RELIABLE ARRAY OF INDEPENDENT NODES
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29-10-2010, 03:15 PM



.doc   RELIABLE ARRAY OF INDEPENDENT NODES.doc (Size: 301.5 KB / Downloads: 146)
RELIABLE ARRAY OF INDEPENDENT NODES

ABSTRACT


Nowadays the number of people who are using Internet is dramatically increasing. With no hesitation, it can be said that the Internet is indeed the most popular media of communication prevailing in the present world scenario. But many of the users are nowadays facing the problem of failure in maintaining the connection with the cyber world.

The prime reason for the problem is that in the existing technology of connection with the Internet, a client is connected to a server through a number of nodes which depends on each other to facilitate the flow of information. The problem with the existing technology is that, even if a single intermediate node malfunctions, the whole system collapses.
The solution to the problem is RAIN-Reliable Array Of Independent Nodes developed by the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), in collaboration with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

RAIN technology was able to offer the solution by minimizing the number of nodes in the chain connecting the client and server and also by making the existing nodes more robust and independent of each other. Also RAIN technology provides the novel feature of replacing a faulty node by a healthy one there by avoiding the break in information flow. In effect with the aid of RAIN connection between a client and server can be maintained despite all the existing problems.

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02-03-2011, 12:34 PM

presented by:
VINOD LAXMAN THORAT


.docx   Final report.docx (Size: 370.22 KB / Downloads: 81)
1.1 Back Ground-
The Internet is changing the way that people manage and access information. In the last five years, the amount of traffic on the Internet has been growing at an exponential rate. The World Wide Web has evolved from a hobbyists' toy to become one of the dominating media of our society. Ecommerce has grown past adolescence and multimedia content has come of age. Communication, computation and storage are converging to reshape the lives of everyone. Looking forward, this growth will continue for some time. The question is: what can we do to scale the Internet infrastructure to meet this growth?
There are four trends in the current growth of the Internet:
1. Internet clients are becoming more numerous and varied. In addition to the ever-increasing number of PCs in offices and homes, there are new types of clients, such as mobile data units, (cell phones, PDAs, etc.) and home Internet appliances (set-top boxes, game consoles, etc.) In the next five years, these new types of Internet devices will pervade the Internet landscape.
2. To support these new clients, new types of networks are being designed and implemented. Examples are wireless data networks, broadband networks and voice-over-IP networks. Technologies are being developed to connect these new networks with the existing Internet backbone.
3. The content delivered over the Internet is evolving, partly because of the emergence of the new clients and new networks. There will be a growing presence of multimedia content, such as video, voice, music and gaming streams. The growth in content adds not only to the volume of the traffic, but also to the computation complexity in transporting and processing the traffic, thus accelerating the convergence between communication and computation.
4. New Internet applications emerge, both on the server side and the client side. As the Internet penetrates deeper and deeper into everyone's life, the demand for security, reliability, convenience and performance sky-rockets. With the popularity of cars comes the invention of traffic lights and stop signs, the gas station and the drive-thru. As Internet makes its way into daily lives, the demand will grow for firewalls and VPNs, intrusion detection and virus scanning, server load balancing and content management, quality of service and billing/reporting applications. The list goes on, and will keep expanding.
.2 Reliability and Performance
The primary function of the Internet is for information to flow from where it is stored, traditionally known as a server, to where it is requested, commonly referred to as a client. The Internet is the network that interconnects all clients and servers to allow information to flow in an orderly way. While people become more and more dependent on this network, they demand that it become faster and more reliable. As a result, reliability and performance are becoming key challenges in many parts of the Internet infrastructure.
The communication path between a client and a server can be viewed as a chain. Each device along the path between the client and the server is a link in the chain. For example, for a user to receive a HTML page from yahoo.com, he or she would issue a request, which travels from the user's client, through a number of routers and firewalls and other devices to reach the Yahoo web server, before the data will return along the same or a similar chain. The strength of this chain, both in terms of throughput and reliability, will determine the user experience of the Internet. So, how do we make this chain stronger?
The key to reliability is redundancy. If one device fails, there must be a second device ready and able to take its place. If the second device fails, there must be a third, and so on. The key to performance is processing power. To increase capacity and speed, the customer has the choice of using a bigger, faster processor, or by dividing the task among several processors working in concert. Using a single processor limits scalability to the state of the art in processors, so that performance can only be what Moore's Law will allow. Multiple processors working in a cluster provide a more flexible and scalable architecture. Capacity can be added or subtracted at will; the overall performance to price ratio is higher; and combined with intelligent fail-over protocols; such a cluster enables higher reliability.
A clustering approach must allow multiple machines to work together as if they were a single system. The key challenge here is that all the machines in the cluster need to have consensus on the exact state of the cluster, and make collective decisions without conflicts. To address the issue of reliability, a cluster must also allow healthy machines within the cluster to automatically and transparently take over for any failed nodes. To address the issue of performance, all healthy nodes in the cluster must be actively processing in parallel, and each additional node must add processing power to the group, not detract from it. Creating such a clustering solution for the Internet infrastructure is an extremely difficult task.
Rainfinity delivers clustering solutions that allow Internet applications to run on a reliable, scalable cluster of computing nodes so that they do not become single points of failures or performance bottlenecks. The Rainfinity software manages load balancing and fail-over. It scales horizontally Without introducing additional hardware layers. Furthermore, the Rainfinity solutions can coexist with multiple Internet applications on the same physical layers. This reduces the number of links in this Internet chain, and therefore improves the overall reliability and performance of the Internet.
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#3
02-03-2011, 02:06 PM

