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seminar presentation
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06-06-2010, 11:08 PM


Presented By:
V. Chandrasekhar 1
G. Murali Krishna Yadav 2
pursuing PhD, JNTU Hyderabad, A.P., India,
4 Semester, M.Tech( CSE ), KBNCE, Gulbarga Karnataka, India


Numerous schemes have been proposed for secure
routing protocols, and Intrusion Detection and Response
Systems, for ad hoc networks. In this paper, we present a
proof-of-concept implementation of a secure routing
protocol based on AODV over IPv6, further reinforced by
a routing protocol-independent Intrusion Detection and
Response system for ad-hoc networks. Security features in
the routing protocol include mechanisms for non-
repudiation, authentication using Statistically Unique and
Cryptographically Verifiable (SUCV) identifiers, without
relying on the availability of a Certificate Authority (CA),
or a Key Distribution Center (KDC). We present the
design and implementation details of this system, the
practical considerations involved, and how these
mechanisms can be used to detect and thwart malicious
attacks. We discuss several scenarios where the secure
routing and intrusion detection mechanisms isolate and
deny network resources to nodes deemed malicious. We
also discuss shortcomings in this approach and conclude
with lessons learned, and ideas for future work.

1. Introduction

Recent years have witnessed a proliferation of mobile
devices. Corporations and government agencies alike are
increasingly using embedded and wireless technologies,
and working towards mobilizing Mobile devices typically
support several forms of wireless connectivity like
802.11, IrDA, Bluetooth, etc. Among them, Converged
Mobile devices “ devices with integrated functionality of
cell-phones and PDAs, make use of services like GSM
and GPRS, for access to the Internet. Due to technology
limitations, however, wireless access to the service
providing infrastructure is limited to particular areas.
Moreover, buildings and other physical obstructions
further restrict availability. Consequently, the productivity
of a mobile workforce relying solely on infrastructure-
based network services is restrictive and unsatisfactory.
Reliable communication is a necessity for nodes in a
dense network of independent mobile devices such as,
participants in a meeting. Several co-operative
mechanisms exist which enable such devices to interact
through peer relationships, even in the absence of
infrastructure support. Other factors of cost, response
time, and efficiency strongly motivate the use of ad hoc
networks. Ad hoc networks, as the name suggests, have
no supporting infrastructure. Ad hoc networks are
comprised of a dynamic set of cooperating peers, which
share their wireless capabilities with other similar devices
to enable communication with devices not in direct radio-
range of each other, effectively relaying messages on
behalf of others. Conventional methods of identification
and authentication are not available, since the availability
of a Certificate Authority or a Key Distribution Center
cannot be assumed. Consequently, mobile device
identities or their intentions cannot be predetermined or
verified. Several routing protocols for ad-hoc networks
have been proposed like DSDV, DSR, AODV, TORA
etc. A majority of these protocols assume a trustworthy
collaboration among participating devices that are
expected to abide by a code-of-conduct. Herein lie
several security threats, some arising from shortcomings
in the protocols, and others from the lack of conventional
identification and authentication mechanisms. These
inherent properties of ad hoc networks make them
vulnerable, and malicious nodes can exploit these
vulnerabilities to launch various kinds of attacks. To
protect the individual nodes and defend the Mobile Ad
Hoc Network (MANET) from malicious attacks, intrusion
detection and response mechanisms are needed.
Conventional Intrusion Detection Systems(IDS) have
relied on monitoring real-time traffic at switches,
gateways, and routers. Vulnerabilities in Mediu m Access
Control(MAC) for wired networks have been protected by
physical partitioning and restricted connectivity amongst
networks. The wireless connectivity of mobile nodes
shares a common medium but cannot be partitioned, nor
can the mobility of the nodes be restricted. Mobility
introduces additional difficulty in setting up a system of
nodes cooperating in IDS. A nodeâ„¢s movements cannot be
restricted in order to let the IDS cooperate or collect data
and a node cannot be expected to monitor the same
physical area for an extended period of time. A single
node may be unable to obtain a large enough sample size
of data to accurately diagnose other nodes. Several
architectures and detection mechanisms for IDS for
MANETs have been proposed so far. Simulations and
illustrations have been used to validate the feasibility of
proposed schemes for secure routing and intrusion
detection. However, to the best of our knowledge, this
combination of a secure routing protocol and IDS is the
first actual implementation. We present a detailed analysis
of issues involved in the implementation and deployment
of a secure routing protocol and an IDS. In this paper we
describe implementation of a Secure routing protocol,
SecAODV. We also provide a description of the IDS
module. Furthermore, we discuss several other routing
protocols proposed in the literature, in the related work
section. For the Secure AODV (henceforth referred to as
SecAODV) we have adapted the AODV implementation
by Tuominen , and added security features to it, which
have been previously proposed. Further the security of the
MANET is enhanced by deploying a stateful packet
snooping Intrusion Detection System (IDS) based on an
algorithm proposed in our previous work. SecAODV and
the Snooping IDS complement each other in being able to
detect most of the prevalent attacks. Our goal is to detect
malicious or chronically faulty nodes and deny them
network resources. We describe different kinds of security
threats in pervasive environments. We then describe the
design nd implementation of SecAODV and IDS, and
discuss how this combination protects benign nodes in the
MANET. We conclude with a discussion on lessons
learned in our implementation, feasibility of proposed
methods, and ideas for future research.

