RAMIFICATION OF CYBER CRIME full report
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1.1 ABOUT THE PROJECT
Cyber crime is addressed in the broadest sense, in a way that most emerging crimes today involve the use of information technology. The terms ËœComputer Crimeâ„¢, ËœComputer Related Crimesâ„¢, ËœInternet Crimeâ„¢, ËœOnline Crimesâ„¢, ËœHi-Tech Crimesâ„¢, ËœInformation Technology Crimeâ„¢, and ËœCyber Crimesâ„¢ are being used interchangeably.
Cyber crime is hard to detect, thus giving the perpetrators plenty of time to flee the area in which the crime was committed, because of this fact the criminals can be in another country far away from the scene of the crime by the time it is detected. Cyber crimes differ from most terrestrial crimes in four ways. They are easy to learn how to commit; they require few resources relative to the potential damage caused; they can be committed in a jurisdiction without being physically present in it; and they are often not clearly illegal.
The development of information technology and the widening usage of the Internet have made it possible for cyber crimes to happen. Some people argue that cyber crime gives advantages to certain individuals because it gives them an opportunity to enhance their computer skills and make a profit out of it. However, that is far from truth. In reality, cyber crime kills e-commerce industry as seen through the unleashing of viruses, fraud, and variety of tools available on the net and unauthorized use of computers.
The first recorded cyber crime took place in the year 1820. That is not surprising considering the fact that the abacus, which is thought to be the first earliest form of computer, has been around since 3500 B.C. in India, Japan and China. The era of modern computers, however, began with the analytical engine of Charles Babbage.
Cyber crime is an evil having its origin in the growing of dependence on computers in modern life. In a day and age when everything from microwave ovens and refrigerators to nuclear power plants is being run on computers, cyber crime has assumed rather sinister implications.
Defining Cyber Crime
At the onset, let me satisfactorily define cyber crime and differentiate it from conventional crime. Computer crime can involve criminal activities that are traditional in nature such as theft, fraud, forgery, defamation and mischief, all of which are subject to the Indian Penal Code. The abuse of computers has also given birth to a new age of crimes that are addressed by the Information Technology Act, 2000.
Defining cyber crimes, as acts that are punishable by the Information Technology Act would be unsuitable as the Indian Penal Code also covers many cyber crimes, such as email spoofing and cyber defamation, sending the threatening emails, etc. A simple definition of cyber crime would be unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or a target or both.
Some examples of Cyber Crimes are:
A spoofed email is one that appears to originate from one source but actually has been sent from another source. E.g., Pooja has an email address firstname.lastname@example.org. Her enemy, Sameer spoofs her email and sends obscene messages to all her acquaintances. Since the emails appear to have originated from Pooja, her friends could take offence and relationships could be spoiled for life. Email spoofing can also cause monetary damage. Misinformation about companies are sent through emails and thus large lose will occur to companies in form of money and customers.
Counterfeit currency notes, postage and revenue stamps, mark sheets, etc can be forged using sophisticated computers, printers and scanners.
Unauthorized access to computer systems or networks
This activity is commonly referred to as hacking. The user hack data and images without proper authorization.
Email bombing refers to sending large number of emails to the victim resulting in the victimâ„¢s email account(in case of an individual) or mail servers(in case of a company or an email service provider) crashing.
This kind of attack involves altering raw data just before it is processed by a computer and the changing it back after the processing is completed.
These attacks are used for the commission of financial crimes. The key here is to make the alteration so significant that in a single case it would go completely unnoticed. E.g., a bank employee inserts a program, into the bank serverâ„¢s, which deducts a small amount of money from the account of every customer. No account holder will probably notice this unauthorized debit, but the bank employee will make a sizable amount of money every month.
Ramification of cyber crime including the discussion on current and emerging forms of computer related illegalities and tools and techniques used in such crimes. The project and implimentation is an effort to prevent and find the users who are using it for the personal or organizational gains.
The main aim of this project and implimentation is to find the different types of cyber crime and provide some preventive measures to protect themselves from those who would steal, deny access to, or destroy valuable information. All the malpractices done by the employees will be captured by this software and it is beneficial to the administrator to trap the people who are doing wrong.
2.1 FEASIBILITY STUDY
Feasibility study is a test of system proposed regarding its workability, impact on the organization, ability to meet the needs and effective use of resources. Thus, when a new project and implimentation is proposed, it normally goes through a feasibility study before it is approved for development.
A feasibility study is made to see if the project and implimentation on completion will serve the purpose of the organization for the amount of work, effort and the time that is spend on it. Feasibility study lets the developer foresee the future of the project and implimentation and its usefulness.
