SECURITY INTEGRATED SYSTEM BASED ON WIRELESS ACCESS PROTOCOL FOR REMOTE MONITORING &
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SECURITY INTEGRATED SYSTEM BASED ON WIRELESS ACCESS PROTOCOL FOR REMOTE MONITORING & CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESS
The motivation to our project and implimentation SECURITY INTEGRATED SYSTEM BASED ON WIRELESS ACCESS PROTOCOL FOR REMOTE MONITORING & CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESS is designed and implements the industrial process control using embedded Platform. To cut the traditional wires between sensors, wired slave devices, and the microcontrollers and microprocessors the project and implimentation is developed. This project and implimentation has three important modules; they are RF Transceivers, Microcontroller unit and Driver units of the equipments. In this project and implimentation the Industries, equipment control has been achieved by using RF Communication. Such applications are motivated us to do the Project successfully.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Now a day the industrial process control gets a wide growth in the world wide. Under this concept here the project and implimentation is developed. In the speed of growth in wireless communication the industries utilizing it to replace their wired control units. In the wired communication the speed of data transmission what is achieved and what is not that everything is possible in RF wireless communication. The number of controllable units can increased because of the overcoming advantages of RF communication. The sensors, controllable equipments and machineries can be controlled through RF. In this project and implimentation the automation of boiler temperature control has been made with help of microcontroller and the process of automation has monitored and controlled through the remote unit with the help of RF wireless communication, meanwhile the fire detection alert was implemented through the same remote unit. Including with these the voltage and current of the boiler unit has been measured and monitoring was done through the same wireless communication.
1.3 RELATED WORK
To complete our project and implimentation we studied about PIC 16f877A controller and its features. We also studied about RF communication, Relays and Relay Drivers. Also we visited sites how stuff works.com, Microchip.com, wikipedia.com.
1.4 SCOPE OF WORK
The project and implimentation SECURITY INTEGRATED SYSTEM BASED ON WIRELESS ACCESS PROTOCOL FOR REMOTE MONITORING & CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESS is used in industrial electrical outlets for power measurements and take control over the loads.
The report is divided into several sections and a brief overview of the section is described here.
Chapter 2- A Brief Review. This consists of Introduction and Motivation, preliminaries
Chapter 3- Approaches to the project and implimentation.
Chapter 4- This consists of modules implemented. This consists of describing how to solve the problem.
Chapter 5- This consists of software requirements of the project and implimentation.
Chapter 6- This consists of Results obtained for the project and implimentation.
Chapter 7- This describes conclusion part of the project and implimentation.
Chapter 8- This contains Bibliography and list of web sites used.
BACK GROUND INFORMATION
The project and implimentation report describes the design Development and Fabrication of One demo unit of the project and implimentation work “SECURITY INTEGRATED SYSTEM BASED ON WIRELESS ACCESS PROTOCOL FOR REMOTE MONITORING & CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESS” by using embedded systems.
Now a day, with the advancement technology, particularly in the field of Microcontrollers, all the activities in our daily living have become a part of Information technology and we find microcontrollers in each and every application. Thus, trend is directing towards Microcontrollers based project and implimentation works. However, in this project and implimentation work one pairs of RF transceiver module used to Form the remote network. The microcontroller interacts with RF transceiver for sending and receiving control message. Then the decisions are taken with the help of microcontroller and associated software.
The microcontroller block is playing a major role in this project and implimentation work. The micro controller chip used in this project and implimentation work is PIC 16F877A and this is like heart of the project and implimentation work. The PIC 16F877A microcontroller is a 40-pin IC.
The entire project and implimentation was developed in embedded systems. A system is something that maintains its existence and functions as a whole through the interaction of its parts. E.g. Body, Mankind, Access Control, etc A system is a part of the world that a person or group of persons during some time interval and for some purpose choose to regard as a whole, consisting of interrelated components, each component characterized by properties that are selected as being relevant to the purpose.
• Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task.
• Embedded systems are computer systems that monitor, respond to, or control an external environment.
• Environment connected to systems through sensors, actuators and other I/O interfaces.
• Embedded system must meet timing & other constraints imposed on it by environment.
• An embedded system is a microcontroller-based, software driven, reliable, real-time control system, autonomous, or human or network interactive, operating on diverse physical variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market.
An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for processing, not a software system on PC or UNIX, not a traditional business or scientific application. High-end embedded & lower end embedded systems. High-end embedded system - Generally 32, 64 Bit Controllers used with OS. Examples Personal Digital Assistant and Mobile phones etc. Lower end embedded systems - Generally 8, 16 Bit Controllers used with a minimal operating systems and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose. Examples Small controllers and devices in our everyday life like Washing Machine, Microwave Ovens, where they are embedded in.
Microcontrollers are embedded inside some other device so that they can control the features or actions of the project and implimentation. Another name for a microcontroller therefore is “Embedded Controller”. Microcontrollers are dedicated to one task and run one specific program. The program is stored in ROM (read only memory) and generally does not change. Microcontrollers are often low-price devices.