2.1. Secure Routing Protocols

As previously mentioned, a majority of the routing
protocols proposed in the literature assume non-hostile
environments. MANETs are extremely vulnerable to
attacks due to their dynamically changing topology,
absence of conventional security infrastructures and open
medium of communication, which, unlike their wired
counterparts, cannot be secured. To address these
concerns, several secure routing protocols have been
proposed: SAODV, Ariadne, SEAD, CSER, SRP, SAAR,
BSAR, and SBRP. Implementation of the SecAODV is
based upon the protocol proposed in BSAR and SBRP for
DSR. This solution is a highly adaptive distributed
algorithm designed for IPv6-based MANETs that do not
prior trust relations between pairs of nodes (e.g. a
trusted third party or a distributed trust establishment)
time synchronization between nodes, or
prior shared keys or any other form of secure
The protocol provides on-demand trust establishment
among the nodes collaborating to detect malicious
activities. A trust relationship is established based on a
dynamic evaluation of the senderâ„¢s secure IP and
signed evidence, contained in the SecAODV header. This
routing protocol enables the source and destination nodes
to establish a secure communication channel based on the
concept of Statistically Unique and Cryptographically
Verifiable (SUCV) identifiers which ensure a secure
binding between IP addresses and keys, without requiring
any trusted CA or KDC. The concept of SUCV is similar
to that of Cryptographically Generated Address (CGAs).
SUCVs associate a hostâ„¢s IPv6 address with its public key
that provides verifiable proof of ownership of that IPv6
address to other nodes.

2.2. Intrusion Detection Schemes

MANETs present a number of unique problems for
Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). Differentiating
between malicious network activity and spurious, but
typical, problems associated with an ad hoc networking
environment is a challenging task. In an ad hoc network,
malicious nodes may enter and leave the immediate radio
transmission range at random intervals or may collude
with other malicious nodes to disrupt network activity and
avoid detection. Malicious nodes may behave maliciously
only intermittently, further complicating their detection.
The loss or capture of unattended sensors and personal
computing devices may allow for a malicious node to
obtain legitimate credentials and launch more serious
attacks. A node that sends out false routing information
could be a compromised node, or merely a node that has a
temporarily stale routing table due to volatile physical
conditions. Dynamic topologies make it difficult to obtain
a global view of the network and any approximation can
become quickly outdated. Traffic monitoring in wired
networks is usually performed at switches, routers and
gateways, but an ad hoc network does not have these
types of network elements where the IDS can collect audit
data for the entire network. A wired network under a
single administrative domain allows for discovery, repair,
response, and forensics of suspicious nodes. A MANET is
most likely not under a single administrative domain,
making it difficult to perform any kind of centralized
management or control. Network traffic can be monitored
on a wired network segment, but ad hoc nodes or sensors
can only monitor network traffic within its observable
radio transmission range. Zhang and Lee categorize host-
based IDSs based on anomaly detection and misuse
detection. Anomaly detection-based systems detect
intrusions based on an established baseline of normal
behavior. Misuse detection involves identifying attack
signatures and usage patterns associated with known
attacks. They point out that unlike wired networks there
are no fixed concentration points where real-time traffic
monitoring can be done; audit collection is limited by
radio-range of the devices. Also, communication patterns
are different from wireline devices and mobile devices are
often expected to operate in disconnected mode.
Anomalies are not easily distinguishable from localized,
incomplete, and possibly outdated information. So,
anomaly detection schemes are not directly applicable in
wireless ad hoc networks. Hence, they propose a new
architecture for IDS, based on IDS agents. Other
proposals include use of mobile agents trained to detect
intrusions and specification based algorithms. The
performance costs and security risks associated with these
approaches, however, limit their practical uses. Cheng
describe several attacks possible in the base AODV
protocol. They illustrate the use of a finite state machine
to detect anomalous behavior in order to determine
attacks. They also suggest the use of an additional
previous hop field to ascertain the source/path of AODV
control messages. This approach to intrusion detection is
similar to that proposed by Zhang and Lee. We deploy
IDS monitors on individual nodes for detecting intrusions
within radio range. We consider these local monitors as
building blocks for further work on collaborative IDS
schemes for MANETs.


