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30-01-2009, 04:03 PM
Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. In many areas of the world satellite television services supplement older terrestrial signals, providing a wider range of channels and services, including subscription-only services.
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15-10-2010, 10:45 AM
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DIRECT TO HOME (DTH)
Overview of the Industry
The history of Indian television dates back to the launch of doordarshan, India’s national TV network in 1959. The transmission was in black & white. The 9th Asian games which were held in 1982 in the country’s capital New Delhi heralded the mark of color TV broadcasting in India. In 1991, Indian economy was liberalized from the License Raj and major initiatives like inviting foreign direct investments, deregulation of domestic business emerged. This lead to the in flux of foreign channels like Star TV and creation of domestic satellite channels like Sun TV and Zee TV. This virtually destroyed the monopoly held by doordarshan. In 1992, the cable TV industry started which lead to revolution.
Every city in the India had a complex web of co-axial cables running through the streets with a new breed of entrepreneurs called as cablewallahs or Local Cable Operators (LCO) taking in charge of distribution. The film industry was shocked by this sudden growth and there were even organized protests for calling off the Cable TV industry. There were simply too many cable operators in the country and the channels had a difficult time in getting its returns as the existing system was a non-addressable and the operators could simply give a reduced number of subscribers to amass profit. This lead to the emergency of a new breed of firms called as Multi System Operators (MSO) who had heavy financial muscles to make capital investments. . The MSO industry became highly monopolistic which warrants government participation to ensure competition.
Later on, the United Front Government had issued a ban on use of ku band transmission. After a change of government, the ban got lifted finally in 2001 and TRAI issued the guidelines for operating DTH. Country’s first private DTH license was awarded to Dish TV in 2003 which started operations in 2004. Prasar Bharati also started its product DD-Direct+.
DTH Digital TV system receives signals directly from satellite through the dish, decodes it with the Set-Top Box and then sends stunningly clear picture and sound to TV which is the business under taken by some companies by observing the rate of growth and scope for business & opportunity in the Indian market which has 120 million viewers of TV.
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04-01-2011, 12:18 AM
can u give me doc and power point presentation regarding SATELLITE TELIVISION
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04-01-2011, 10:14 AM
document is there attached in 2nd post.please download it.
a related thread is here
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23-02-2011, 10:48 AM
DTH â€“ The Future and present.ppt (Size: 316.5 KB / Downloads: 99)
Satellite television transmission Direct-to-Home
DishTV brings you 160 digital channels straight from the satellite to your home. Enjoy uninterrupted viewing without any transmission cuts, that too with crystal clear digital quality picture and stereo phonic sound. It can became a major source of high speed internet delivery to an individual’s home
What is DTH ?
In general, DTH TV service is the one in which a large number of channels are digitally compressed, encrypted and beamed from very high power satellites. The programmes can be directly received at homes.
1945 Arthur C. Clark's Dream
HBO Moves to Satellite, Taylor Howard Builds a Dish
1981 - 1985 Dish Fever Grows
January 15, 1986 The DTH World Changes Forever
December 2, 1986 The First Signs of Unity
1987 - 1993 Piracy Dominates DTH
1994 Ready for DBS
first proposed in India in 1996
in 2000, DTH was allowed (valid for 10 years)
How Does tv work
Who are the major Players?
Zee group promoted Dish TV was the first to start DTH operations in India
The latest entrant in India is Tata-Sky is a joint venture between the Tata group and News corporation's Star TV.
DTH – Its Present and Future
The government is estimated to be investing over Rs 300 crore (Rs 3 billion) in this DTH venture.
Tata-Sky have joined to launch a DTH in India with 5 B $
Zee group's is going to launched Dish TV in Apr. 2007
How does DTH really differ from cable TV?
Does one need to put two dish antennae and pay double subscription per month if one has two TVs?
Can a CAS set-top box be used for DTH?
Is DTH superior to cable TV?
Is it a feasible solutions?
To those people and those pockets of the country where cable and Doordarshan have not yet reached.
A Solution for an problematic accessibility to the satellite channels
Electronic Programme Guide, Parental Lock, Capacity up to 400 channels, Video Games, Interactive TV, Movie on Demand etc that act as value enhancements.
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Satellite tv is delivered by the means of communication satellite and received by an outdoor antenna.
In many areas of world satellite tv provide a wide range of channel and services,often to areas that are not serviced by terrestrial or cable providers.
Satellite TV systems also transmit and receive radio signals using specialized antennas called Satellite Dishes.
Satellite tv's history stretches back to 1945 when Arthur C.Clarke proposed,that by placing 3 spaced platform into special orbit 22,300miles above equator,world wide communication were possible.
The first Satellite tv signal was relayed from Europe to Telstar satellite over North America in 1962.
WHY SATELLITE TV ?
