Pumpe-Düse
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10-01-2011, 06:15 AM


Seminar report on
Pumpe-Düse
By

DEEPAK N.M
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SREE NARAYANA MANGALAM INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY
MALIANKARA

ABSTRACT

The diesel engine has been under a lot of changes lately, many of them being related to the unique fuel control process that distinguishes the diesel engine from the petrol alternative. While the petrol engine has to contend with a separate ignition system to operate, it is the fuel system itself in the diesel engine that acts as an ignition system. Recent new technologies in petrol engines have introduced changes in the way the fuel ignites by modifying the ignition cycle to great complexities, resulting in technologies such as Honda's Intelligent Dual Spark plug Ignition (i-Dsi)

Pumpe Düse systems take advantage of Electronic fuel injection actuators. Another feature is the Electronic control module or ECM and the use of electric pumps as the primary fuel delivery system.

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION


The diesel engine has been under a lot of changes lately, many of them being related to the unique fuel control process that distinguishes the diesel engine from the petrol alternative. While the petrol engine has to contend with a separate ignition system to operate, it is the fuel system itself in the diesel engine that acts as an ignition system. Recent new technologies in petrol engines have introduced changes in the way the fuel ignites by modifying the ignition cycle to great complexities, resulting in technologies such as Honda's Intelligent Dual Spark plug Ignition (i-Dsi)

On the diesel engine, there are two traditional methods, the diesel fuel in the cyinder is involved. First, the pre - and to the vortex chamber diesel.
Both use a separate chamber from the cylinder to mix education.
Today's modern diesel engines rely on a different procedure, the direct.
It is the diesel fuel with a high pressure directly into the cylinder.
The piston head assumes a crucial role, he replaced the sluggish known as pre.
The high injection pressure succeeds in a fine spray of diesel fuel, in turn, to further ensure consumer savings.

Diesel engines too have benefited from the addition of systems such as Common Rail Injection.



Most of these new fuel management systems are created for the following objectives-
1. Increasing fuel injection pressures to the ranges of 1000-1200 bar, which result in better fuel atomization.
2. Enabling the use of electronic actuators at the apex of the fuel delivery system, to gain precise control over the timing, quantity and interval of multiple injections with an ECM
Both these objectives are intended to make the diesel engine more fuel-efficient, powerful and ecologically-friendly.

Similarities between Common Rail and Pumpe Düse systems:
Both the systems take advantage of Electronic fuel injection actuators, which are again predominantly of 2 types--
1. Solenoid control actuators
2. Piezoelectric crystal actuators

Another shared feature is the Electronic control module or ECM and the use of electric pumps as the primary fuel delivery system.




CHAPTER 2
Pumpe Düse ARCHITECTURE



The pump-injector system high pressure pump, injector and injector an architectural unity. It will be on every cylinder separately the maximum injection pressure. The pressure build-up is done mechanically. With an additional cam on the camshaft, a small flask, the so-called "plungers", roller rocker lever and plunger operated. The cam is so shaped that this happens at high speed to the desired high pressure rapidly.

The pressure build in the Plunger under the piston was by a valve timer. The pressure build-up can only arise if the valve (electric) is closed. The big advantage of the pump-nozzle system is that the injection pressure of up to 2,400 bar directly in the pump nozzle element is created


With an efficiency of up to 45 percent are the Volkswagen TDI ® engines with pump-jet injection to the most efficient combustion engine. The basic idea of the pump-nozzle system was on the way, Rudolf Diesel himself, in 1905 made the technical possibilities of implementation. But he already had the idea of injecting the fuel directly, without detours or preliminary chambers, involved in the combustion chamber.


CHAPTER 3
WORKINGS OF THE Pumpe-Düse SYSTEM


The Crankshaft of the engine drives a pump camshaft, with an equal number of cams as the number of pistons, which is located to one side of the engine as opposed to the top, that is the case in OHC engines. Each cam drives a Unit Injector, the heart of the system. The Unit Injector works on the principle of Hydraulics, using a small mechanical pump to pressurise fuel to very high levels.



The Unit Injector is basically a piston driven by the cam below in a small cylinder. There is a fuel inlet port that opens as the piston slides down, delivering fuel under pressure into the cylinder, from an electric pump. As the cam turns, the port closes and the fuel is pressurised further, ready to be

released by the electronic actuator that opens and closes by command of the ECM. The actuator thus is able to deliver fuel from the Unit Injector into the combustion chamber at very high injection pressures of 1600-1800 bar, in various injection modes and programs.
Of course, the entire array of Unit Injectors is usually miniaturized and built into a single-piece instrument when in practical use.
Although the Common Rail injection approach is said to build quieter, smoother engines, the Pumpe-Düse system offers more torque, and less pollution. The problems of excess mechanical and combustion noise and vibration have to some extent been filtered out by refinements to the system.


