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27-11-2010, 12:18 PM
RECONFIGURABLE PROCESSORS_FINAL.pptx (Size: 594.99 KB / Downloads: 87)
8th Sem ,CS
Reconfigurable processors Introduction
Compared To Other Technologies
In electronics, an integrated circuit (also known as IC, microcircuit, microchip, silicon chip, or chip) is a miniaturized electronic circuit (consisting mainly of semiconductor devices, as well as passive components) that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material. Integrated circuits are used in almost all electronic equipment in use today and have revolutionized the world of electronics.
The integrated circuit was first discovered by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce
Among the most advanced integrated circuits are the processors or "cores", which control everything from digital microwave ovens , to cellular phones to computers
An application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.
Digital signal processing (DSP) is concerned with the representation of signals by a sequence of numbers or symbols and the processing of these signals
A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by the customer or designer after manufacturing—hence "field-programmable".
Field Programmable Gate Array
Chips are prefabricated with logic blocks and interconnects.
Logic and interconnects can be programmed (erased and re-programmed) by users.
No fabrication is needed.
Interconnects are predefined wire segments of fixed lengths with
switches in between.
A reconfigurable processor is a microprocessor with erasable hardware that can rewire itself dynamically.
This allows the chip to adapt effectively to the programming tasks demanded by the particular software they are interfacing with at any given time.
While reconfiguring the chip, the connections inside the functional blocks and the connections in between the functional blocks are changing,
that means when a particular software is loaded the present hardware design is erased and a new hardware design is generated by making a particular number of connections active while making others idle.
It takes just 20 microseconds to reconfigure the entire processing array.
These new chips are able to rewire themselves on the fly to create the exact hardware needed to run a piece of software at the utmost speed. an example of such kind of a chip is a chameleon chip. This can also be called a “chip on demand”
In a conventional ASIC or FPGA, multiple algorithms are implemented as separate hardware modules. Four algorithms would divide the chip into four functional areas.
With Reconfigurable Technology, the four algorithms are loaded into the entire reconfigurable Fabric one at a time. First, the entire Fabric is dedicated to algorithm 1; during this processing time, algorithm 2 is loaded into the background place. In a single clock cycle, the entire Fabric is swapped to algorithm 2; during this processing time, algorithm 3 is loaded into the background plane. The entire reconfigurable fabric is dedicated to just one algorithm at a time.
So finally the result is: much higher performance, lower cost and lower power consumption
32-bit Risc ARC processor @125MHz
64 bit memory controller
32 bit PCI controller
reconfigurable processing fabric (RPF)
high speed system bus
programmable I/O (160 pins)
Reconfigurable Processing Fabric(RPF)
The Fabric provides unmatched algorithmic computation power to Chameleon Chip.
It consists of 84,32-bit Data path Units and 24, 16×24-bit Multipliers, Operating at 125Mhz, they provide up to 3,000 16-bit Million Multiply-Accumulates Per Second and 24,000 16-bit Million Operations Per Second.
The fabric is divided into Slices, the basic unit of reconfiguration.
The CS2112 has 4 Slices with 3 Tiles in each. Each tile can be reconfigured at runtime
Tiles contain :
Local Store Memories
Control Logic Unit
DPU & MPU
The high-performance 32bit Data path Unit (DPU): The Tile includes seven Data path Units. The DPU is a data processing module that directly supports all C and Verilog operations.
8 user-definable instructions stored in Instruction memory
Word length 32 bits, can also work on 4 8-bit and 2 16-bit data
– 16x24-bit or 16x16-bit single-cycle multiplications
RPF: Local-Store Memory
Multi-ported, 32-bit by 128-word RAM
Re-configurability: LSMs can be assembled
into different memory configurations through
Common use: Quickly load data.
Compare to Other Approaches
• FPGA and ASIC Design
– RCP is completed when DPU and control
functions are specified and mapped onto RCP.
– After get net list, FPGA/ASIC still need floor
planning, timing analysis, processor integration,
place and route.
– RCP tools runtime required only a few minutes
– FPGA/ASIC tools runtime tend to be in hours
• DSP Design
– Similar in use assembly language
– RCP offer more parallelism and more flexibility
increased performance and channel count
can more quickly adapt to new requirements and standards
lower development costs and reduce risk.
Reducing manufacturing cost.
RCP designs requires comprehensive set of tools
'Learning curve' for designers unfamiliar with reconfigurable logic
These new chips called chameleon chips are able to rewire themselves on the fly to create the exact hardware needed to run a piece of software at the outmost speed.
Its applications are in, data-intensive Internet ,DSP ,wireless base stations, voice compression, software-defined radio, high-performance embedded telecom and datacom applications, xDSL concentrators, fixed wireless local loop, multichannel voice compression, multiprotocol packet and cell processing protocols. Its advantages are that it can create customized communications signal processors ,it has increased performance and channel count, and it can more quickly adapt to new requirements and standards and it has lower development costs and reduce risk.