp edges, and irritating substances in general. Cots can be obtained made from asbestos; fire- resistant duck; oil, chemical; or water-resistant coated fabric; leather. The finger cot has proven useful, particularly in operations involving edged tools, such as fish and meat boning in butcheries and canneries, where the metal mesh finger cot is the most common type

Offers complete protection of the hand and have a snugly fitting wristband so as to prevent materials from slipping down inside the glove.


A cuff guarding the lower forearm, to provide protection against sustained radiant heat and also flames and sparks- used by men working around molten metals, furnaces, and fires.

Wool, felt or cotton duck base usually reinforced with leather, rubber, or steel-stapled leather patches-used protect against cuts and bruises.

Used to keep dirt dust and hot metal from entering workers’ gloves.

Used by workers engaged in heavy operations; such as lifting, crating and packing materials.

A cuff made to resist penetration by water, oil, and certain chemicals.





5. FOOT AND LEG PROTECTION

The common foot protection employed in industry is metal toe box safety shoe. The standards call for shoe of sturdy, solid constructions with a steel toe box flanged at the bottom and resting on the sole of the shoe. It must be able to support a static load and an impact load, according to the prescribed testing procedure.

Shoes with metal tae boxes are made for a wide variety of work situations. For example, a department supervisor may select a dressy type of safety show that would be difficult to differentiate from any other well-made dress show, while such employees as foundry workers can obtain special shoes which fit snugly around the upper ankle but may be slipped off quickly in order to protect the wearer from the possibility of burns from hot metal entering the shoe.

TYPE DESCRIPTION
Boots







Duck ( fire- resistant)





Fabric (impervious to specific chemicals)



Leather






Asbestos



Guards



Foot


Foot and shin



Heel and ankle




Shin




Protection either knee, three- fourths or full hip-length rubber boots are generally worn to protect the lower leg against continual wetting or chemicals and acids. In situations where there also is the possibility of heavy objects falling on the toes, rubber boots are obtainable with a built – in safety toe and are used in such operations as mining and electroplating.

Where the heat hazard is not so great as in cases where asbestos chaps are worn, chaps made of fire resistant duck are used. Such jobs as light assembly bench work and so on may require the use of chaps made of this material.

Chaps of plastic materials or specially treated fabrics are available for protection a wide variety of compounds (i.e. solvents, alkalis, acids, oils, and water).

Chaps of leather may be used in such occupations as welding punch and drill press operation, rough materials handling, grinding or in any other job situation where sparks, the splashing of hot metals, flying particles or rough or sharp objects present a hazard to the lower limbs.

Chaps of asbestos are worn by workers exposed to sparks, hot metal, small bursts of flame, and heat conditions occurring close to the legs.

Various types of special guarding equipment for the foot and skin, heel and ankle, or shin itself are available.

A steel protection tat covers the toes and upper part of the foot.

This type of guard is somewhat the same as the foot guard, but it has an added metallic protection for the shin and ankles.

A protective metal shield designed to extend backward from each side of the show, around the heel, to prevent the striking of the heel by material handling equipment and heavy objects.

Generally a heavy fiber material made to conform to the shape of the front of the leg and strapped by fastenings behind the leg. It is ordinarily used by the workers in material handling, heavy – machine operating, and meat packing jobs and is designed to protect against flying chips, heavy impact, hot sparks, and sharp objects.



6. NOISE SAFEGUARDS

Sounds are heard when variations of sufficient magnitude occur in normal atmospheric pressure. The variations reach the ear as pressure differences and are transmitted by the auditory mechanism to the brain, where they are given intelligence, safeguarding against unwanted sound (noise) that exceeds the permissible noise exposure levels is accomplished preferably by reducing the noise at its source. This usually involves engineering applications that eliminate or reduce the sound by removing the cause or by reducing the transmission effects with appropriate sound barriers.



7. RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

Where industrial processes create atmospheric contaminants, which may be hazardous to the health of workers, the first consideration always should be the application of engineering measures to control the contaminants. In some cases, such as the following situations, engineering control measures are not practical and workers should there fore be supplied with personal respiratory protective equipment.

Emergency situations (where personnel are exposed to concentrations of contaminates which have a rapid, harmful effect on life or health after only comparatively short periods). Protective devices should give complete respiratory protection with for safeguarding the wearers against even a momentary failure of the device during exposure to the dangerous atmosphere.

Nonemergency situations, generally involving normal or routine operations exposing workers to atmospheres that do not have a rapid , dangerous effect upon life or health but will produce chronic illness, pronounced discomfort, or permanent physical damage or death after prolonged or repeated exposures.

7.1 Selection of respiratory protective devices

A wide variety of types of respiratory protective equipment is offered by manufactures. Each type is suitable for one or more applications. It is necessary, therefore, that an orderly method of determining the type of device to be used should be employed. A recommended procedure for deciding on the type of respiratory protective equipment required is as follows:
1. What is the name of the contaminant to be guarded against?

2. What are its chemical, physical, and toxicological properties?

3. Is it immediately dangerous to life (emergency situations) or is it injurious only after prolonged and continued exposure (non emergency situations)?

4. What are the limiting factors of the jobs being performed by the personnel (i.e., must workers be free in their movements; how long would the device have to be worn per day)?
5. After consideration of all factors, select the type or types of respirators that would satisfy.