Attacks can be targeted at the routing protocol in which
the malicious node actively disrupts the functioning of the
cooperative routing mechanisms. A secure routing
protocol is intended to minimize or prevent the impact of
possible attacks against nodes in a MANET. In general,
the attacks can be classified as:
I. Routing disruption attacks
II. Resource consumption attacks
III. Attacks on data traffic

3.1. Routing Disruption attacks

In a routing disruption attack, a malicious node
intentionally drops control packets, misroutes data, or
disseminates incorrect information about its neighbors
and/or its pre-discovered routing capabilities to particular
destinations. An attacker might try to:
(i) forge messages by spoofing originator or
destination addresses,
(ii) signal false route errors or modify route error
(iii) alter or replace originator, destination or sender
addresses in routed messages.

3.2. Resource Consumption attacks

In a resource consumption attack also known as
resource exhaustion attacks, an attacker might try to
consume network resources by:
(i) initiating large number of route requests to
bogus destinations in order to exhaust the resources
of the network, or
(ii) playing the gray hole attack or selective
dropping of packets, resulting in increased
number of route requests from neighbor nodes that
have limited routing capabilities, exhausting
neighborsâ„¢ resources.

3.3. Colluding adversaries

A group of malicious nodes can collude in attacking the
network causing far more damage than a single node. In
general, if keying material is compromised or a
malcicious node colludes with others to intentionally
disrupt communications, the extent of damage increases
with the number of colluding adversaries and the
availability of keying material. Several typical attacks
against MANETs have been identified in the literature as
(i) The Wormhole attack . An adversary listens to
a message in one part of the network, and replays it
in another part of the network with the help of
another colluding, malicious node.Wormhole
attacks can be classified under colluding
adversaries that have cryptographic key material.
(ii) The Invisible-node attack . This attack can be
launched by any node in the routing path. It can be
considered as a man-in-the-middle attack. The
damage caused by this attack is limited to the path
on which the node is present and it can be classi-
fied under non-colluding adversaries attack.
(iii) The Rushing attack . This attack can be launched
against any protocol that implements a suppression
function for duplicate packets (i.e., duplicate
packet detection and suppression) or some kind of
waiting time. The damage caused by this attack
depends on the protocol under question. In this
attack, an adversary rushes a spurious packet to a
destination (possibly to an intermediate node on the
path or to a destination) making the legitimate
packet look like a duplicate. Thus, the legitimate
packet is discarded. The technique of duplicate
suppression is usually used to make routing based
on network flooding efficient. More efficient, non-
flooding methods will render this attack harmless.

4.1. Assumptions and observations

is the queuing packet handler. The ip6 nf aodv
module decides whether a packet is queued or not. It also
manipulates the route lifetime. If the queue handler
module is not registered, the packets are dropped. The
aodvd daemon allows for specific settings from
debugging information to configuration file, logging
information, etc. For more information and detailed
description of the functions can be found .
Interfaces have a promiscuous mode to monitor
4.2.2. Secure
Key lengths are sufficiently long, making it
infeasible to compute or guess a private key
knowing only the public key, but on the other
hand do not make signature computation and
verification computationally expensive for the
mobile device
Normal packet drop rates can be dynamically
determined and thresholds established to
distinguish malicious behavior from trustworthy
We do not, however, require MAC addresses to be
unforgeable, since the SUCV identifiers provide secure
bindings between IPv6 addresses and public keys. Identity
is not determined by MAC addresses alone. Spoofing of
IPv6 addresses and MAC addresses can be detected, since
signature verification will fail unless private keys have
been compromised. A malicious node may change its own
MAC address and IPv6 address periodically to evade
detection. Thus, to go undetected, the attacker will need to
change their IPv6 address very often, and incur the
additional expense of computing a SUCV identifier every
time. Consequently such an attack is largely ineffective,
and quite expensive for the attacker.