All the project and implimentations are feasible given unlimited resources and infinite time. Unfortunately, the development of the computer-based system is more likely to be played by a security of resources and difficulty delivery dates. Feasibility and risk analysis are related in many ways. If project and implimentation risk is great, the feasibility of producing the quality software is reduced.
Steps in Feasibility Study
Feasibility Study involves eight steps:
Â¢ Form a project and implimentation team and appoint a project and implimentation leader.
Â¢ Prepare a system flow chart.
Â¢ Enumerate potential candidate systems.
Â¢ Describe and identify characteristics of candidate systems.
Â¢ Describe and evaluate performance and cost effectiveness of each candidate systems.
Â¢ Weight system performance and cost data.
Â¢ Select the best candidate system.
Â¢ Prepare and report final project and implimentation directive and management.
Mainly three key considerations are involved in the feasibility analysis.
Â¢ Economic Feasibility
Â¢ Technical Feasibility
Â¢ Operational Feasibility
2.1.1 Economical Feasibility
Economical Feasibility is the most frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of the candidate system. More commonly known as cost/benefit analysis, the procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that are expected from a candidate system and compare them with costs. If benefits outweigh costs, then the decision is made to design and implement the system. Otherwise, further justifications or alterations in the proposed system will have to be made if it is having a chance of being approved. This is an ongoing effort that improves in accuracy at each phase of the system life cycle.
2.1.2 Technical Feasibility
Technical Feasibility centers on the existing computer system (hardware, software, etc) and to what extend it can support the proposed addition. For example, if the current computer is operating at 80 percent capacity, an arbitrary ceiling, then running another application could over load the system or require additional hardware. This involves financial considerations to accommodate technical enhancements. If the budget is a serious constraint, then the project and implimentation is judged not feasible.
2.1.3 Operational Feasibility
The main problem faced during development of a new system is getting acceptance from the user. People are inherently resistant to changes and computers have been known to facilitate change. It is mainly related to human organizational and political aspects.
The points to be considered are:
Â¢ What changes will be brought with the system?
Â¢ What new skills will be required? Do the existing staff members have these skills? If not, can they be trained due course of time?
Generally, project and implimentation will not be rejected simply because of operational feasibility but such considerations are likely to critically affect the nature and scope of the eventual recommendations. This feasibility study is carried out by a small group of people who are familiar with information system techniques, who understand the parts of the business that are relevant to the project and implimentation and are skilled in skilled analysis and design process.
2.2 EXISTING SYSTEM
The existing system was manual. The development of information technology and the widening usage of the Internet have made it possible for cyber crime to happen. Further existing rules are not effective to curb such crimes.
The existing system was not so efficient to find and prevent the malpractice inside the organization. Cyber crime is hard to detect, thus giving the perpetrators plenty of time to flee the area in which the crime was committed, because of this fact the criminals can be in another country far away from the scene of the crime by the time it is detected. It provide an environment, there is chances to occur some frequent crimes.
2.3 PROPOSED SYSTEM
The proposed system is developed in such a manner that almost all the problems faced by the manual system can be easily handled. The proposed system eliminates the stated problem with the existing system. Computer is now emerging as a new tool for crime. So this project and implimentation is an effort to find and prevent the users who are using it for the personal and organizational gains.
The proposed system defines the different types of cyber crime. The project and implimentation including the discussion on current and emerging forms of computer related illegalities and tools and techniques used in such crimes. It defines the reasons for the growth of cyber crime. Motivation to criminals is difficult to change; hence, it mandates the adoption of other strategically advantageous approach in controlling the computer related crime. So the proposed system provides some preventive measures to protect themselves from those who would steal, deny access to, or destroy valuable information.
The proposed system provides proper authentication. That is, only a valid user can access the system. It provides the mechanism for tracing IP address and website. So that the administrator can trace the IP address of client machine and trace the website refer by the user. The administrator can able to block the particular website or the particular client from accessing the website. The proposed system provides the mechanism for monitoring the remote system. So the administrator can be able to trace any malpractice done by the employees. It also provides the mechanism for preventing the illegal use of any particular software. So all the malpractice done by the employees will be captured by this software and it is beneficial to the administrator to trap the people who are doing wrong.
2.4 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
The functional modules in this project and implimentation are:
Â¢ Client Authentication
Â¢ Tracing IP Address
Â¢ File Transfer
2.4.1 CLIENT AUTHENTICATION
Every client in the organization must provide a user name and password. When the user starts using the system, he must be authenticated with the login procedures. The administrator can add the new user and generate a username and password. This username and password was provided to the new user. The user can access the system only if he is a valid user.
