RAIN (random array of independent nodes)
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07-11-2009, 04:01 PM


INTRODUCTION

RAIN (also called channel bonding, redundant array of independent nodes, reliable array of independent nodes, or random array of independent nodes) is a cluster of nodes connected in a network topology with multiple interfaces and redundant storage. RAIN is used to increase fault tolerance. It is an implementation of RAID across nodes instead of across disk arrays.
RAIN can provide fully automated data recovery in a local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) even if multiple nodes fail. A browser-based, centralized, secure management interface facilitates monitoring and configuration from a single location. There is no limit to the number of nodes that can exist in a RAIN cluster. New nodes can be added, and maintenance conducted, without incurring network downtime.

RAIN originated in a research project and implimentation for computing in outer space at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the United States. The researchers were looking at distributed computing models for data storage that could be built using off-the-shelf components.

The idea for RAIN came from RAID (redundant array of independent disks) technology. RAID partitions data among a set of hard drives in a single system. RAIN partitions storage space across multiple nodes in a network. Partioning of storage is called disk striping. Several patents have been granted for various proprietary versions of RAIN.

The name of the original research project and implimentation was RAIN, which stands for Reliable Array of Independent Nodes. The goal of the RAIN project and implimentation was to identify key software building blocks for creating reliable distributed applications using off-the-shelf hardware. The focus of the research was on high-performance, fault-tolerant and portable clustering technology for space-borne computing. Two important assumptions were made, and these two assumptions reflect the differentiations between RAIN and a number of existing solutions both in the industry and in academia:

1. The most general share-nothing model is assumed. There is no shared storage accessible from all computing nodes. The only way for the computing nodes to share state is to communicate via a network. This differentiates RAIN technology from existing back-end server clustering solutions such as SUNcluster, HP MC Serviceguard or Microsoft Cluster Server.
2. The distributed application is not an isolated system. The distributed protocols interact closely with existing networking protocols so that a RAIN cluster is able to interact with the environment. Specifically, technological modules were created to handle high-volume network-based transactions. This differentiates it from traditional distributed computing project and implimentations such as Beowulf.

In short, the RAIN project and implimentation intended to marry distributed computing with networking protocols. It became obvious that RAIN technology was well-suited for Internet applications. During the RAIN project and implimentation, key components were built to fulfill this vision. A patent was filed and granted for the RAIN technology. Rainfinity was spun off from Caltech in 1998, and the company has exclusive intellectual property rights to the RAIN technology. After the formation of the company, the RAIN technology has been further augmented, and additional patents have been filed.

The guiding concepts that shaped the architecture are as follows:

1. Network Applications

The architecture goals for clustering data network applications are different from clustering data storage applications. Similar goals apply in the telecom environment that provides the Internet backbone infrastructure, due to the nature of applications and services being clustered.

2. Shared-Nothing

The shared-storage cluster is the most widely used for database and application servers that store persistent data on disks. This type of cluster typically focuses on the availability of the database or application service, rather than performance. Recovery from failover is generally slow, because restoring application access to disk-based data takes minutes or longer, not seconds. Telecom servers deployed at the edge of the network are often diskless, keeping data in memory for performance reasons, and tolerate low failover time. Therefore, a new type of share-nothing cluster with rapid failure detection and recovery is required. The only way for the shared-nothing cluster to share is to communicate via the network.

3. Scalability

While the high-availability cluster focuses on recovery from unplanned and planned downtimes, this new type of cluster must also be able to maximize I/O performance by load balancing across multiple computing nodes. Linear scalability with network throughput is important. In order to maximize the total throughput, load load-balancing decisions must be made dynamically by measuring the current capacity of each computing node in real-time. Static hashing does not guarantee
an even distribution of traffic.

4. Peer-to-Peer

A dispatcher-based, master-slave cluster architecture suffers from scalability by introducing a potential bottleneck. A peer-to-peer cluster architecture is more suitable for latency-sensitive data network applications processing shortlived sessions. A hybrid architecture should be considered to offset the need for more control over resource management. For example, a cluster can assign multiple authoritative computing nodes that process traffic in the round-robin order for each network interface that is clustered to reduce the overhead of traffic forwarding
Use Search at http://topicideas.net/search.php wisely To Get Information About Project Topic and Seminar ideas with report/source code along pdf and ppt presenaion
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vamC
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07-08-2010, 05:07 PM

its GOOD can i get any PDF related to this
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22-03-2011, 04:53 PM