4.2. SecAODV
4.2.1. Overview

The SecAODV implements two concepts which are
common features in both BSAR and SBRP Secure
binding between IP version 6 (IPv6) addresses and the
RSA key generated by the nodes themselves, and
independent of any trusted security service, and Signed
evidence produced by the originator of the message and
signature verification by the destination, without any form
of delegation of trust IPv6 was adopted for its large
address space, portability and suitability in generating
SUCVs. Of special importance is the address auto-
configuration feature available in IPv6 that allows IP
auto-configuration for the nodes on a need basis. The
implementation follows Tuominenâ„¢s design. It uses two
kernel modules: ip6 queue and ip6 nf aodv, and
a user space daemon aodvd. The ip6 queue module


To join a MANET, a node executes a script that sets its
Service Set Identifier (SSID) using the iwconfig
utility. The script then proceeds to install and configure
all IPv6 and SecAODV related kernel modules, and
finally starts the aodvd daemon. The daemon obtains its
site and global subnet identifiers, and runtime parameters
from a configuration file and/or from the command line.
The aodvd daemon then generates a 1024-bit RSA key
pair. Using the public key of this pair, the securely bound
global and site-local IPv6 addresses are generated. To
derive the addresses, a node generates a 64-bit pseudo-
random value by applying a one-way, collision-resistant
hash function to the newly generate, uncertified, RSA
public key. However, only 62 bits out of the generated 64
bits will then be used for the IPv6 address because 2 bits
of the address space are reserved. The final IP is
generated by concatenating the subnet identifier with the
pseudo-random value derived from the public key and by
setting the 2 reserved bits, according to RFC 3513 (2373).
A source node uses the secure binding to authenticate its
IP address to an arbitrary destination. Upon completion of
the RSA keys generation and IP address configuration,
SecAODV can optionally broadcast Hello-type, signed
messages to its neighbors (using the multicast address
ff02::1 ) to make its presence known. Upon IPv6
address and signature verification, the neighbors update
their routing tables with the new information.