2.4.2 TRACING IP ADDRESS
Whenever a user login his computerâ„¢s IP Address will be traced by the administrator. That is the administrator can trace the IP Addresses of all the client machines in the network. Also he can trace the MAC Address of the client machine. So the administrator can find whether any malpractice has been occurred. The administrator can be able to find the malpractice done by the employees.
This module provides Remote System Monitoring. Remote System Monitoring is a remote control program, which enables the administrator to access the resources on the remote computer from his own computer and also control the remote computer from the server. The various information regarding the resources of a system in the network are transferred from the remote system to the administrator system in short period of time which will save the administrator time in than the administrator himself going to that system. The administrator can see the remote computer screen in a window on his desktop. The information retrieved from remote machine is displayed in server machine in a user friendly way rather than complicated output formats of certain available software. The module also keeps track of the processes that are running on each system in which the client program has been installed. The remote computer can be anywhere in the network. Another feature of this module is that, administrator can Shutdown, Restart, or Logoff the remote PC from his computer. Remote System Monitoring is developed with the aim of helping the network administrator to gather information about the resources in a remote machine in the network and to keep track of the users working in the systems.
2.4.4 FILE TRANSFER
In this module the administrator can send a file from his machine to the Remote Machine in the network. The administrator can transfer the file or the information to the client machine. The administrator can transfer the information or the file based on the client request. In the client machine, the user can receive this file and he stored it in a specific location and he can view the information in the file. It prevents the illegal use of any hardware in the client machine. The user cannot able to use CD or any other hardware devices without the permission of the administrator. If the user wants to use CD or any other hardware, he wants to get the permission from the administrator and the administrator can open and view the contents in that particular hardware and if the contents are legal, then only the administrator can sent the contents in that hardware to the client machine from his machine. Then the user can receive this file and save it in a particular location and can view and use the information.
3.1 INPUT DESIGN
The user interface design is very important for any application. The interface design defines how the software communicates within itself, to system that interpreted with it and with human who use it. The interface design is very good; the user will fall into an interactive software application.
Input design is the process of converting user-oriented inputs to a computer based format. The data is fed into the system using simple interactive forms. The forms have been supplied with messages so that user can enter data without facing any difficulty. The data is validated wherever it requires in the project and implimentation. This ensures that only the correct data have been incorporated into the system. Inaccurate processing of data is the most common cause of errors in data processing. Errors entered by data entry operators can be controlled by correct input design. This type of input design allows user to input only the required data into the processing units and also these input from check for validation of the input values, thus preventing errors.
The input design is made into user-friendly atmosphere where the user can perform the daily routine work without any ones help. The user friendly environment created by the input design helps the end user to use the software in a more flexible way and even the wrong entries by the user is correctly pointed out to the user.
The goal of designing input data is to make the automation easy and free from errors as possible. For providing a good input design for the application, easy data input and selection features are adopted.
The inputs used in my project and implimentation are:
Â¢ Administrator Login.
Â¢ User Login.
Â¢ New User registration.
3.2 OUTPUT DESIGN
A quality output is one, which meets the requirements of the end user and presents the information clearly. In any systems, results of processing are communicated to the user and to other systems through outputs. In the output design, it is determined how the information is to be displayed for immediate need.
The major idea of output is to convey information so its layout and design need careful consideration. Efficient, intelligible output design improves the system relationship with the users and help in making decisions. The output designs decide how well the implementation of the system has been useful to the user. The output design should be understandable to the user and it must offer great convenience. The one who look into the reports or output will get the impression of how well the system performs.
The objective of the output design is to convey the information of all the past activities, current status and emphasize important events. The output generally refers to the results and information that is generated from the system. Outputs from the computers are required primarily to communicate the result of processing to the users. They are also used to provide a permanent copy of these results for later consideration.
The outputs are:
Â¢ Login and Logout time of the user.
Â¢ Client machineâ„¢s IP address.
Â¢ Remote System Information.
Â¢ Memory status of the client machine.
Â¢ Remote System Processes.
Â¢ Captured Remote Desktop.
Â¢ Messaging from administrator to client machine.
Â¢ Transferred file from administrator to the client machine.
Â¢ The websites referred by the user and the responses.
Â¢ Help Information for the administrator.