Coming to our project and implimentation whenever the students standing in front of the door for entering in to the lab is sensed by the IR sensor; this signal sends to controller through signal conditioning circuit. The controller takes it as an interrupt signal and gives control signal to the drive unit to open the door. Same like this in side lab if any human being sensed by the controller through IR transceiver it will further turn ON the fans, AC, lights using driver unit.
2.2.1 INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDEDSYSTEMS
Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task. An embedded system is a microcontroller-based, software driven, reliable, real-time control system, autonomous, or human or network interactive, operating on diverse physical variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market.
An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for processing, not a software system on PC or UNIX, not a traditional business or scientific application. High-end embedded & lower end embedded systems. High-end embedded system - Generally 32, 64 Bit Controllers used with OS. Examples Personal Digital Assistant and Mobile phones etc .Lower end embedded systems - Generally 8,16 Bit Controllers used with an minimal operating systems and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose. Examples Small controllers and devices in our everyday life like Washing Machine, Microwave Ovens, where they are embedded in.
IMPORTANT APPROACHES TO THE PROJECT
3.1.1 INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER
A computer-on-a-chip is a variation of a microprocessor which combines the processor core (CPU), some memory, and I/O (input/output) lines, all on one chip. The computer-on-a-chip is called the microcomputer whose proper meaning is a computer using a (number of) microprocessor(s) as its CPUs, while the concept of the microcomputer is known to be a microcontroller. A microcontroller can be viewed as a set of digital logic circuits integrated on a single silicon chip. This chip is used for only specific applications.
Most microcontrollers do not require a substantial amount of time to learn how to efficiently program them, although many of them, which have quirks, which you will have to understand before you, attempt to develop your first application.
Along with microcontrollers getting faster, smaller and more power efficient they are also getting more and more features. Often, the first version of microcontroller will just have memory and digital I/O, but as the device family matures, more and more pat numbers with varying features will be available.
In this project and implimentation we used PIC 16f877A microcontroller. For most applications, we will be able to find a device within the family that meets our specifications with a minimum of external devices, or an external but which will make attaching external devices easier, both in terms of wiring and programming.
For many microcontrollers, programmers can built very cheaply, or even built in to the final application circuit eliminating the need for a separate circuit. Also simplifying this requirement is the availability of micro-controllers wit SRAM and EEPROM for control store, which will allow program development without having to remove the micro controller for the application circuit.
3.1.2 MICRO CONTROLLER CORE FEATURES
• High-performance RISC CPU.
• Only 35 single word instructions to learn.
• All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycle.
• Operating speed: DC - 20 MHz clock input DC - 200 ns instruction cycle.
• Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory, Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM data memory.
• Pin out compatible to the PIC16C73B/74B/76/77
• Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources)
• Eight level deep hardware stack
• Direct, indirect and relative addressing modes.
• Power-on Reset (POR).
• Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST).
• Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation.
• Programmable code-protection.
• Power saving SLEEP mode.
• Selectable oscillator options.
• Low-power, high-speed CMOS FLASH/EEPROM technology.
• Fully static design.
• In-Circuit Serial Programming (ICSP) .
• Single 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming capability.
• In-Circuit Debugging via two pins.
• Processor read/write access to program memory.
• Wide operating voltage range: 2.0V to 5.5V.
• High Sink/Source Current: 25 mA.
• Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges.
• Low-power consumption.
In this project and implimentation we used PIC 16f877A microcontroller. PIC means Peripheral Interface Controller. The PIC family having different series, the series are 12- Series, 14- Series, 16- Series, 18- Series, and 24- Series. We used 16 Series PIC microcontrollers.
3.1.3 ADVANTAGES OF USING A MICROCONTROLLER OVER MICROPROCESSOR
A designer will use a Microcontroller to
• Gather input from various sensors
• Process this input into a set of actions
• Use the output mechanisms on the Microcontroller to do something useful
• RAM and ROM are inbuilt in the MC.
• Cheap compared to MP.
• Multi machine control is possible simultaneously.
The 8051 (ATMEL), PIC (Microchip), Motorola (Motorola), ARM Processor
• Cell phones.
• Interfacing to two pc’s.
3.2 RF TRANSCEIVER
3.2.1 Serial Communication
A serial port sends and receives data one bit at a time over one wire. While it takes eight times as long as to transfer each byte of data this way, only a few wires are required. In fact, two-way (full duplex) communications is possible with only three separate wires- one to send, one to receive, and a common signal ground wire.
Communicating by wires
The Parity Bit
DCE And DTE devices
Synchronous and Asynchronous Communications
The serial port on your PC is a full-duplex device meaning that it can send and receive data at the same time. In order to be able to do this, it uses separate lines for transmitting and receiving data. Some types of serial devices support only one-way communications and therefore use only two-wires in the cable – the transmit line and the signal ground.
