REAL TIME FLOOD FORECASTING full report
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REAL TIME FLOOD FORECASTING
What Is Real Time Flood Forecasting ??
Real Time Flood Forecasting systems are formulated for issuing the flood warnings in real time in order to prepare the evacuation plan during flood.
FLOOD PROBLEMS IN INDIA
b) Drainage Congestion due to Urbanization.
c) Bank Erosion.
FOUR ZONES OF FLOODING IN INDIA
a) Brahmaputra River Basin.
b) Ganga River Basin.
c) North â€œWest Rivers Basin.
d) Central India and Deccan Rivers Basin.
SPECIAL FLOOD PROBLEMS
a) Problems Of Tal Areas.
b) River Bank/Bed Erosion.
c) Sediment Transport by Rivers.
d) Dam Break Flows.
e) Urban Drainage.
f) Flash floods.
g) Flood due to snowmelt.
h) Flood in Coastal Areas.
NEED FOR REAL TIME FLOOD FORECASTING
a) To evacuate the affected people to the safer places.
b) To make an intense patrolling of the flood protection works such as embankments so as to save them from breaches , failures, etc.
c) To regulate the flood through barrages and reservoirs.
d) to operate multi-purpose reservoirs.
e) to operate city drains.
DEVELOPMENT OF FLOOD FORECASTING IN INDIA
In 1969, Government created a Central Flood Forecasting Directorate.
In 1970, six Flood Forecasting divisions were set up on inter state river basins.
In 1977, the central Flood Forecasting Organisation comprised of one Chief Engineerâ„¢s Office ,3 circles and 11 divisions.
Whether the river is rising above a certain specified level, known as danger level.
Whether the river is rising or falling.
Whether the stage of the river is Ëœlowâ„¢, Ëœmediumâ„¢ or Ëœhighâ„¢.
TECHNIQUE USED IN FLOOD FORECASTING
The Real Time Data Acquisition System.
This technology assembles simple ideas to get effective results.
The project and implimentation implements machine to machine communication.
Using this system the information are collected from remote places.
Internet based technology make it easier to control & monitor the system remotely to present it easier using standard web browsers.
The system uses various sensors for detecting rainfall intensity for sensing the water level of the river.
The data is first stored in data logger, which supports CDMA transmissions.
The data is stored and transmitted at a predefined interval.
The data is transmitted through wireless medium over the internet to a data base.
Then it is analysed and hosted in the website for general information.
FEATURES OF THE PROJECT
This project and implimentation is intended for collecting the data for rainfall and water level for the areas covered by Ganga basin.
The data collected from the mapped sites are to be posted through CDMA over the internet to a data base server.
All the equipments used in this system incorporates state of the art and technology ( eg. microcontroller, processors etc) and provide capability for unattended operation for at least 1 year at remote places using 12 v single sealed maintenance free battery.
Solar supply has been arranged for that area where the electricity is inaccessible.
All the equipment has been able to withstand the hostile environment and well secured against power surge electrostatic discharge etc.
The system has an inbuilt memory that is able to store data for at least one year.
The sensors along with the accessories and facilities for flood fore casting system are basically Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge, water level detecting sensor.
a) water level detecting sensor: The water level sensor being used in the Stevenâ„¢s A/F Encoded mode A F-1.
b) Rain Gauge: Tipping bucket rain gauge.
The real time flood forecasting system protects lives and save money. The real time data acquisition system is necessary for food forecasting as the data can be collected every five minutes from the mapped station. The apex advantage of real time data acquisition system is that data is retrieved in real time. In INDIA flash floods are usually experienced, as such there is no system for formulating the flash flood forecast. It results heavy losses of lives and properties. The real time data acquisition system can be used to prevent losses due to flash floods.