4.3. Overview of working of SecAODV over IPv6

The AODV protocol, as proposed by RFC 3561, is
comprised of two basic mechanisms, viz. route discovery
and maintenance of local connectivity mechanisms. The
Route Discovery mechanism is employed in an Ad Hoc,
On Demand fashion. The source node S - the device that
requests communication with another member of the
MANET referred to as destination D - initiates the
process by constructing and broadcasting a signed route
request message RREQ. The format of the RREQ message
differs from the one proposed. An AODV message
contains the RSA public key of the source node S and that
it is digitally signed to ensure the nodeâ„¢s authentication
and message integrity (refer to fig. 1). Upon receiving a
RREQ message, each node member of the MANET
authenticates the source node S and verifies message
integrity by checking the IP address using the same secure
bootstrapping algorithm described in section 4.3.2, and by
verifying the signature against the provided public key.
Upon successful completion of the verification process,
the node updated its routing table with the source and
router IP addresses, if any, and then checks the
destination IP address. If the message is not addressed to
it, it rebroadcasts the RREQ. If the current node is the
destination, it constructs a route reply message RREP)
addressed to the source node S. The message is signed
and it includes the destinationâ„¢s public key as shown in
Fig. 1. The destination node D unicasts the RREP back to
the neighboring node that initially forwarded the RREQ.
The neighbor address is retrieved from its own routing
table, under source address. Upon receiving a RREP, any
routing node verifies the destination Dâ„¢s IP address and
signature against the included public key, updates its own
routing table with the destination D and router addresses,
if any, and unicasts the message to the router listed in its
routing table under the source S address entry. If the route
entry to S does not exist or has expired, the message is
neighbors. If the source node does not receive any reply
in a predetermined amount of time, it rebroadcasts new
route requests. A detailed explanation of the process can
be found. The Maintenance of Local Connectivity
mechanism is optionally achieved by periodically
broadcasting Hello-type messages. In our implementation
these messages are signed and contain the senderâ„¢s public
key for authentication and message integrity verification.
Additional information on local connectivity maintenance
can be found. During our implementation and testing of
AODV and SecAODV, we observed that the protocolâ„¢s
performance is very sensitive especially to the HELLO
INTERVAL and all parameters related to it: ACTIVE
TIMEOUT, described. From our experience we learned
that the best practice for optimal performance is to set the
lifetime of the route entry for the intermediated nodes to
the NET TRAVERSAL TIME plus the local message
verification time. In this way, for a well-configured
network, operating in an ideal, noisefree environment, the
communication between two nonneighboring nodes can
be achieved once and maintained via message exchanges
without exhausting Route Discovery requests.
dropped and an error message is sent to all affected
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
format with
J R G D U Reserved
32-bit RREQ ID
32-bit Destination Sequence Number
32-bit Originator Sequence Number
128-bit Destination IP Address
128-bit Originator IP Address
32-bit Signature length
32-bit Key length
32-bit Exponent length
256-bit Public exponent
1024-bit RSA Public Key
Hop Count
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
Prefix length
Hop Count
32-bit RREQ ID
32-bit Destination Sequence Number
128-bit Destination IP Address
128-bit Originator IP Address
format with
32-bit Lifetime
32-bit Signature length
Ad-Hoc Networks
Proceedings of the International Conference on Network Security and Workshop 2007 (ICONS 2007)
Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Tamil Nadu, India, 29-31 January 2007
32-bit Key length
32-bit Public Exponent Length
256-bit Public Exponent
1024-bit RSA Public Key
Figure 1. SecAODV message formats (shaded fields are the newly added fields to AODV message format)


Although encryption and signed headers are intrusion
prevention measures, security holes remain nonetheless.
An IDS further strengthens the defense of a MANET. A
reliable IDS, operating within a MANET, requires that
trust be established amongst collaborating nodes in the
absence of any pre-existing trust associations, or the
availability of an online service to establish such
associations. The use of SUCVs is thus well-suited for
such situations.

5.1. Design Considerations

Collaborative IDSs will perform best in a densely
populated MANET with limited mobility, and will
perform worse in a sparsely populatedMANET with
significant mobility. The effectiveness of collaborative
IDS also depends on the amount of data that can be
collected by each node. The longer the nodes are
members of the MANET, the greater the availability of
meaningful data for further analysis. The degree of
mobility of each node in the network will also have a
significant impact on its effectiveness. In a MANET
with a high degree of mobility, if the number of routing
error messages causes by legitimate reasons far exceeds
the number of routing error messages caused due to the
presence of malicious nodes, the effectiveness or benefit
of such an IDS may be minimal. The damage that could
be caused by a malicious node in highly mobile
environment would, however, also be minimal since
malicious routing messages would likely make up a
small percentage of routing error messages. Sensor
networks may be less ephemeral and less mobile, while
other networks may be characterized by sporadic
participation of individual members. MANETs with
loose or no prior associations would be more diffi- cult
to diagnose than a MANETs comprised of nodes from
the same organization with strong as sociations. Clearly,
the latter case would present a more challenging
problem. In a network in which nodes have sporadic
participation, the damage malicious nodes are likely to
cause would also be less serious and more of a nuisance
than a serious performance threat. The IDS would
perform differently in an open MANET, one in which
participation is not restricted, versus a closed MANET,
one in which
participation is restricted in both number and by the
possession of certain credentials.
5.2. Design goals
5.2.1. Scalability
Snooping on all packet traffic is prohibitively expensive
for most resource-constrained mobile devices, especially
when traffic increases as the number of nodes within
radio-range increase. In dense networks, there will be a
large number of neighbor nodes. Also, as newer wireless
standards increase the radio-range of wireless interfaces,
resulting larger ranges will have the same effect. The IDS
should allow selective processing of packets and ignore
the rest. The effectiveness of the IDS will depend on its