3.3 E-R DIAGRAM
3.3 DATABASE DESIGN
User Login Table
Field Name Data Type Size
UserName Varchar 50
Pwd Varchar 50
Net Users Login Table
Field Name Data Type Size
Uid Int 4
Username Varchar 100
Pwd Varchar 250
Net Users Details Table
Field Name Data Type Size
Uid Int 4
FName Varchar 50
Gender Varchar 10
Address Varchar 200
Mob Varchar 150
Photo image 16
Net User Log Time Table
Field Name Data Type Size
UserName varchar 100
LoginTime datetime 8
LogoutTime datetime 8
3.5 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM
A data flow diagram is a graphical technique that depicts information flow and transforms that are applied as data move from input to output. The DFD is also known as Data Flow Graph or Bubble Chart. The DFD is used to represent increasing information flow and functional details. Also DFD can be stated as the starting point of the design phase that functionally decomposes the requirements specifications down to the lowest level of detail.
A Level 0 also called a fundamental system model or a context level DFD that represent the entire software elements as a single bubble with input and output data indicated by incoming and outgoing arrows, respectively. Additional process and information flow parts are represented in the next level, i.e., level 1 DFD. Each of the processes represented at level 1 are sub functions of overall system depicted in the context model. Any processes that are complex in level 1 will be further represented into sub functions in the next level, i.e., level 2.
Data flow diagram is a means of representing a system at any level of detail with a graphic network of symbols showing data flows, data stores, data processes and data sources. The purpose of data flow diagram is to provide a semantic bridge between users and system developers. The diagram is the basis of structured system analysis. A DFD describes what data flows rather than how they are processed, so it does not depend on hardware, software, data structure or file organization.
Components of Data Flow Diagram
There are four symbols that are used in the drawing of Data Flow Diagrams:
External entities represent the sources of data that enter the system or the recipients of data that leave the system.
Processes represent activities in which data is manipulated by being stored or retrieved or transformed in some way. A circle represents it. The process will show the data transformation or change.
Databases represent storage of data within the system.
Â¢ Data Flow
A data flow shows the flow of information from its source to its destination. A line represents a data flow, with arrowheads showing the direction of flow.
CONTEXT LEVEL DFD
LEVEL 01 CLIENT
LEVEL 02 CLIENT AUTHENTICATIONS
4.1 PROCESSING ENVIRONMENT
4.1.1 Hardware Specification
Processor : Intel Pentium4
RAM : 256MB
Hard Disk : 40GB
Drives : 1.44MB Floppy Disk Drive,
CD ROM Drive
Size : 15 Color Monitor
Screen Resolution : 800*600 Pixels
Color Palette : True Color (24 bit)
Keyboard : PC/AT Enhanced Type
Mouse : Logitech PS/2 Port Mouse
Monitor : SVGA color monitor
4.1.2 Software Specification
Operating System : Windows XP
Front End : C#.Net
Back End : SQL Server 2000
4.2 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTIONS
MICROSOFT .NET FRAMEWORK
The Microsoft .NET Framework is a software component that can be added to or is included with the Microsoft Windows operating system. It provides a large body of pre-coded solutions to common program requirements, and manages the execution of programs written specifically for the framework.
The pre-coded solutions that form the framework's class library cover a large range of programming needs in areas including: user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications. The functions of the class library are used by programmers who combine them with their own code to produce applications.
Programs written for the .NET Framework execute in a software environment that manages the program's runtime requirements. This runtime environment, which is also a part of the .NET Framework, is known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR). The CLR provides the appearance of an application virtual machine, so that programmers need not consider the capabilities of the specific CPU that will execute the program. The CLR also provides other important services such as security mechanisms, memory management, and exception handling. The class library and the CLR together compose the .NET Framework. The framework is intended to make it easier to develop computer applications and to reduce the vulnerability of applications and computers to security threats.
First released in 2002, it is included with Windows XP SP2, Windows Server 2003 and Windows Vista, and can be installed on older versions of Windows
Microsoft .NET Framework was designed with several intentions:
Â¢ Interoperability: Because interaction between new and older applications is commonly required, the .NET Framework provides means to access functionality that is implemented in programs that execute outside the .NET environment.
Â¢ Common Runtime Engine: Programming languages on the .NET Framework compile into an intermediate language known as the Common Intermediate Language, or CIL (formerly known as Microsoft Intermediate Language, or MSIL). In Microsoft's implementation, this intermediate language is not interpreted, but rather compiled in a manner known as just-in-time compilation (JIT) into native code. The combination of these concepts is called the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), a specification; Microsoft's implementation of the CLI is known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR).
