Routing protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network
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18-10-2010, 10:42 AM



Presented By
Nitesh Jain


.ppt   mc.ppt (Size: 558 KB / Downloads: 161)


Types of Wireless Networks

Infrastructure based(Cellular Network).

Infrastructureless Network(Mobile Ad hoc
NETwork) (MANET

Characteristics of an Ad-hoc network

Collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network
Network topology changes frequently and
unpredictably
No centralized administration or standard
support services
Host is also function as router
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#2
10-03-2011, 10:08 AM

Presented By :-
Nitesh Jain


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Routing protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Network
Types of Wireless Networks

 Infrastructure based(Cellular Network).
Infrastructureless Network(Mobile Ad hoc NETwork) (MANET).
 Characteristics of an Ad-hoc network
 Collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network
 Network topology changes frequently and unpredictably
 No centralized administration or standard support services
 Host is also function as router
 Why is Routing Different in Ad Hoc ???
 Host mobility
Dynamic topology
link failure/repair due to mobility
 Distributed Environment
 Bandwidth constrained
 Energy constrained
 Categorization of Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols
 Table Driven Routing Protocol
 Proactive.
 Each node maintains one or more tables containing routing information to every other node in the network.
 Tables need to be consistent and up-to-date view of the network.
 Updates propagate through the network
 Source Initiated On demand routing protocol
 Reactive.
 on-demand style: create routes only when it is desired by the source node
 When a node requires a route to a destination, it initiates a route discovery process
 Route is maintained until destination becomes unreachable, or source no longer is interested
in destination.
 Table Driven Routing Protocol
 Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector Protocol
(DSDV)
Basic Routing Protocol
 Based on Bellman ford routing algorithm with some improvement
 Each node maintains a list of all destinations and number of hops to each destination.
 Each entry is marked with a sequence number.
 Periodically send table to all neighbors to maintain
topology
• Two ways to update neighbors:
– Full dump
– Incremental update
 Example of DSDV
Clusterhead Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR)
 Similar to DSDV
 Based on concept of clusters and cluster heads
 Routing is done via the cluster heads and gateways
 A routing table among cluster heads are
 Maintained
Example of CGSR
 Source Initiated On demand routing protocol
 Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing(AODV)
 Pure on-demand protocol
 Node does not need to maintain knowledge of another
node unless it communicates with it
 AODV includes route discovery and route maintenance.
 AODV minimizes the number of broadcasts by creating routes on-demand
 AODV uses only symmetric links because the route reply packet follows the reverse path of route request packet
 AODV uses hello messages to know its neighbors and to ensure symmetric links
Path discovery
 In the path discovery (RREQ) phase, source broadcasts RREQ message.
 Intermediate nodes record in their route tables the address of neighbor from which RREQ is received to establish a reverse path.
 When RREQ reaches destination or an intermediate node responds by unicasting a route reply (RREP) back to neighbor.
 Path maintenance
 If source node moves, reestablish the path.
 If destination or intermediate node moves, send link failure notification message to each of its active upstream.
 Then reinitiate path discovery .
Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR)
 on-demand
 A node maintains route cache containing the
routes it knows
 Two main phases
• Route discovery
• Route maintenance
 Basic Operation is similar to AODV.
 Main difference
• To use routing cache for link failure.
• When route discovery phase, node send route request message with its own address.
 Example of DSR
 Hybrid Routing Protocols
Zone Routing Protocol
 Hybrid of table-driven and on-demand!!
 From each node, there is a concept of “zone”.
• Within each zone, the routing is performed in a
table-driven manner (proactive).
• However, a node does not try to keep global
routing information.
 For inter-zone routing, on-demand routing is
used.
Example of ZPR
 Three types of nodes:
• Border Nodes
• Peripherals Nodes
• Interior Nodes
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