.docx   3 Feature.docx (Size: 75.84 KB / Downloads: 114)
FEATURES
Features of the RAIN system include scalability, dynamic reconfigurability, and high availability. Through software-implemented fault tolerance, the system tolerates multiple node, link, and switch failures, with no single point of failure. In addition to reliability, the RAIN architecture permits efficient use of network resources, such as multiple data paths and redundant storage, with graceful degradation in the presence of faults. A diagram of the RAIN testbed at Caltech is shown in Figure 3.1. We have 10 Intel Pentium workstations running the Linux operating system, each with two network interfaces. These are connected via four eight-way Myrinet switches. The RAIN technology has been transfered to RAINfinity, a start-up company focusing on creating clustered solutions for improving the performance and availability of Internet data centers.
We have identified the following key building blocks for distributed computing systems.
Communication: fault-tolerant interconnect topologies and reliable communication protocols. We describe network topologies that are resistant to partitioning, and a protocol guaran¬teeing a consistent history of link failures. We also describe an implementation of the MPI standard on the RAIN communication layer.
Fault Management: techniques based on group membership. We describe an efficient token-based protocol that tolerates node and link failures.
Storage: distributed data storage schemes based on error-control codes. We describe schemes that are optimal in terms of storage as well as encoding/decoding complexity.
We present three proof-of-concept applications based on the RAIN building blocks:
• A video server based on the RAIN communication and data storage components.
• A Web server based on the RAIN fault management component.
• A distributed checkpointing system based on the RAIN storage component, as well as a leader election protocol.
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24-03-2011, 04:58 PM


.docx   Rain Technology.docx (Size: 15.32 KB / Downloads: 83)
RAIN Technology
The RAIN technology is the name of a research project and implimentation that originated at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), in collaboration with NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It was later named Rainfinity’s technology. The name of the original research project and implimentation was RAIN, which stands for Reliable Array of Independent Nodes.
The goal of the RAIN technology project and implimentation was to identify key software building blocks for creating reliable distributed applications using off-the-shelf hardware. The focus of the research was on high-performance, fault-tolerant and portable clustering technology for space-borne computing.
Two important assumptions were made that reflects the differentiations between RAIN and a number of existing solutions both in the industry and in academia:
• The most general share-nothing model is assumed. There is no shared storage accessible from all computing nodes. The only way for the computing nodes to share state is to communicate via a network. This differentiates RAIN technology from existing back-end server clustering solutions such as SUNcluster, HP MC Serviceguard or Microsoft Cluster Server.
• The distributed application is not an isolated system. The distributed protocols interact closely with existing networking protocols so that a RAIN cluster is able to interact with the environment. Specifically, technological modules were created to handle high-volume network-based transactions. This differentiates it from traditional distributed computing project and implimentations such as Beowulf.
The idea for RAIN came from RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) technology. RAID partitions data among a set of hard drives in a single system. RAIN partitions storage space across multiple nodes in a network. Partitioning of storage is called disk striping. Several patents have been granted for various proprietary versions of RAIN.
It is commonly said that “the RAIN project and implimentation intended to marry distributed computing with networking protocols”. It became obvious that RAIN technology was well-suited for Internet applications. During the RAIN project and implimentation, key components were built to fulfil this vision. A patent was filed and granted for the RAIN technology. Rainfinity was spun off from Caltech in 1998, and the company has exclusive intellectual property rights to the RAIN technology. After the formation of the company, the RAIN technology has been further augmented, and additional patents have been filed.
Guiding concepts that shaped the architecture of RAIN technology are as follows:
Network Applications:
The architecture goals for clustering data network applications are different from clustering data storage applications. Similar goals apply in the telecom environment that provides the Internet backbone infrastructure, due to the nature of applications and services being clustered.
Shared-Nothing
The shared-storage cluster is the most widely used for database and application servers that store persistent data on disks. This type of cluster typically focuses on the availability of the database or application service, rather than performance. Recovery from failover is generally slow, because restoring application access to disk-based data takes minutes or longer, not seconds. Telecom servers deployed at the edge of the network are often diskless, keeping data in memory for performance reasons, and tolerate low failover time. Therefore, a new type of share-nothing cluster with rapid failure detection and recovery is required. The only way for the shared-nothing cluster to share is to communicate via the network.
Scalability
While the high-availability cluster focuses on recovery from unplanned and planned downtimes, this new type of cluster must also be able to maximize I/O performance by load balancing across multiple computing nodes. Linear scalability with network throughput is important. In order to maximize the total throughput, load load-balancing decisions must be made dynamically by measuring the current capacity of each computing node in real-time. Static hashing does not guarantee an even distribution of traffic.
Peer-to-Peer
A dispatcher-based, master-slave cluster architecture suffers from scalability by introducing a potential bottleneck. A peer-to-peer cluster architecture is more suitable for latency-sensitive data network applications processing shortlived sessions. Hybrid architecture should be considered to offset the need for more control over resource management. For example, a cluster can assign multiple authoritative computing nodes that process traffic in the round-robin order for each network interface that is clustered to reduce the overhead of traffic forwarding
RAIN (also called channel bonding, redundant array of independent nodes, reliable array of independent nodes, or random array of independent nodes) is a cluster of nodes connected in a network topology with multiple interfaces and redundant storage. RAIN is used to increase fault tolerance. It is an implementation of RAID across nodes instead of across disk arrays.
RAIN can provide fully automated data recovery in a local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) even if multiple nodes fail. A browser-based, centralized, secure management interface facilitates monitoring and configuration from a single location. There is no limit to the number of nodes that can exist in a RAIN cluster. New nodes can be added, and maintenance conducted, without incurring network downtime.
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