Â¢ Language Independence: The .NET Framework introduces a Common Type System, or CTS. The CTS specification defines all possible datatypes and programming constructs supported by the CLR and how they may or may not interact with each other. Because of this feature, the .NET Framework supports development in multiple programming languages.
Â¢ Base Class Library: The Base Class Library (BCL), sometimes referred to as the Framework Class Library (FCL), is a library of types available to all languages using the .NET Framework. The BCL provides classes which encapsulate a number of common functions, including file reading and writing, graphic rendering, database interaction and XML document manipulation.
Â¢ Simplified Deployment: Installation of computer software must be carefully managed to ensure that it does not interfere with previously installed software, and that it conforms to increasingly stringent security requirements. The .NET framework includes design features and tools that help address these requirements.
Â¢ Security: NET allows for code to be run with different trust levels without the use of a separate sandbox.
The Microsoft .Net Architecture comprises of:
Â¢ Common Language Infrastructure (CLI): The most important component of the .NET Framework lies within the Common Language Infrastructure, or CLI. The purpose of the CLI is to provide a language-agnostic platform for application development and execution, including, but not limited to, components for exception handling, garbage collection, security, and interoperability. Microsoft's implementation of the CLI is called the Common Language Runtime, or CLR. The CLR is composed of four primary parts:
1. Common Type System (CTS).
2. Common Language Specification (CLS).
3. Just-In-Time Compiler (JIT).
4. Virtual Execution System (VES).
Â¢ Assemblies: The intermediate CIL code is housed in .NET assemblies, which for the Windows implementation means a Portable Executable (PE) file (EXE or DLL). Assemblies are the .NET unit of deployment, versioning and security. The assembly consists of one or more files, but one of these must contain the manifest, which has the metadata for the assembly. The complete name of an assembly contains its simple text name, version number, culture and public key token; it must contain the name, but the others are optional. The public key token is generated when the assembly is created, and is a value that uniquely represents the name and contents of all the assembly files, and a private key known only to the creator of the assembly. Two assemblies with the same public key token are guaranteed to be identical. If an assembly is tampered with (for example, by hackers), the public key can be used to detect the tampering.
Â¢ Metadata: All CIL is self-describing through .NET metadata. The CLR checks on metadata to ensure that the correct method is called. Metadata is usually generated by language compilers but developers can create their own metadata through custom attributes. Metadata also contain all the information about assembly.
Â¢ Base Class Library (BCL): The Base Class Library (BCL), sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Framework Class Library (FCL) (which is a superset including the Microsoft.* namespaces), is a library of classes available to all languages using the .NET Framework. The BCL provides classes which encapsulate a number of common functions such as file reading and writing, graphic rendering, database interaction, XML document manipulation, and so forth. The BCL is much larger than other libraries, but has much more functionality in one package.
Â¢ Security: .NET has its own security mechanism, with two general features: Code Access Security (CAS), and validation and verification. Code Access Security is based on evidence that is associated with a specific assembly. Code Access Security uses evidence to determine the permissions granted to the code. Other code can demand that calling code is granted a specified permission. The demand causes the CLR to perform a call stack walk. Every assembly of each method in the call stack is checked for the required permission and if any assembly is not granted the permission then a security exception is thrown. When an assembly is loaded the CLR performs various tests. Two such tests are validation and verification. During validation the CLR checks that the assembly contains valid metadata and CIL, and it checks that the internal tables are correct. The verification mechanism checks to see if the code does anything that is 'unsafe'. The algorithm used is quite conservative and hence sometimes code that is 'safe' is not verified. Unsafe code will only be executed if the assembly has the 'skip verification' permission.
The .Net Framework
MICROSOFT VISUAL STUDIO
Microsoft Visual Studio is Microsoft's flagship software development product for computer programmers. It centers on an integrated development environment which lets programmers create standalone applications, web sites, web applications, and web services that run on any platforms supported by Microsoft's .NET Framework (for all versions after 6). Supported platforms include Microsoft Windows servers and workstations, PocketPC, Smartphones, and World Wide Web browsers.
Visual Studio includes the following:
Â¢ Visual Basic (.NET).
Â¢ Visual C++.
Â¢ Visual C#.
Â¢ Visual J#.
Express editions of Visual Studio have been released by Microsoft for lightweight streamlined development and novice developers. The Express editions include:
Â¢ Visual Basic (.NET) 2005 Express Edition.
Â¢ Visual C# 2005 Express Edition.
Â¢ Visual C++ 2005 Express Edition.
Â¢ Visual J# 2005 Express Edition.