Problems related to Broadcast t.v
Satellite t.v solves the problem of range and distortion by transmitting broadcast signal from satellite orbiting the earth.
HOW SATELLITE TV WORKS?
SATELLITE ARE HIGHER IN THE SKY THAN TV ANTENNAS SO THEY HAVE A MUCH LARGER LINE OF SIGHT
TV satellites are all in geosynchronous orbit.
Launched into space about 7000 mph reaching approx. 22,200 miles above earth.
This speed and altitude will make satellite revolve around the planet every 24 hrs.
Due to this you only have to direct the dish at the satellite once, and then pick up the signal without adjustment.
SATELLITE TV SYSTEM
Most satellite TV customers get their programing through a Direct Broadcast satellite (DBS) provider such as DirecTV OR DISH network.
The provider selects program and broadcasts them to subscribers as a set package.
The provider’s broadcast is completely digital.
Earlier satellite TV was broadcast in C-band radio in 3.7 GHz-4.4GHz.
DBS transmits programming in Ku frequeny range. (11.7-14.5 GHz).
5 MAJOR COMPONENTS INVOLVED IN DBS SYSTEM
Satellite providers get programming from 2 major source - National Turnaround channels and various Local channels.
Turnaround channels have a distribution center that beams their programming directly to geosynchronous satellite; while the local stations don't transmit.
To provide local signals in package,service provider set up some communication equipments which receives the signals directly from broadcaster through fiber-optic cables and then transmits to central broadcast center.
Broadcast center converts all this programming into a high quality,uncompressed digital stream.
STANDARDS OF COMPRESSION
Compression means removal of unnecessary or repetitive information from the signal before transmission.
Satellite t.v uses video file compression standardized by MPEG.
With MPEG compression,provider can transmit significantly more no.of channels.
At present Satellite t.v use MPEG-4 compression, which provides high-definition of quickly moving objects that constantly change place and direction on the screen.
Encoding works in conjunction with compression.
Overall size of file is reduced.
There are 3 ways to encode:-
a) Intra-frame-contains complete image data.
b) Predicted frame-how the picture has changed from previous frame.
c) Bi-directional frame-use data from closest frames and the receiver interpolates the position and color of each pixel.
Encryption and Transmission
After compression, the provider encrypts it to keep people from accessing it for free.
Encryption scrambles the digital data which can be decrypted only if the receiver has correct decryption algorithm and security tips.
Once the signal is compressed and encrypted the broadcast center beams it directly to one of its satellites.
It is special type of antenna to focus on specific broadcast source.
It consists of a parabolic surface and a central feed horn.
To transmit a signal ,a controller sends it through the horn and the dish focuses the signal into a relatively narrow beam.
In receiving antenna,when the beam hits the curved surface,it reflects the signal and focuses on feed horn,which transmits the signal on to the receiving equipment .
The central element in feed horn is LNB.
SATELLITE T.V IN INDIA
Satellite t.v in India dates back to Jan 1991 when translational satellite broadcasting debuted in India with reception of CNN covering the Persian Gulf War.
In India, DTH and satellite t.v is a recent phenomenon.The key players are DishTv and TATASKY.
The end component in the entire TV system.
It has 4 essential jobs:
It de-scrambles the encrypted signal.
It takes the digital MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 signal and converts it into an analog format that a standard television can recognize.
It extracts the individual channels from the larger satellite signal.
It keeps track of pay-per-view programs and periodically phones a computer at the provider's headquarters to communicate billing information.
CATEGORIES OF USAGE
1. Direct Broadcast via Satellite:
Also known as “Direct -To-Home”.
Refers to communication satellite themselves or actual television service.
DBS system commonly known as “mini-dish systems”.
Uses upper portion of Ku and Ka band.
If modified can run on C-BAND satellites.
2. TELEVISION RECEIVE ONLY
In 1978 MICROCOMM, a small company introduced 1st commercial satellite TV receiver.
Designed to receive analog and satellite feeds of both television or audio.
TVRO systems tend to use larger than smaller satellite dish antenna.
SIMULSAT is a quasi-parabolic satellite earth station antenna.
SATELLITE TV ADVANTAGES
Satellite TV offers movie-quality, audio and picture display with hundred of channels.
The service is available in urban and rural areas.
It also provides access to more digital and High Defination Programing.
SATELLITE TV DISADVANTAGE
It is expensive as we will have to purchase all equipments at the outset.
If we want access to satellite TV in multiple rooms the cost will increase further.
Satellite TV is subject to weather related malfunctions.
Satellite t.v systems seems most appealing to person's who either are disenchanted with cable t.v or who lives in areas that are not served by cable.
These systems operate with small antenna and low cost receiving systems.
Very large no.of video and audio channels.
Delivery of bit stream through broadcast satellite can be adapted to serve internet users who require the download of large data.
Both DirectTv and DishTv offer internet access terminals with uplink capability.