Pumpe Düse Engine (PD)

The picture above shows the "PD" type engine for which the PD+ unit from TDI-TuningBox is suited. There is a circular connector at the end of the cylinder block and a slave pump mounted as part of the engine. No fuel injector lines are visible from the pump. On models such as the Audi A4 and VW Passat the engine is mounted at 90 degrees to the one show above. The circular connector and slave pump can be found to the rear of the engine bay on such models.

CHAPTER 4
ESSENTIAL PARTS OF THE SYSTEM


4.1 ENGINE CONTROL UNIT
An engine control unit (ECU) is an electronic control unit which controls various aspects of an internal combustion engine's operation. The simplest ECUs control only the quantity of fuel injected into each cylinder each engine cycle. More advanced ECUs found on most modern cars also control the ignition timing, variable valve timing (VVT), the level of boost maintained by the turbocharger (in turbocharged cars), and control other peripherals.

Figure Of ECU

ECUs determine the quantity of fuel, ignition timing and other parameters by monitoring the engine through sensors. These can include, MAP sensor, throttle position sensor, air temperature sensor, oxygen sensor and many others. Often this is done using a control loop (such as a PID controller).
Before ECUs most engine parameters were fixed. The quantity of fuel per cylinder per engine cycle was determined by a carburetor or injector pump.

4.2 CONTROL OF FUEL INJECTION


For an engine with fuel injection, an ECU will determine the quantity of fuel to inject based on a number of parameters. If the throttle pedal is pressed further down, this will open the throttle body and allow more air to be pulled into the engine. The ECU will inject more fuel according to how much air is passing into the engine. If the engine has not warmed up yet, more fuel will be injected (causing the engine to run slightly 'rich' until the engine warms up).


4.3 CONTROL OF IGNITION TIMING
A spark ignition engine requires a spark to initiate combustion in the combustion chamber. An ECU can adjust the exact timing of the spark (called ignition timing) to provide better power and economy. If the ECU detects knock, a condition which is potentially destructive to engines, and "judges" it to be the result of the ignition timing being too early in the compression stroke, it will delay (retard) the timing of the spark to prevent this.



A second, more common source, cause, of knock/ping is operating the engine in too low of an RPM range for the "work" requirement of the moment. In this case the knock/ping results from the piston not being able to move downward as fast as the flame front is expanding.
But this latter mostly applies only to manual transmission equipped vehicles. The ECU controlling an automatic transmission would simply downshift the transmission were this the cause of knock/ping.

4.4 CONTROL OF VARIABLE VALVE TIMING
Some engines have Variable Valve Timing. In such an engine, the ECU controls the time in the engine cycle at which the valves open. The valves are usually opened later at higher speed than at lower speed. This can optimise the flow of air into the cylinder, increasing power and economy.

4.5 CONTROL OF STARTING
A relatively recent application of engine control is the use of precisely timed injection and ignition to start an engine without the use of a starter motor. Such a static-start engine would provide the efficiency and pollution-reductiton improvements of a mild hybrid-electric drive, but without the expense and complexity of an oversized starter motor.




4.6 PROGRAMMABLE ECUs
A special category of ECUs are those which are programmable. These units do not have a fixed behavior, but can be reprogrammed by the user.
Programmable ECUs are required where significant aftermarket modifications have been made to a vehicle's engine. Examples include adding or changing of a turbocharger, adding or changing of an intercooler, changing of the exhaust system, and conversion to run on alternative fuel. As a consequence of these changes, the old ECU may not provide appropriate control for the new configuration. In these situations, a programmable ECU can be wired in. These can be programmed/mapped with a laptop connected using a serial or USB cable, while the engine is running.
The programmable ECU may control the amount of fuel to be injected into each cylinder. This varies depending on the engine's RPM and the position of the gas pedal (or the manifold air pressure). The engine tuner can adjust this by bringing up a spreadsheet-like page on the laptop where each cell represents an intersection between a specific RPM value and a gas pedal position (or the throttle position, as it is called). In this cell a number corresponding to the amount of fuel to be injected is entered.
By modifying these values while monitoring the exhausts using a wide band lambda probe to see if the engine runs rich or lean, the tuner can find the optimal amount of fuel to inject to the engine at every different combination of RPM and throttle position. This process is often carried out at a dynamometer, giving the tuner a controlled environment to work in.