Â¢ Visual Web Developer 2005 Express Edition.
Visual Studio 2005, codenamed Whidbey, was released online in October 2005 and hit the stores a couple of weeks later. Microsoft removed the ".NET" moniker from Visual Studio 2005 (as well as every other product with .NET in its name), but it still primarily targets the .NET Framework, which was upgraded to version 2.0. Visual Studio 2005's internal version number is 8.0 while the file format version is 9.0.
Visual Studio 2005 was upgraded to support all the new features introduced in .NET Framework 2.0, including generics and ASP.NET 2.0. The IntelliSense feature in Visual Studio was upgraded for generics and new project and implimentation types were added to support ASP.NET web services. Visual Studio 2005 also includes a local web server, separate from IIS that can be used to host ASP.NET applications during development and testing. It also supports all SQL Server 2005 databases. Database designers were upgraded to support the ADO.NET 2.0, which is included with .NET Framework 2.0. C++ also got a similar upgrade with the addition of C++/CLI which is slated to replace the use of Managed C++.
Other new features of Visual Studio 2005 include the Deployment Designer", which allows application designs to be validated before deployments, an improved environment for web publishing when combined with ASP.NET 2.0 and load testing to see application performance under various sorts of user loads.
Visual Studio 2005 also added extensive 64-bit support. While the development environment itself is only available as a 32-bit application, Visual C++ 2005 supports compiling for x86-64 (AMD64 and Intel 64) as well as IA-64 (Itanium).The Platform SDK included 64-bit compilers and 64-bit versions of the libraries.
Visual Studio 2005 is available in several editions, which are significantly different from previous versions: Express, Standard, Professional, Tools for Office, and a set of five Visual Studio Team System Editions. The latter are provided in conjunction with MSDN Premium subscriptions, covering four major roles of software development: Architects, Software Developers, Testers, and Database Professionals. The combined functionality of the four Team System Editions is provided in a Team Suite Edition.
Express Editions were introduced for amateurs, hobbyists, and small businesses, and are available as a free download from Microsoft's web site.
MICROSOFT VISUAL C#.NET
By design, C# is the programming language that most directly reflects the underlying Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). Most of C#'s intrinsic types correspond to value-types implemented by the CLI framework. C# was created as an object-oriented programming (OOP) language. Other programming languages include object-oriented features, but very few are fully object-oriented.
C# differs from C and C++ in many ways, including:
Â¢ There are no global variables or functions. All methods and members must be declared within classes.
Â¢ Local variables cannot shadow variables of the enclosing block, unlike C and C++. Variable shadowing is often considered confusing by C++ texts.
Â¢ C# supports a strict boolean type, bool. Statements that take conditions, such as while and if, require an expression of a boolean type. While C and C++ also have a boolean type, it can be freely converted to and from integers, and expressions such as if(a) require only that a is convertible to bool, allowing a to be an int, or a pointer. C# disallows this 'integer meaning true or false' approach on the grounds that forcing programmers to use expressions that return exactly bool prevents certain types of programming mistakes.
Â¢ In C#, pointers can only be used within blocks specifically marked as unsafe, and programs with unsafe code need appropriate permissions to run. Most object access is done through safe references, which cannot be made invalid. An unsafe pointer can point to an instance of a value-type, array, string, or a block of memory allocated on a stack. Code that is not marked as unsafe can still store and manipulate pointers through the System.IntPtr type, but cannot dereference them.
Â¢ Managed memory cannot be explicitly freed, but is automatically garbage collected. Garbage collection addresses memory leaks. C# also provides direct support for deterministic finalization with the using statement.
Â¢ Multiple inheritance is not supported, although a class can implement any number of interfaces.
Â¢ C# is more typesafe than C++. The only implicit conversions by default are safe conversions, such as widening of integers and conversion from a derived type to a base type. This is enforced at compile-time, during JIT, and, in some cases, at runtime. There are no implicit conversions between booleans and integers and between enumeration members and integers (except 0, which can be implicitly converted to an enumerated type), and any user-defined conversion must be explicitly marked as explicit or implicit, unlike C++ copy constructors and conversion operators
Â¢ Enumeration members are placed in their own namespace.
Â¢ Accessors called properties can be used to modify an object with syntax that resembles C++ member field access. In C++, declaring a member public enables both reading and writing to that member, and accessor methods must be used if more fine-grained control is needed. In C#, properties allow control over member access and data validation.
Â¢ Full type reflection and discovery is available.
Features of C#:
Â¢ C# is simple.
Â¢ C# is modern.
Â¢ C# is object-oriented.