presented by:
Vinod Laxman Thorat


.pptx   presentation.pptx (Size: 541.12 KB / Downloads: 118)
Need of RAIN Technology
Increasing number of Internet users

New types of clients
New types of networks
multimedia contents
Increase in the computation complexity
security, reliability, convenience and performance
Reliability and Performance
What is Rain?
It stands for Reliable Array of Independent Nodes
It is the technology to connect nodes in the network to have the more reliable and effective communication between them
Originated at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), in collaboration with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
Architecture
Features of RAIN
Communication
Group membership
Data storage
Interconnect Topologies
Resistance to Partitions

Advantages of RAIN
Most scalable software cluster technology
No master-slave relationship or primary-secondary pairing
Tolerate multiple node failures
Online maintenance without downtime
Online addition of new nodes
Open and highly portable
Works with a variety of hardware and software environments
Supports a heterogeneous environment
No distance limitation
Applications High Availability Video Server
collection of videos are written and encoded to all n nodes
Each node runs a client application that attempts to display a video, as well as a server application that supplies encoded video data
client performs a distributed retrieve operation
decodes the block of video data
Applications High Availability Web Server (SNOW)
SNOW stands for Strong Network Of Web Servers
To develop a highly available Fault-Tolerant Distributed Web Server Cluster that minimizes the risk of down time
Reliable communication layer
Token protocol is used
High availability and performance
Applications Distributed Check pointing Mechanism
Runs in conjunction with a leader election protocol
There is a unique node designated as leader in every connected set of nodes
Checkpoint of state is maintained at the execution of job
If a node fails or becomes inaccessible, the leader assigns the node’s job to other nodes
State of each job is then decoded and execution is resumed from the last checkpoint
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03-03-2011, 04:35 PM

presented by:
ABUBAKAR MUSA


.doc   RELIABILITY ARRAY FOR INDEPENDENT NODES (RAIN) TECHNOLOGY.doc (Size: 485.5 KB / Downloads: 635)
RELIABILITY ARRAY OF INDEPENDENT NODES (RAIN) TECHNOLOGY
ABSTRACT

The topic of the research paper is RAIN TECHNOLOGY. RAIN stands for Reliable Array of Independent Nodes. The goal of the RAIN seminar and presentation presentation is to identify key software building blocks for creating reliable distributed applications using off-the-shelf hardware. The focus of the research is on high-performance, fault-tolerant and portable clustering technology for space-borne computing.
SECTION ONE
OVERVIEW OF RAIN TECHNOLOGY
1.0 INTRODUCTION