5.2.2. Platform for a collaborative IDS.

In order to implement a truly robust IDS there will be a
need to aggregate data from multiple architectural layers.
Alarms and thresholds placed at the network layer can
report on the detection of routing misbehaviors such as
observed incorrect packet forwarding. The MAC layer
may alarm on nodes that send malicious CTS messages
designed to deny other nodes network access. The
Transport layer may contain signatures for known attacks
such as the SYN flood. Delegating collaboration and
Trust issues to the application level, the IDS agent should
enable collection of local audit data. The notion of Trust
is determined through an aggregation of information
collected from multiple observing layers providing input
for evaluation algorithms at the Application layer.
Collaboration not only comes from within the node, but
can be shared between nodes as Trust and reputation
values are passed from throughout the network.

5.2.3. Enable protocol specific IDS.

The IDS should allow monitoring of packet traffic for
specific protocols. Specific protocols behave in a
predictable pattern. Intrusion detection makes use of these
patterns to spot abnormal behavior and in some instances,
Ad-Hoc Networks
specific signatures indicating malicious activity. Some
protocols are more likely than others to be used with
malicious intent. For example in TCP a SYN flood can
use up available ports on the target machine effectively
denying service.

5.3. Scope of IDS

In this implementation approach we focus on
detecting intrusions based on anomalous behavior of
neighboring nodes. Each node monitors particular traffic
activity within its radio-range. An audit log of all locally
detected intrusions is maintained as evidence of
misbehavior. Intrusions are associated with pairs of IPv6
and corresponding MAC addresses. Once local audit
data is collected, it can be processed using some
centralized/ distributed algorithm, to detect ongoing
attacks from the aggregated data. Such collective
5.3.2. Intrusion Response. The purpose of intrusion
detection is to isolate misbehaving nodes and deny them
network resources. Nodes may be maliciously dropping
packets or may have a genuine problem that prevents
them from forwarding packets. Chronically faulty or
malicious behavior, however, can be distinguished from
transient failures by monitoring their activity over a
period of time and setting thresholds. Such nodes are then
deemed malicious and denied network resources. This can
be done in two ways viz. unilaterally ignoring all traffic to
or from a malicious node, and calling a vote on other
members in the MANET to decide upon the eviction of a
suspected node from the MANET. Though this is a design
goal, the collective response part has not yet been

5.4. Stateful packet monitoring

analysis is however subject to trust issues, since the
problem of Identification and Authentication remains.
Rather in the current implementation, focus is only on
the local detection and response part, to provide a
foundation for such a collaborative IDS. By virtue of the
{TCP Sequence Update
TCP checksum}
Packets that
SUCV identifiers, we can confidently identify the
misbehaving nodes and associate intrusions with them.
Each node listens to all its neighborâ„¢s activities.

5.3.1. Intrusion Detection.

pairs and
should be
From the
packet capture
library (pcap)
We detect intrusions by neighboring nodes by their
deviation from known or expected behavior. When
nodes act as forwarding nodes, offering routes to other
destinations, it is expected that those node actually
forward data packets, once a route through them is
actually setup. Nodes are expected to retransmit the
message without modifying the payload towards the
intended recipient. We can categorize packet traffic into
control packets that exchange routing information, and
data packets. Depending on what routing protocol is
being used, routing information may or may not be
contained in the control packets, e.g. in DSR the routing
information is present in the control message itself;
AODV on the other hand, does not have such
information. Regardless of how routes are actually setup,
data packets should not be modified, with the exception
of some fields like hopcount in the IPv6 header. A node
can thus monitor most of the packet traf- fic of its
neighbors in promiscuous mode, while they are in radio-
range. A node receiving packets but not forwarding them
can be detected. We monitor AODV control messages
and data stream packets only. We do not monitor control
messages for faithful retransmissions. Since control
Figure 2. Packet filtering and monitoring
We use the packet capture library, libpcap, for
capturing packets. As shown in Fig. 2 the raw packets
captured by the pcap are filtered to get only IPv6 using
the protocol header field in the MAC header (Ethernet in
this case). Further filtering is used to separate AODV and
TCP packets. We restrict ourselves to monitoring TCP
data streams.