Â¢ C# is powerful and flexible.
Â¢ C# is a language of few words.
Â¢ C# is modular.
MICROSOFT SQL SERVER 2000
Microsoft SQL Server 2000 is a full-featured relational database management system (RDBMS) that offers a variety of administrative tools to ease the burdens of database development, maintenance and administration. SQL Server 2000 is a powerful tool for turning information into opportunity. The following are more common tools provided by SQL server.
Â¢ Enterprise Manager is the main administrative console for SQL Server installations. It provides us with a graphical birds-eye view of all of the SQL Server installations on our network.
Â¢ Query Analyzer offers a quick method for performing queries against any of our SQL Server databases. Itâ„¢s a great way to quickly pull information out of a database.
Â¢ SQL Profiler provides a window into the inner workings of your database.
Â¢ Service Manager is used to control the MS SQL Server (the main SQL Server process), MSDTC (Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator) and SQL Server Agent processes.
Â¢ Data Transformation Services provide an extremely flexible method for importing and exporting data between a Microsoft SQL Server installation and a large variety of other formats.
The following are some of the features of SQL Server:
Â¢ High Availability: Maximize the availability of our business applications with log shipping, online backups, and failure clusters.
Â¢ Scalability: Scale our applications up to 32 CPUs and 64 gigabytes (GB) of RAM.
Â¢ Security: Ensure you applications are secure in any networked environment, with role-based security and file and network encryption.
Â¢ Distributed Partitioned Views: Partition your workload among multiple servers for additional scalability.
Â¢ Data Transformation Services: Automate routines that extract, transform, and load data from heterogeneous sources.
Â¢ Simplified Database Administration: Automatic tuning and maintenance features enable administrators to focus on other critical tasks.
Â¢ Improved Developer Productivity: User-defined functions, cascading referential integrity and the integrated Transact-SQL debugger allow us to reuse code to simplify the development process.
Â¢ Application Hosting: With multi-instance support, SQL Server enables us to take full advantage of your hardware investments so that multiple applications can be run on a single server.
SQL is the set of statements that all programs and user must use to access data within database. Application programs in turn must use SQL when executing the userâ„¢s request. The benefits of SQL are:
Â¢ SQL is a non-procedural language.
Â¢ It provides automatic navigation to the data.
Â¢ It provides statements for a variety of tasks.
SQL is a query and is not without any structure. It is more than English or any other language. It has rules for grammar and syntax but they are basically the normal rules and can be readily understood. The SQL stands for Structured Query Language. The SQL statements can be classified as:
1. Queries: It always begins with the keyword SELECT and is used to retrieve the data from the database in any combination or in any order.
2. Data Manipulation Language(DML): The purpose of DML is to change the data in database. Basically a data in the database can be changed or manipulated in 3 ways. They are:
INSERT : inserting new rows in the database.
UPDATE : updating an existing row in the database.
DELETE : Deleting existing rows from the database.
3. Data Definition Language(DDL): The main purpose of DDL is to create, modify and drop the database objects namely relation, index, view, trigger etc.
4. Data Control Language(DCL): This is used to provide privacy and security to the database. The DCL statements allow the user to give and take privileges, which are needed for guaranteed controlled data sharing.
Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS; formerly called Server) is a set of Internet-based services for servers using Microsoft Windows. It is the world's second most popular web server in terms of overall websites. The servers currently include FTP, SMTP, NNTP and HTTP/HTTPS.
IIS was initially released as an additional set of Internet based services for Windows NT 3.51. IIS 2.0 followed adding support for the Windows NT 4.0 operating system and IIS 3.0 introduced the Active Server Pages dynamic scripting environment. The current shipping version of IIS is 7.0 for Windows Vista, 6.0 for Windows Server 2003 and IIS 5.1 for Windows XP Professional. IIS 5.1 for Windows XP is a restricted version of IIS that supports only 10 simultaneous connections and a single web site.IIS 6.0 added support for IPv6.
IIS 7.0 features a modular architecture. Instead of a monolithic server which features all services, IIS 7 has a core web server engine. Modules offering specific functionality can be added to the engine to enable its features. The advantage of having this architecture is that only the features required can be enabled and that the functionalities can be extended by using custom modules.
TYPES OF TESTING DONE
Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification, design and coding. Software testing can be looked upon as one among the many processes. Testing is the process of executing a program with the explicit intention of finding errors. Testing cannot show the absence of defects, it can only show that software defects are present.
