ROUTES AVAILABLE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ACETONE
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24-11-2010, 04:02 PM



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ROUTES AVAILABLE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ACETONE


ROUTES AVAILABLE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ACETONE
About 1/3rd of the Acetone is produced worldwide is derived from the dehydrogenation of isopropanol, however it is also obtained by various methods mainly the following:-

 Oxidation of cumene and splitting of the hydro peroxide formed into phenol and acetone.
 Direct oxidation of propane / Butane or more accurately of naptha into wide variety of oxygen containing compounds, including Acetone.
 Co-oxidation of propylene & iso-butane to propylene oxide and tertiary butyl alcohol.
 Oxidation Of Isopropanol To Acetone & Hydrogen Peroxide.
 Direct Oxidation Of Propylene By Air.
 Acetone Butanol Fermentation.

MAJOR MANUFACTURER OF ACETONE IN INDIA
There are eight units in India for the production of Acetone, one each in Kerala and Gujarat and rest in Maharashtra with total installed capacity of 68,700 TPA. The Prominent Manufacturers Of Acetone Are:-
 Herdillia Chemicals Ltd, Thane Maharashtra.
 Hindustan Organic Chemicals ,Raigad Maharashtra.
 National Organic Chemicals Industries Ltd. Thane , Maharashtra.
 Shree Chalthan Vibhag Khand Udyog ,Surat Gujarat.

Demand and supply

 The demand of acetone in India get raised from 4700 MT in 1994 to 6500 MT in 1999-2000
 Present demand is 1,11000 MT/year
 The growth rate of acetone in in India is 7-8%
 Current world consumption of acetone is around 3.1 MMT and the world demand is increasing at an average rate of 3% per year
 The production of Acetone in 2003-04 was about 51,000 MT


MANUFACTURERS OF ISOPROPANOL IN INDIA
The major manufacturer of isopropanol in India are :-
 Nocil (25000 Tpa)
 Herdillia Chemicals Ltd. Maharashtra (62000 Tpa)
 Hindustan Organic Chemicals ,Raigad Maharashtra
 Deepak fertilizers & petrochemicals corporation ltd Taloja Mumbai (70,000 Mt/yr)


STATUTORY OBLIGATIONS
• The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution ) Act, 1974
• The Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution ) Cess Act, 1977
• Environment (Protection ) Act, 1986.
• Revised Standard Notified recently.

TYPE OF WASTE WATER
• INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER
• DOMESTIC WASTE WATER
• CONTAMINATED RAIN WATER
RAIN WATER

Waste Water Control

Segregated Treatment
• Sour water stripping
• Spent Caustic stream
• Oily waste water
• Cooling Tower blowdown

Typical Water Pollutants
• Oil
• Phenol
• Sulphides
• BOD
• Suspended Solids


Biological Treatment
In the case of domestic wastewater treatment, the objective of biological treatment is:
• To stabilize the organic content
• To remove nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus

Major Aerobic Biological Processes
Type of Growth Common Name Use
Suspended Growth Activated Sludge (AS) Carbonaceous BOD removal (nitrification)
Aerated Lagoons Carbonaceous BOD removal (nitrification)
Attached Growth Trickling Filters Carbonaceous BOD removal. nitrification
Roughing Filters (trickling filters with high hydraulic loading rates) Carbonaceous BOD removal
Rotating Biological Contactors Carbonaceous BOD removal (nitrification)
Packed-bed reactors Carbonaceous BOD removal (nitrification)
Combined Suspended & Attached Growth Activated Biofilter Process
 Trickling filter-solids contact process
 Biofilter-AS process
 Series trickling filter-AS process Carbonaceous BOD removal (nitrification)

Major Anoxic and Combined Biological Processes
Type of Process Type of Growth Common Name Use
Anoxic Suspended Growth Suspended Growth Denitrification Denitrification
Attached Growth Fixed-film Denitrification Denitrification
Combined Aerobic, Anoxic, and anaerobic Processes Suspended Growth Single- or multi-stage processes, various proprietary processes Carbonaceous BOD removal, nitrification, denitrification, phosphorus removal
Attached Growth Single- or multi-stage processes Carbonaceous BOD removal, nitrification,denitrification, phosphorus removal


BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (BOD)

• Organic substances in waste water are utilized as food by the microbes for survival as well as growth. Such organics are called biodegradable and include materials like starch, fats, proteins, alcohols, aldehyde, esters, ,etc. In microbial degradable process, these materials are converted into CO2 and Water.
• The amount of biodegradable organics is measured in terms of the requirement of oxygen which is called BOD and is expressed in mg/l. Estimation of BOD in a sample of waste water is done by measuring the change in DO concentration in the sample , maintained at 27C, over a period of 3 days. This is called 3-day BOD.