RAIN (Reliability Array for Independent Nodes) technology originated in a research project and implimentation at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), in collaboration with National Aeronautics and Space Administration – NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The name of the original research project and implimentation was RAIN, which stands for Reliable Array of Independent Nodes. In short, the RAIN project and implimentation intended to relate distributed computing with networking protocols. It became obvious that RAIN technology was well-suited for Internet applications.
During the RAIN project and implimentation, two important assumptions were made, and these two assumptions reflect the differentiations between RAIN and a number of existing solutions both in the industry and in academia:
1. The most general share-nothing model is assumed. There is no shared storage accessible from all computing nodes. The only way for the computing nodes to share state is to communicate via a network. This differentiates RAIN technology from existing back-end server clustering solutions such as SUNcluster, HP MC Serviceguard or Microsoft Cluster Server.
2. The distributed application is not an isolated system. The distributed protocols interact closely with existing networking protocols so that a RAIN cluster is able to interact with the environment. Specifically, technological modules were created to handle high-volume network-based transactions. This differentiates it from traditional distributed computing project and implimentations such as Beowulf.
In short, the RAIN project and implimentation intended to marry distributed computing with networking protocols. It became obvious that RAIN technology was well-suited for Internet applications. During the RAIN project and implimentation, key components were built to fulfill this vision. A patent was filed and granted for the RAIN technology. Rainfinity was spun off from Caltech in 1998, and the company has exclusive intellectual property rights to the RAIN technology. After the formation of the company, the RAIN technology has been further augmented, and additional patents have been filed.
1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1. The major aim of the research work is to identify key software building blocks for creating reliable distributed applications using off-the-shelf hardware.
2. To lay emphasis on the need to build a reliable space-borne computer capable of overcoming the consequence of malfunction in existing space-borne computers.
3. To see into developing an alternative to the costly special-purpose computer systems used in space missions.
1.2 HISTORY OF RAIN TECHNOLOGY
RAIN traces its origins to 1994, when Shuki Bruck, professor of computation and neural systems and electrical engineering at Caltech, and Leon Alkalai, director of JPL’s Center for Integrated Space Microsystems, came up with an idea to improve NASA’s computer systems, both on the ground and in space.
“In the past, NASA would customize every computer component—both hardware and software—for each job, which is extremely expensive,” says Bruck, an expert in parallel and distributed computing and fault-tolerant computing. “It made sense to us to propose a project and implimentation to use commercial, off-the-shelf components.”
Bruck and Alkalai went to Washington, pitched the idea to officials with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and by 1995 got funding from NASA and DARPA to develop an alternative to the costly, special-purpose computer systems used in space missions. Bruck gathered a team of five graduate students, and by 1997 they had built a prototype of a system called the Redundant Array of Independent Nodes, or RAIN.
In the spring of 1998, Bruck approached the five graduate students who had worked on RAIN and asked them if they wanted to start a company with him. Two opted to pursue academic careers, but three signed on—Vincent Bohossian, PhD ’98, Charles Fan, PhD ’01, and Paul LeMahieu, MS ’96. In addition, Phil Love, PhD ’99, then a graduate student in applied mathematics, was recruited for the team.
Bruck, together with his business partners, then found several investors to provide a total of $2 million to launch the company, which they named Rain-finity. With the money, they set up a research office in the Old Town section of Pasadena in September 1998. They then began creating a software product so that companies would no longer have to rely on single Internet gateways to their Web sites. A com-pany’s Web site could be accessed faster, and many more people could get into the site at the same time. There would be multiple pathways to route traffic, and the system would also serve as a so--called firewall against outside security breaches and viruses. The system, called Rain-wall, was completed in 1999. It sells for $5,000 to $20,000, depending on the number of processors supported.
1.3 RAIN PROTOTYPE
The RAIN prototype was finished at a time when more people had begun going online, to shop or check out companies and products, and businesses began to recognize the Internet as a tool that was vital to their future. Bruck realized that companies that relied on the Web for business were subject to dire consequences if their systems crashed, since competition was now just a click away. And Internet sites crashed often because the computer systems handling Internet connections were not built to manage the Internet onslaught. Bruck figured that RAIN could be applied to the Internet and he began investigating the possibility of starting a company to commercialize RAIN.
1.4 FROM RAIN TO RAINFINITY
As previously stated; the RAIN project and implimentation was a research collaboration between Caltech and NASA-JPL on distributed computing, communication and data storage systems for future spaceborne missions. The goal of the project and implimentation was to identify and develop key building blocks for reliable distributed systems built with inexpensive off-the-shelf components. The RAIN software components run in conjunction with operating system services and standard network protocols. Through software-implemented fault tolerance, the system tolerates multiple node, link, and switch failures, with no single point of failure. The RAIN technology has been transferred to Rainfinity, a start-up company focusing on creating clustered solutions for improving the performance, availability and scalability of Internet data centers.
SECTION TWO
2.0 RAINFINITY HIGH AVAILABILITY SOLUTIONS

In June 10, 2002, Network resources software provider Rainfinity (Rainfinity.com) announced on Monday that it has introduced new versions of its RainWall and RainConnect high availability software solutions.
The new products, says Rainfinity, are designed to make non-stop firewall operation and Internet connectivity practical standard network components for any business facility, making high availability easy and affordable enough for small companies, along with multinational corporations, to deploy beyond the data center at virtually any location, including remote offices, branch locations, warehouses and partner sites.
RainWall 3.0, the latest version of the company’s high availability and load balancing software for firewalls and VPN gateways, says Rainfinity, is easier to use, integrates more tightly with Check Point’s NG firewalls, can fail over to nodes distributed across a campus or metro-wide LAN and can be embedded into network appliances and applications.
The company says RainWall also integrates closely with the new RainConnect 3.0 Internet connectivity product, designed to maintain Internet connectivity despite ISP connection disruptions.
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.ppt   rain.ppt (Size: 1.26 MB / Downloads: 141)
RAIN Platform
Heterogeneous network of nodes and switches
Proof of Concept: Video Server
Video client & server on every node.
Limited Storage
Insufficient storage to replicate all the data on each node.
Encoding
Encode video using 2-of-4 code.
Decoding
Retrieve data and decode.
Node Failure
Dynamically switch to another node.
Link Failure
Dynamically switch to another network path
Switch Failure
Dynamically switch to another network path.
Node Recovery
Continuous reconfiguration (e.g., load-balancing).
Features
High availability
:
• tolerates multiple node/link/switch failures
• no single point of failure
Efficient use of resources
• multiple data paths
• redundant storage
• graceful degradation
RAIN Project: Goals
Efficient, reliable distributed computing and storage systems
Interconnect Topologies
Goal:
lose at most a constant number of nodes for given network loss
Resistance to Partitions
Large partitions problematic for distributed services/computation
Related Work
Embedding hypercubes, rings, meshes, trees in fault-tolerant networks:
Bus-based networks which are resistant to partitioning:
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RAIN-Reliable Array Of Independent Nodes