Importance of Testing
System testing is a series of developed tests where primary purpose is to fully exercise the computer based system. The testing begins at the middle level and works towards the integration of the entire computer based system. Testing and debugging are different activities, but any testing strategy includes debugging strategy. Software testing must accommodate low level tests that validate the major system functions.
A good test is one that has high probability of finding the yet undiscovered errors. Testing should systematically uncover different classes of errors in a minimum effort. In the test phase, the testing of the developed system is done along with the system data.
A strategy for software testing integrates software test case design techniques into well planned steps that result in the successful construction of software. Testing is done in 3 steps.
Initially test focuses on each module individually, ensuring that it functions properly as a unit. Hence the name Unit Testing Next module must be assembled or integrated to form the complete software package. Integration testing addresses the issues associated with the dual problems of verification and program construction. After integration testing, validation criteria of the software must be tested. Hence validation testing is performed in this step Next testing step is the system testing. Software once validated must be combined with other system elements and must verify that the overall system function is achieved.
The first level of testing is unit testing in which modules of the system will be tested against the specification produced during the system design of the modules. Unit testing is essentially for verification of the code produced during the coding phase and hence the goal is to test the internal logic of the modules.
In this project and implimentation, Tracing IP Address and Website, Monitoring, File Transfer modules has been tested to see whether the communication between the remote client and servers is working properly such as connecting to a client, sending messages and so on.
The First module comprising the storing of information to the backend has been tested for the user authentication.
The next level of the testing is often called as Integration testing in which many tested modules are combined into sub-system, which are then tested. The goal here is to see if the modules can be integrated properly, the emphasis being on testing interfaces between modules. Modules in this software are combined and tested after the unit testing. After connecting all the sub modules into whole module, the connections between the modules are correctly established. The back end and front end are working as a whole module and the data entered in the front end once submitted were successfully entered into the database. On request the data was successfully retrieved. After performing the integration testing, the next steps should be the output testing of the developed system, because no system could be useful if it does not produce the required output in a specific format. The output generated by the developed system should be compared with the format required by the user. The format can be presented by using the screen.
If the user has to login the system, he should specify his name and password. When the user enters the username and password, checking is done with the already registered username and password in the database and will validate it. If they do not match, user is denied access thereby providing a strong security.
In validation testing the requirements established as part of software requirement analysis are validated against the software that has been constructed. Validation testing provides the final assurance that software meets all functional, behavioral and performance requirements. Software validation is achieved through a series of Black Box tests that demonstrate conformity with requirements.
In this phase, the entire software system was tested. After integration testing, the entire system was tested against various clients. The software has been tested for its functionality as well as limitation. The various interfaces developed were thoroughly debugged and were found to be working correctly.
TEST DATA AND RESULTS
The primary goal of software implementation is the production of source code that is easy to read and understand. Clarification of source code helps in easier debugging, testing and modification. Source code clarification is enhanced by structural coding techniques, by good coding style, by appropriate supporting documents, by good internal comments and by the features provided in the modern programming language.
In our implementation phase, source code contains both global and formal variables. It contains predefined functions as well as the user defined functions. The result of the new system is compared with old system and supposes if the result is wrong the error must be debugged.
After the acceptance of the system by the user, the existing system should be replaced by this system. Any user handles this package very easily. It does not require any intensive training for the user. Procedures and functions involved in this system are very simple that anyone can understand and correspondingly act to the system with no difficulty.
The project and implimentation entitled Ramification of Cyber Crime is a system level project and implimentation and it is beneficial to all kind of organizations that uses client-server architecture. With the growth of Computers and Internet, cyber crimes are also growing proportionally, and to prevent it steps must be taken faster than criminals to control the cyber crimes. All the malpractices done by the employees will be captured by this software and it is beneficial to the administrator to trap the people who are doing wrong. Preventive measures have been suggested in this project and implimentation so that security systems are up-to-date.
As there is no end to the technological invention, here also there are some enhancement approaches to improve this software. The project and implimentation is now based on client-server architecture. In future, this application can be converted to a wireless enabled project and implimentation also by using blue tooth technology.
It is possible to convert this project and implimentation for use in the whole internet. Additional features can be included in this software like including video facilities so that the administrator can view all the movements inside the office.
Â¢ Applied Microsoft .NET Framework Programming by Jeffrey Richter
Â¢ The Advanced C#.NET Tutorial by Gopalan Suresh Raj
Â¢ SQL Server 2000: The Complete Reference by Jeremy Shapiro
Â¢ SQL Server 2000 Developer's Guide by Michael Otey and Paul Conte
Â¢ Software Engineering by Roger. S. Pressman
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