Sources of Water Pollution

Source Pollutants
• Pump Cooling Water Oil
• Overhead Cond. Water Oil, Sulphides, Phenols
from Distlln. Units
• Floor Washing Oil, S. Solids
• Eqpt. Cleaning Oil, S. Solids
• Spent Caustic Sulphides
• Desalter Drains Oil, D. Solids
• Stripped Sour Water Phenols, Sulphides (Brine)
from GRE/FCC/GHC units
• Crude / Product tank drains Oil, Sulphides, S. Solids

COLLECTION SYSTEM OF WASTE WATER
• ENTIRE WASTE WATER IS ROUTED THROUGH A UNDERGROUND SEWER SYSTEM SPREAD OVER THE operational AREA.
• GR/GRE SUMP:
RECEIVES WASTE WATER FROM AU-1,AU-2, AU-3,GRE, TPS, OMS AND MSQ.
• INFLUENT SUMP AT CETP:
HYDROCRACKER, CGP, SRU, AU-5, DHDS AND LAB

WATER POLLUTION CONTROL
EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT
• DESIGN CAPACITY: 1500 M3/HR
• NORMAL FLOW: 1150 M3/HR
• EFFLUENT CHARACTERISTICS

PARAMETER INFLUENT TREATED EFFLUENT MINAS
pH 6-7.5 6.5- 8.5 6– 8.5
OIL, MG/L 5000 2-5 5
BOD, MG/L 200 5-12 15
SULFIDE, MG/L 10 NT – 0.5 0.5
PHENOL, MG/L 6 0.1- 0.2 0.35
TSS, MG/L 100 5-15 20
COD, MG/L 600 20-50 150

MAIN FEATURES OF ETP
PRIMARY TREATMENT

• TPI OIL SEPARATORS FOR REMOVAL OF FREE
OIL AND SUSPENDED SOLIDS.
• DISSOLVED AIR FLOATATION UNIT FOR
REMOVAL OF EMULSIFIED OIL AND SUSPENDED
SOLIDS
SECONDARY TREATMENT :
• BIO-TOWERS AND EXTENDED AERATION FOR
BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS.

TERTIARY TREATMENT :
• GUARD PONDS, PRESSURE SAND & ACTIVATED
CARBON FILTRATION AND CHLORINATION FOR
FURTHER IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY.

TPI: Tilted Plate Interceptor
• This unit is meant for removing of free oil from the effluent to make suitable for physico-chemical and biological treatment

PRIMARY TREATMENT :
• TPI OIL SEPARATORS FOR REMOVAL OF FREE
OIL UP TO 60 MICRON SIZE AND SUSPENDED
SOLIDS.

• FLOCCULATOR FOR PRECIPITATION OF SULFIDE AS FERROUS SULFIDE
• DISSOLVED AIR FLOATATION UNIT FOR
REMOVAL OF EMULSIFIED OIL AND SUSPENDED
SOLIDS.


Flocculation Tank
• This unit is provided to flocculate the coagulations formed in the flash mixer and to add poly electrolyte in order to aid the flocculation process and to form of bigger flocs.

SECONDARY TREATMENT :
• REMOVAL OF THE REMAINING ORGANICS IN SUSPENSION AND IN SOLUTION IN THE WASTE WATER IS DONE IN THE SECONARY TREATMENT PROCESS. THIS IS ACHIEVED BY BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUE.
BIO-TOWER (TRICKLING FILTER) PROCESS
This process was developed more than 100 years ago. It essentially consists of a large size circular bed of ‘ fist size’ plastic materials. Waste water sprinkled on the top of the bed trickles down through the packing. The highly porous structure of the bed allows air to circulate through it because of a difference of temperature at the top and the bottom of the bed. Due to the presence of suspended and dissolved organics in the waste water, a layer of biomass grows over the packing surface. The biomass, also called slime, contains bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, worms, etc. That feed on the organics or bod.
BIO-TOWER
This unit is meant to remove part of organic load due to BOD,Phenols, Sulphides from the effluent. Effluent passing through the plastic media forms a thin layer and a biological slime consisting of facultative bacteria adsorbs and absorbs the organic matter as food. The spraying action by arms on peripheral wall of bio-tower keeps the slime layer in aerobic conditions. When slime layer becomes thick, inner surface becomes anaerobic & slime layer gets sloughed from the media surface, new layer is formed again and continues


EXTENDED ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS
• IS BASED ON KEEPING A MASS OF MICROORGANISMS SUSPENDED IN THE WASTE WATER.
• DONE IN AERATION TANK IN WHICH AIR IS SUPPLIED BY FIXED AERATORS
• ABUNDANT SUPPLY OF THE FOOD MATERIAL IN THE FORM OF ORGANICS (BOD) AND OXYGEN FROM AIR CREATES A HIGHLY FAVOURABLE CONDITION FOR GROWTH OF THE BIOMASS
• A PART OF THE CONSUMED BOD SUPPLIES ENERGY FOR SURVIVAL OF THE BIOMASS AND THE REST FOR THE GENERATION OF MORE CELLS
• THE MAJOR END PRODUCTS OF BIODEGRADATION ARE CO2 AND WATER.

TERTIARY TREATMENT :
• EFFLUENT FROM BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT MAY STILL CONTAIN SOME NITROGENOUS AND PHOSPHOROUS COMPOUNDS AND ALSO TOXIC SUBSTANCES. REMOVAL OF THESE SUBSTANCES IS DONE BY TERTIARY OR ADVANCED TREATMENT. A COMMON TECHNIQUE IS THE USE OF POLISHING POND WHICH IS VIRTUALLY A BIG OPEN HOLDING POND.
WATER FROM GUARD PONDS IS FURTHER PASSED THROUGH SAND & ACTIVATED CARBON FILTERS KEPT IN SERIES.
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