Rural Roads Development in India- Opportunities and Challenges
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22-10-2010, 05:00 PM

.pdf   Class 10 - Rural Road Development in India- Opportunities and Challenges.pdf (Size: 164.96 KB / Downloads: 227)
Rural Roads Development in India- Opportunities and Challenges

Functional Classifications of Highways in India

Primary Roads
- Expressways
- National Highways (NH)
o Secondary Roads
- State Highways (SH)
- Major District Roads (MDR)
o Tertiary Roads
- Other District Roads (ODR) Rural Roads
- Village Roads (VR)

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26-02-2013, 12:11 PM

Rural Road Devolepment

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Objectives of Rural Road Devolepment

Rural Road connectivity is a key component of rural development by promoting access to economic and social services and thereby generating increased agricultural incomes and productive employment opportunities. It is also a key ingredient in ensuring poverty reduction.
It was against this background of poor connectivity that the Prime Minister and State Chief Minister announced in 2000, a massive rural roads program. set a target of:
• Achieving all-weather road access to every village/habitation with a population greater than 1000 by 2003
• Providing all-weather road access to all villages/habitations of population greater than 500 people [250 in case of hill States (North-Eastern states, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Uttaranchal), the desert areas and tribal areas] by the end of the Tenth Five Year Plan, i.e., 2007

All Weather Road

All weather road is a road that’s motorable all year by the prevailing means of rural transport. There will no interruption of traffic during the construction of the project and implimentation road.

Core Network

The rural road network required for providing the ‘basic access’ to all villages/ habitations is termed as the Core Network. Basic access is defined as one all-weather road access from each village/ habitation to the nearby Market Centre or Rural Business Hub (RBH) and essential social and economic services.
A Core Network comprises of Through Routes and Link Routes. Through routes are the ones which collect traffic from several link roads or a long chain of habitations and lead it to a market centre or a higher category road, i.e. the District Roads or the State or National Highways. Link Routes are the roads connecting a single habitation or a group of habitations to Through Roads or District Roads leading to Market Centres. Link Routes generally have dead ends terminating on habitations, while Through Routes arise from the confluence of two or more Link Routes and emerge on to a major road or to a Market Centre.
The Core Network may not represent the most convenient or economic route for all purposes. However, since studies show 85-90% of rural trips are to market centres, the Core Network is likely to be a cost-effective conceptual frame work for investment and management purposes, particularly in the context of scarce resources.


The district is located in the southern part of Tamil Nadu. It is surrounded by Virudhunagar District in the north, the Western Ghats in the west, Kanyakumari District in the south and Thoothukudi District in the east. The district covers an area of 6,823 km2. It lies between 8°05’ and 9°30’ north latitude and 77°05’ and 78°25’ east longitude. The district has diverse geographical and physical features. It has mountains (a stretch of the Western Ghats and lowland plains. It has a perennial river (the Tamirabarani) and small seasonal rivers. The district has many scenic waterfalls. Its physical features include sandy soil and fertile alluvium, a variety of flora, fauna and protected wildlife. The district also has inland and mountainous forests.

Climatic Condition

The weather during the summer months of March, April and May are hot and dry. The maximum temperature is around 35°C.The monsoon months are August, September, and October. The average rainfall is around 700mm.

The Sub-Project Road

The Road passes through plain terrain. The proposed carriage way is 3.75 m with shoulder width of 1.875 m on both sides. Hence the total formation is 7.50 m. There is no existing culvert. With sufficient ROW the existing alignment can be followed and there is no need for land acquisition.

Topographic Survey


Topographic survey is carried out by using TOTAL STATION. Detailed Ground reconnaissance is taken with survey. Topological features, typical physical features along the existing road within and outside of road collected and plotted. Longitudinal sections levels along the centre line at every 25m interval and at the location of curve points, small streams intersection and at the location of change in elevation are taken. Cross section at every 50 m interval along the existing road. Cross sections are also taken in closer interval at curves. Longitudinal sections for cross roads for its length of 100m on either side are surveyed. Details of existing cross chainage and their locations are plotted. Physical features such as buildings, Trees of 0.3m of width and above, E.B Lines, Burrial grounds, Monuments, Railway Lines, Canals, Drainage channels are located by means of offsets. In formation on highest flood level, rainfall intercity, catchments areas of streams are collected. Conducting the above survey, in plain and rolling terrain L.S are prepared in 1:3000 in horizontal and 1:3000 in vertical scale. Benchmark is mentioned in plan for every km.
The in-house standards, work procedures and quality plan prepared with reference to IRC: SP 19-2001, IRC: SP 20, IRC: SP 13 (in respect of surveys for rivers/streams) and current international practices have been followed during the above survey.

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