CHAPTER 5
OTHER PARAMETERS


• Ignition: Defines when the spark plug should fire for a cylinder.
• Rev limit: Defines the maximum RPM that the engine is allowed to rev to. After this fuel and/or ignition is cut.
• Water temperature correction: Allows for additional fuel to be added when the engine is cold (choke).
• Transient fueling: Tells the ECU to add a specific amount of fuel when throttle is applied.
• Low fuel pressure modifier: Tells the ECU to increase the injector fire time to compensate for a loss of fuel pressure.
• Closed loop lambda: Lets the ECU monitor a permanently installed lambda probe and modify the fueling to achieve stoichiometric (ideal) combustion.
Some of the more advanced race ECUs include functionality such as launch control, limiting the power of the engine in first gear to avoid burnouts. Other examples of advanced functions are:
• Waste gate control: Sets up the behavior of a turbo waste gate, controlling boost.
• Banked injection: Sets up the behavior of double injectors per cylinder, used to get a finer fuel injection control and atomization over a wide RPM range.
• Variable cam timing: Tells the ECU how to control variable intake and exhaust cams.



• Gear control: Tells the ECU to cut ignition during (sequential gearbox) upshifts or blip the throttle during downshifts.
A race ECU is often equipped with a data logger recording all sensors for later analysis using special software in a PC. This can be useful to track down engine stalls, misfires or other undesired behaviors during a race by downloading the log data and

looking for anomalies after the event. The data logger usually has a capacity between 0.5 and 16 megabytes.
In order to communicate with the driver, a race ECU can often be connected to a "data stack", which is a simple dash board presenting the driver with the current RPM, speed and other basic engine data. These race stacks, which are almost always digital, talk to the ECU using one of several proprietary protocols running over RS232, CAN bus.

CHAPTER 6
ECU FLASHING



Many recent (around 1996 or newer) cars use OBD-II ECUs that are sometimes capable of having their programming changed through the OBD port. Automotive enthusiasts with modern cars take advantage of this technology when tuning their engines. Rather than use an entire new engine management system, one can use the appropriate software to adjust the factory equipped computer. By doing so, it is possible to retain all stock functions and wiring while using a custom tuned program. This should not be confused with "chip tuning", where the owner has ECU ROM physically replaced with a different one -- no hardware modification is (usually) involved with flashing ECUs, although special equipment is required.
Factory engine management systems often have similar controls as aftermarket units intended for racing, such as 3-dimensional timing and fuel control maps. They generally do not have the ability to control extra ancillary devices, such as variable valve timing if the factory vehicle was a fixed geometry camshaft or boost control if the factory car was not turbocharged.

CHAPTER 7
HISTORY





7.1 HYBRID DIGITAL DESIGNS



A hybrid digital design was popular in the mid 1980s. This used analogue techniques to measure and process input parameters from the engine, then used a look-up table stored in a digital ROM chip to yield precomputed output values. Later systems compute these outputs dynamically. The ROM type of system is amenable to tuning if one knows the system well. The disadvantage of such systems is that the precomputed values are only optimal for an idealised, new engine. As the engine wears, the system is less able to compensate than a CPU based system.
Sophisticated engine management systems receive inputs from other sources, and control other parts of the engine; for instance, some variable valve timing systems are electronically controlled, and turbocharger wastegates can also be managed. They also may communicate with transmission control units or directly interface electronically-controlled automatic transmissions, traction control systems, and the like. The Controller Area Network or CAN bus automotive network is often used to achieve communication between these devices.



7.2 MODERN ECUs
Modern ECUs use a microprocessor which can process the inputs from the engine sensors in real time. An electronic control unit contains the hardware and software (firmware). The hardware consists of electronic components on a printed circuit board (PCB). The main component on this circuit board is a microcontroller chip (CPU). The software is stored in the microcontroller or other chips on the PCB, typically in EPROMs or flash memory so the CPU can be re-programmed by uploading updated code or replacing chips. This is also referred to as an (electronic) Engine Management System (EMS). Modern ECUs sometimes include features as cruise control etc.





CHAPTER 8
APPLICATIONS



• In North America, the VW Jetta, Golf, and New Beetle TDI 2004-2006 are MK4 Pumpe Düse (newer models use MK5 BEW engines and older models use ALH engines).







The Volkswagen Jetta is an automobile produced by German automaker Volkswagen since 1980. Depending upon the model year, country of origin, and country of sale, it is sometimes known as the Atlantic, Fox, Vento, Bora, or Sagitar. It is essentially the saloon / sedan version of the compact car / small family car Volkswagen Golf, and spans five generations. The Jetta name was derived from the Jet stream, following Volkswagen's long tradition of naming cars for various winds.