5.4.1. Building Neighbor tables.

The AODV control messages include special kind of
RREP messages called Hello messages. These are used
by nodes to advertise their presence
provide connectivity information in the
messages are signed by the senders, modifications will
be caught in the signature verification at the receiver.
These messages are broadcasted
Figure 3. Monitoring traffic in radio-range
by the nodes at periodic intervals. Nodes can discover
their neighbors using these messages. Also, if a neighbor
moves away, the node will cease to receive its
neighborâ„¢s hello messages and thus update its routing
tables. We use these messages to build neighbor tables,
which consist of tuples of the form (MAC address,
IPv6 address, drop count, route state),
as shown in fig. 2. (MAC address, IPv6
address) constitute the unique key. This table is kept
updated by monitoring Hello messages and RERR
messages. More details on route maintenance and
timeouts can be found. Data traffic of active neighbor
nodes is monitored.

5.4.2. Monitoring data packets.

As shown in Figure 3 we monitor data packets that need
to be forwarded. Referring to Figure 3, consider nodes
A, B and C within radio-range of each other. Without
loss of generality, let C be the monitoring node, and B
be the target of monitoring. A is sending a datagram via
B to some other destination. B is acting as an
intermediary node forwarding packets on behalf of A.
Consider the datagram dgram in sent by A to B. dgram
in will have MAC source address of A, MAC destination
address of B. But the destination IPv6 address will not
be that of B, since B is not the ntended recipient of
dgram in. Now consider the datagram that B forwards
after receiving dgram in. dgram out will have the MAC
source address of B, however the source IPv6 address in
the datagram will be that of A, and not B. In fact, dgram
in is a datagram that B is expected to forward and dgram
out will be that expected datagram sent out by B, onward
to its intended recipient. Packets of specific protocols
can be selectively monitored using the protocol field in
the IPv6 header for filtering. C being the monitoring
node, will first record dgram in and watch for B to
transmit dgram out. The processing and queuing delay at
B, may vary depending on congestion and CPU load on
B. Under normal circumstances, B will transmit dgram
out within a reasonable amount of time. If B fails to do so,
then C can infer that B must have dropped the packet.
When matching dgram in and dgram out for a particular
protocol it is important to match all fields that should not
be changed by B. If B mangles the packet in some
malicious way, the original dgram in will be unaccounted
for in Câ„¢s monitoring process. C will also infer such
packets to have been dropped by B.


In this paper we briefly described the inherent
vulnerabilities of mobile devices in MANETs and several
attacks possible on such devices. We presented related
work in this area and presented the design and
implementation of secure routing protocol SecAODV
and an IDS. The IDS is routing protocol-independent,
though in this case we have used SecAODV for routing.
The role of the routing protocols is just to create and
maintain routes. Even after protecting the network from
routing disruption attacks, packet mangling attacks and
grey holes, denial of service attacks that use MAC
vulnerabilities to disrupt communication are still possible.
However such attacks cannot be prevented at higher
networking layers, rather security mechanisms need to
provided in the MAC protocol itself. Nodes can operate
on their own, however for propagating information on
misbehaving nodes a platform to enable collaboration for
dissemination of such IDS data is needed. The scope of a
host based IDS deployed on a mobile device is limited to
its radio range. Potentially an IDS may assume that a
neighboring node is dropping packets, when in fact, the
node simply moved out of range of the monitoring node.
A low signal strength will help determine the distance of
the neighboring node and thus help decide if a node is
misbehaving or has simply moved out of range. Also it
will be helpful in selection of nodes to monitor and
increase the scalability and detection accuracy of the IDS.


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Tonguerofessor,Educational Qualifications: B.E.
Computer Science Gulbarga University,
Karnataka, M.Tech Computer Science V.T.U.,
Belgaum,Karnataka Pursuing Ph.D. Computer
Science J.N.T.U., Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
Area(s) of Interest:Information Security,
Network Security Teaching Experience:15 Yrs
IEEE International Performance Computing and
Communications Conference “ Workshop on Information
Assurance. IEEE, April 2004.
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09-10-2010, 05:33 PM

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Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Sumesh J. Philip
CSE620 Fall 2004

Mobile Ad hoc Network

Collection of mobile nodes forming a network
Hosts use wireless RF transceivers as network interface
Omni directional (broadcast)
Highly directional (point – point)
Arbitrary movement and coverage pattern
Connectivity in the form of random, multi-hop graphs
Highly co-operative, each host is an independent router


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