Reversible data-embedding scheme using di erences between original and predicted pixe
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#1
23-01-2011, 09:32 PM


Reversible data-embedding scheme using differences between original and predicted pixel values
B.Tech Seminar report
by
Sandeep A S
Department of Computer Science And Engineering
Government Engineering College, Thrissur
December 2010

report:

.pdf   Reversible data-embedding scheme using differences between original and predicted pixel values.pdf (Size: 313.83 KB / Downloads: 84)

Contents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Organization Of the Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Edge Directed Prediction 2
3 Embedding phase 4
3.1 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1.1 Input the pixel from the original image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1.2 Predict the pixel values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3.1.3 Compute the di erence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.4 Embed the secret data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1.5 Output the pixel value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4 Extracting phase 7
4.1 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.1 Input pixels from the stego image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.2 Predict the pixel values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.1.3 Compute the di erence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.4 Restore the image and retrieve the secret data . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.1.5 Output the pixel values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5 Evaluation of the proposed scheme 10
5.1 Payload capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.2 Stego-image quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
6 Conclusion 12
References 12

Abstract
Any kind of distortion is intolerable in the eld of sensitive images, such as medical or
military imaging. Reversible or loseless data embedding schemes are the only solutions
available there. In the proposed scheme, a sender embeds invisible information into
an image bit by bit. A bit is embedded at a time based on the values of predicted
and original pixel values. Since this process is reversible, the reciever can extract the
embedded data and restore the original image later. While preserving the quality of
the stego-image, this method can provide greater payload capacity and data hiding
capacity.

Chapter 1
Introduction

Data embedding techniques are extensively used in copyright marking and in the eld
of steganography. In copyright marking, a logo or secret information is embedded into
an image by the owner using any of the available data embedding techniques. Later,
this secret information is retrieved by the reciever for authentication. In steganogra-
phy, secret data is hidden in a cover image without being suspected by attackers.
The Edge Directed Prediction (EDP) scheme generates a prediction pixel value
based on prediction coecients and past casual neighbours. If the di erence between
the predicted and original pixel value is larger than a predetermined threshold, we
hide a secret bit in that pixel according to our proposed modi ction strategy. A stego
image is generated after completing the embedding phase. In the extraction phase,
original pixel value is restored after extracting the secret bit.
1.1 Organization Of the Report
1. Chapter 2 introduces Edge Directed Prediction for loseless compression.
2. Chapter 3 describes the embedding phase.
3. Chapter 4 describes the extraction phase.
4. Chapter 5 provides the evaluation of the above scheme.

Chapter 2
Edge Directed Prediction

In Li and Orchards scheme of edge prediction of lossless images, based on pixel lo-
cations in the original image, three kinds of predictors, median edge detector , low
and high-order EDPs, are used to predict pixels in an image so that serial compres-
sion codes can be generated. Later, these serial compression codes can be used to
reconstruct an original image. Pixels must be predicted pixel by pixel when they are
located in the MED and low-order EDP areas. Otherwise, they are predicted edge-by-
edge. The whole process is adapted according to the prede ned threshold. A bitmap
is required to record which pixel is used to start the switching strategy after high-
order EDP prediction. To achieve lossless compression, the prediction error between
the original pixel and the predicted one also must be recorded for later receivers to
losslessly reconstruct the image.

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19-06-2012, 05:53 PM

Reversible data-embedding scheme using differences between original and predicted pixel values


.pdf   Reversible data-embedding scheme.pdf (Size: 918.84 KB / Downloads: 33)
Abstract:

Reversible data embedding is a very important issue, especially in dealing with sensitive images such as
military data and medical data. Based on the edge-directed prediction scheme, the authors propose a reversible
data-embedding scheme to embed secret information in original images. In the proposed scheme, an embedded
pixel value is generalised according to a predetermined threshold and the difference between the predicted pixel
value and its original pixel value. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can provide great payload
capacity while preserving the quality of the stego-image.

Introduction

As a result of rapid advances in computer technology,
digitised media of all kinds, especially digital images, have
become more and more popular because of their numerous
advantages, such as easy editing, lossless copying and fast
distribution [1]. By adopting various Internet techniques, a
sender can easily send digital media to a receiver anywhere
without being restricted by geography. However, the
Internet is an open environment. Everyone can easily
access, modify or copy digital objects transmitted over the
Internet. Thus, receivers have difficulty verifying the
authenticity or integrity of received digital objects.

Related works

In this section, we briefly review some existing reversible
data-embedding schemes in Section 2.1. Then, the EDP
scheme of Li and Orchard [17], which is later applied in
our proposed scheme, is illustrated in Section 2.2.

Reviews of existing reversible dataembedding
techniques


The literature on reversible data embedding is quite limited.
Honsinger et al. [18] was the first to propose the concept, but
their scheme was designed solely for lossless authentication.
In addition, their scheme also suffered from the disturbing
salt-and-pepper noise problem. To solve that problem,
Vleeschouwer et al. [19] used a circular interpretation of
bijective transformations. Nevertheless, the payload capacity
is limited to provide an acceptable visual quality of the
embedded image.

Embedding phase

Our proposed scheme combines Li and Orchard’s scheme
and our proposed strategy for modifying the predicted
values to hide secret information in a host image and
generate a stego-image. Fig. 5 shows the five steps in our
proposed embedding phase.

Conclusions

EDP has provided an effective means for predicting lossless
compression. Our proposed scheme builds on EDP to
design a simple and lossless data-embedding scheme for
grey-level images. The experimental results also confirm
that the hiding capacity of our proposed scheme is greater
than that of either Tian’s or Celik’s scheme .
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