7.2 Types of respiratory protective devices

1. Chemical cartridge respirators may be considered to be low- capacity gas masks. They consist of a face piece, which is attached directly a small replaceable filter- chemical cartridge. These respirators are intended for situations that are not critical, in atmospheres that may be breathed without protection but which will cause discomfort or chronic poisoning when breathed for prolonged or repeated periods. They should not be used in atmospheres containing more that 0.1 percent of the contaminant by volume.
Usual uses for this types of respiratory protective equipment protective equipment have been in occupations where there is exposure to the vapors of solvents such as are found in spray coating, degreasing, dry cleaning and where there may be a low concentration of acid gases as are found when smelting sulfide ores
2. Gas masks generally consist of a faceplate that fits over the eyes, nose and mouth and that is connected by flexible tube to a canister containing the chemical; absorbent which protects against a specific vapors or gas or groups of vapors gases. The device is essentially used in emergency situations.
It is possible to secure to secure gas masks for protection against any of the presently know operation against any of the presently know harmful gases or vapors encountered in industrial operations. However, gas masks should not be used where concentration of contaminants exceed 2 percent by volume for acid gases, organic vapors and carbon monoxide and 3 percent by volume for ammonia.
3. Mechanical;-filter respirators are nonemergency devices used to protect the wearer by filtering a portion of the contaminant out the air as it is breathed. The device usually consist of a face piece, which covers the mouth and nose, and to which is attached a filter element in the form of bags, cylinders, or discs arranged so that the air as it is inhaled must pass through the filter substance.
4. Slef-contained breathing apparatus, enabling the wearer to be independent of any outside source of air, in as much as the device provided oxygen either from compressed air or oxygen cylinder or by chemical action in the canister attached to the apparatus. This equipment is generally used for emergency situations and may be operable for periods between one-half and two hours. It will protect in situation where there are gases vapors dusts, fumes smoke and mist.
5. the hose mask with blower , a device consisting of a tight- fitting face piece which covers the eyes, nose and mouth and which is attached to a large-diameter hose line of heavy-walled construction sot that it is non –collapsible. It is fitted at the other end to a hand or mechanically operated lower. The blower supplies breathable air to the wearer of the mask. Because of the weight of the hose, it is held by a harness worn by the wearer to which is also attached a lifeline used a rescue him or her if necessary. A safety feature of this equipment is found in the construction of the blower and in the providing of a large enough diameter for the hose so that the wearer can inhale air even should the blower fail to operate the device is useful in emergency and nonemergency situation since it gives complete protection from all fumes, dusts and mists, smokes, gases and vapors and is the simplest and safest respirator for the use in very dangerous situation.
6. The hose mask without a blower, similar to the blower device mentioned in example5. The principal difference is found in the shorter hose length and the absence of the blower. The face piece may either completely cover the eyes, nose, and the mouth of the wearer or just the nose and the mouth. Because of the short hose length, this apparatus is considered a nonemergency device that may be used in any contaminated atmosphere.
7. Air-line respirators (helmet, hoods and the masks), devices providing air to the wearer through a small-diameter, high-pressure hose line from a source for uncontaminated air. The course is usually derived from a compressed air line and the respirator) to remove oil and water mists, oil vapors, and any particulate matter that may be presented in the compressed air. Air-line respirators are used in situations where dusts, fumes, mists, smokes, gases and vapors are present, but they should be used only under nonemergency conditions.



8. CONCLUSION

A maintenance program for keeping the personal protective equipment is good and efficient repair assists in promoting the use of the equipment and assures that it is optimum efficiency. The maintenance of personal protective equipment should be done as a regular assignment, or full or a part- time basis as require. The items such as ears defenders, respiratory equipment and goggles which are personal should be regularly cleaned, inspection and maintained according to a schedule. The people doing this work should be thoroughly responsible and have a complete knowledge of the equipment as well as the duties they are to perform.

9. REFERENCE

• SAFETY MANAGEMENT
- JOHN V GRIMALDI
- ROLLIN H SIMONDS

• INDUSTRIAL SAFETY MANAGEMENT
- N V KRISHNAN


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#2
02-04-2011, 09:57 AM

Submitted by
Karthik .S.N

Personal Protection
INTRODUCTION

Although the primary approaches in any safety effort is the correction of the physical environment so that unwanted events cannot occur. It is sometimes necessary for economic or other expeditious reasons to safeguard personnel by equipping them individually with specialized personal protective equipment.
For example, in machine shop it would be desirable to remove all sources of cause of flying particles so that possibility of eye injuries would be reduced to zero or, at worst, to a very insignificant degree. However in many machine shop situations it is either too expensive or otherwise not immediately practical to accomplish this objective satisfactorily. It may be necessary therefore, to protect the eye protection equipment. In other instances, it is practically impossible to devise a safe working procedure that can assure there will be no chance of avoidable injury. For example, in construction work there is the possibility of a hand tool, rivet or similarly relatively heavy object's falling from an elevated level and striking the head of a person working below. It is necessary, therefore, that construction workers wear protective headgear.
EYE PROTECTION
Specific equipment for protection against the possibility of the eyes being struck by hard, small objects exposed to irritant vapors; splashed by liquid irritants ; and irritated from exposure to radiant energy, such as the ultraviolet rays produced by the striking of an electrical arc in electrical welding operations, is available.
In general, protective eye equipment should fit comfortably and offer a maximum amount of protection to the eye. For example, protection against flying particle would require that the eye equipment fit closely around the eye socket, but ventilation holes are provided in appropriate places to keep the goggles will vary; in one case a wire mesh covering is used in place of glass lens because of its increased capacity for ventilation. However, if the exposure were to irritating vapors, it would be necessary for the protective device not only to fit snugly around the eye socket but to be so completely enclosed that the vapors in the air could not make contact with the eye.
Materials used in construction of a protective eye equipment should be non corrosive, easily cleaned, in many cases nonflammable, and the transparent portion should give the widest; possible field of vision without any appreciable distortion or prism effect.

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