.doc   RELIABLE ARRAY.doc (Size: 301.5 KB / Downloads: 10)

ABSTRACT

Nowadays the number of people who are using Internet is dramatically increasing. With no hesitation, it can be said that the Internet is indeed the most popular media of communication prevailing in the present world scenario. But many of the users are nowadays facing the problem of failure in maintaining the connection with the cyber world.

The prime reason for the problem is that in the existing technology of connection with the Internet, a client is connected to a server through a number of nodes which depends on each other to facilitate the flow of information. The problem with the existing technology is that, even if a single intermediate node malfunctions, the whole system collapses.
The solution to the problem is RAIN-Reliable Array Of Independent Nodes developed by the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), in collaboration with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

RAIN technology was able to offer the solution by minimizing the number of nodes in the chain connecting the client and server and also by making the existing nodes more robust and independent of each other. Also RAIN technology provides the novel feature of replacing a faulty node by a healthy one there by avoiding the break in information flow. In effect with the aid of RAIN connection between a client and server can be maintained despite all the existing problems.

Introduction

Back Ground-

The Internet is changing the way that people manage and access information. In the last five years, the amount of traffic on the Internet has been growing at an exponential rate. The World Wide Web has evolved from a hobbyists' toy to become one of the dominating media of our society. Ecommerce has grown past adolescence and multimedia content has come of age. Communication, computation and storage are converging to reshape the lives of everyone. Looking forward, this growth will continue for some time. The question is: what can we do to scale the Internet infrastructure to meet this growth?

Reliability and Performance

The primary function of the Internet is for information to flow from where it is stored, traditionally known as a server, to where it is requested, commonly referred to as a client. The Internet is the network that interconnects all clients and servers to allow information to flow in an orderly way. While people become more and more dependent on this network, they demand that it become faster and more reliable. As a result, reliability and performance are becoming key challenges in many parts of the Internet infrastructure.
The communication path between a client and a server can be viewed as a chain. Each device along the path between the client and the server is a link in the chain. For example, for a user to receive a HTML page from yahoo.com, he or she would issue a request, which travels from the user's client, through a number of routers and firewalls and other devices to reach the Yahoo web server, before the data will return along the same or a similar chain. The strength of this chain, both in terms of throughput and reliability, will determine the user experience of the Internet. So, how do we make this chain stronger?

RAIN Technology

Origin

RAIN technology originated in a research project and implimentation at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), in collaboration with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The name of the original research project and implimentation was RAIN, which stands for Reliable Array of Independent Nodes. The goal of the RAIN project and implimentation was to identify key software building blocks for creating reliable distributed applications using off-the-shelf hardware. The focus of the research was on high-performance, fault-tolerant and portable clustering technology for space-borne computing.
Led by Caltech professor Shuki Bruck, the RAIN research team in 1998 formed a company called Rainfinity. Rainfinity, located in Mountain View, Calif., is already shipping its first commercial software package derived from the RAIN technology, and company officials plan to release several other Internet-oriented applications.
The RAIN project and implimentation was started four years ago at Caltech to create an alternative to the expensive, special-purpose computer systems used in space missions. The Caltech researchers wanted to put together a highly reliable and available computer system by distributing processing across many low-cost commercial hardware and software components.

Fault-tolerant Interconnect Topologies

We were faced with the question of how to connect computing nodes to switching networks to maximize the network’s resistance to partitioning. Many distributed computing algorithms face trouble when presented with a large set of nodes that have become partitioned from the others. A network that is resistant to partitioning should loose only some constant number of nodes given that we do not exceed some number of failures. After additional failures we may see partitioning of the set of compute nodes, ie, some fraction of the total number of compute nodes may be lost. By carefully choosing how we connect our compute nodes to the switches, we can maximize a system’s ability to resist partitioning in the presence of faults.


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