The Jetta bodystyle was developed due in part to the Volkswagen marketing group's observation that the North American market leaned more towards sedans as opposed to the Golf's hatchback configuration.[2] The new saloon variant was marketed as a more upscale car than its tailgated brethren, with nicer interior trim and a higher price.[3] This proved to be a wise move on Volkswagen's part, as the Jetta became the best-selling European car in the United States and Canada.[4] Over the years, the car has been offered in two and four-door sedan and five-door station wagon variants. As of 2005, over 6.6 million cars have been sold worldwide, with over 2.2 million alone sold in the United States. Since the original version in 1980, the car has grown in size and power with each successive generation.






Such systems are used for many internal combustion engines in other applications. In aeronautical applications, the systems are known as "FADECs" (Full Authority Digital Engine Controls). This kind of electronic control is less common in piston-engined aeroplanes than in automobiles, because of the large costs of certifying parts for aviation use, relatively small demand, and the consequent stagnation of technological innovation in this market. Also, a carburated engine with magneto ignition and a gravity feed fuel system does not require any electrical power to run, which is a safety bonus.

CHAPTER 9
ECU FAILURES

As usually occurs with a technology shift, computer-controlled engine management has replaced old failure modes with new ones. With advanced age, a failing ECU can cause seemingly random starting and driveability faults. For example, a vehicle may refuse to start when cranked with the starter motor, but may respond easily to a push start. Failing electrolytic capacitors in the ECU no longer smooth the power supply to the microprocessor, and the varying load on the starter motor causes sufficient line voltage fluctuation that the computer reboots repeatedly while attempting to start the engine. An industry has evolved to refurbish ECUs with this and other types of failures related to age and use.
The Volkswagen Group, for example, has vaunted its Pumpe-Duse, or unit-injection, engines, which are powerful and economical, but is now moving towards a technology called piezo-injection: this involves an electric current being passed through a stack of ceramic elements, which expand to shoot fuel into the cylinders, instead of the traditional magnetically-charged solenoids.
Piezo-injection also features in the Toyota/Lexus D-4D Clean Power diesel engine, along with Toyota's D-CAT catalyst system. This engine has the lowest-yet compression ratio of any production diesel engine, and Toyota promises market-leading low levels of emissions such as nitrogen oxide and particulates as well as excellent fuel consumption, low carbon dioxide output and good refinement.

Toyota's D-CAT diesel system has been praised for its low compression ratio.
Technology such as this, combined with sophisticated engine management and throttle control systems, backs up the claims of companies such as Volkswagen who believe that, contrary to the popular image that diesel is dirty, diesel fuel has a long-term future as an eco-friendly fuel, especially since it can be derived from sustainable, organic sources (more on this later).
And even in less high-tech engines, emissions can be cleaned up by the fitment of particulate traps or filters: although these are by no means widely available, they now demand no maintenance during the project and implimentationed lifespan of the car, and are offered in an increasing number of mainstream diesel models. There have been calls to make them compulsory-fit on vehicles which do not otherwise meet acceptable emissions standards, as a quick-fix solution.




Pumpe Duse is a new fuel management and delivery system that places a pump injector at each individual cylinder producing a finer spray for better and more efficient combustion. Instead of a pre-combustion chamber found in most diesels, fuel is injected directly into each individual combustion chamber under terrific pressure at precisely the right moment. The PD works like an overhead cam system, using cam lobes to determine the timing and amount of the spray into each cylinder. The new system reduces heat loss, results in a quieter, cleaner engine, faster cold weather starts and improved low-end torque.

The PD system will also feature on the lighter Touareg Sport, a VW model inspired and equiped with parts from the Race-Toureg that contests the 2004 Dakar Rally. This model will generate over 200HP and even more torque from a 5 cylinder PD engine

it Injector System and Unit Pump System


CHAPTER 10
CONCLUSION



With an efficiency of up to 45 percent engines with Pumpe-Düse pump-jet injection are the most efficient combustion engines present today. The advantage makes use of the injection pressure of up to 2,400 bar directly in the pump nozzle element is created only in these types of engines

And even in less high-tech engines, emissions can be cleaned up by the fitment of particulate traps or filters: although these are by no means widely available, they now demand no maintenance during the project and implimentationed lifespan of the car, and are offered in an increasing number of mainstream diesel models. There have been calls to make them compulsory-fit on vehicles which do not otherwise meet acceptable emissions standards, as a quick-fix solution. Clearly Pumpe-Düse are the engines for future machines when efficiency would take priority due to fuel crisis.


CHAPTER 11
BIBLIOGRAPHY



• google.com

• wikipedia.com

• bosch.com

• howstuffworks.com


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