>Communicating by bits
Once the start bit has been sent, the transmitter sends the actual data bits. There may either be 5,6,7, or 8 data bits, depending on the number you have selected. Both receiver and the transmitter must agree on the number of data bits, as well as the baud rate. Almost all devices transmit data using either 7 or 8 data bits. Notice that when only 7 data bits are employed, you cannot send ASCII values greater than 127. Likewise, using 5 bits limits the highest possible value to 31. After the data has been transmitted, a stop bit is sent. A stop bit has a value of 1- or a mark state- and it can be detected correctly even if the previous data bit also had a value of 1. This is accomplished by the stop bit’s duration.
>The Parity Bit
Besides the synchronization provided by the use of start and stop bits, an additional bit called a parity bit may optionally be transmitted along with the data. A parity bit affords a small amount of error checking, to help detect data corruption that might occur during transmission.
The MAX-232 standard imposes a cable length limit of 50 feet. You can usually ignore this “standard”, since a cable can be as long as 10000 feet at baud rates up to 19200 if you use a high quality, well shielded cable. The external environment has a large effect on lengths for unshielded cables.
>DCE and DTE devices
Two terms you should be familiar with are DTE and DCE. DTE stands for Data Terminal Equipment, and DCE stands for Data Communication Equipment. These terms are used to indicate the pin-out for the connectors on a device and the direction of the signals on the pins. Your computer is a DTE device, while most other devices are usually DCE devices. If you have trouble keeping the two straight then replace the term “DTE device” with your PC and the term DCE device with “remote Device” in the following discussion. The RS-232 standard states that DTE devices use a 25-pin male connector, and DCE devices use a 25-pin female connector. You can therefore connect a DTE device to a DCE using a straight pin-for-pin connection. However, to connect two like devices, you must instead use a null modem cable. Null modem cables cross the transmit and receive lines in the cable.
The DTE device puts this line in a mark condition to tell the remote device that it is ready and able to receive data. If the DTE device is not able to receive data (typically because its receive buffer is almost full), it will put this line in the space condition as a signal to the DCE to stop sending data. When the DTE device is ready to receive more data it will place this line back in the mark condition. The complement of the RTS wire is CTS, which stands for Clear to Send. The DCE device puts this line in a mark condition to tell the DTE device that it is ready to receive the data. Likewise, if the DCE device is unable to receive data, it will place this line in the space condition. Together, these two lines make up what is called RTS/CTS or “hardware” flow control. The software wedge supports this type of flow control as well as Xon/Xoff or “software” flow control. Software flow control uses special control characters transmitted from one device to another to tell the other device to stop or start sending data. With software flow control the RTS and CTS lines are not used.
DTR stands for Data Terminal Ready. Its intended function is very similar to the RTS line. DSR (Data Set Ready) is the companion to DTR in the same way that CTS is to RTS. Some serial devices use DTR and DSR as signals to simplify confirm that a device is connected and turned on. The software wedge sets DTR to the mark state when the serial port is opened and leaves it in that state until the port is closed. The DTR and DSR lines were originally designed to provide an alternate method of hardware handshaking. It would be pointless to use both RTS/CTS and DTR/DSR for flow control signals at the same time. Because of this DTR and DSR are rarely used for flow control.
>Synchronous and Asynchronous Communications
There are two basic types of serial communications, synchronous and asynchronous. With synchronous communications, the two devices initially synchronize themselves to each other, and then continually send characters to stay in sync. Even when the data is not really being sent, a constant flow of bits allows each device to know where the other is at any given time. That is, each character that is sent is either actual data or an idle character. Synchronous communications allows faster data transfer rates than asynchronous methods, because additional bits to mark the beginning and end of each data byte are not required. The serial ports on IBM style PCs are asynchronous devices and therefore only support asynchronous serial communications. Asynchronous means no “synchronization”, and thus does not require sending and receiving idle characters. However, the beginning and end of each byte of data must be identified by start and stop bits. The start bit indicates when the data byte is about to begin and the stop bit signals when it ends. The requirement to send these additional two bits causes asynchronous communication to be slightly slower than synchronous however it has the advantage that the processor does not have to deal with the additional idle characters.
RF ASK Module 433.92MHz
The TWS-434 and RWS-434 are extremely small, and are excellent for applications requiring short-range RF remote controls. It is a Low Cost solution for Telemetry and Radio control. We have mini size transmitter TWS434 and receiver RWS434 at frequency of 433.92MHz. The transmitter speed is up to 3Kbps (uses SAW device) and the receiver is 5Kbps (LC superregional). The operation range is up to 200 feet (70mts).
DESCRIBING ABOUT PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
4.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE BLOCK DIAGRAM
The project and implimentation has separated by two units one is automated unit, another one is monitoring and control unit. On both side of the project and implimentation consists of microcontroller and RF Transceiver module.
The automated unit it consists of Fire detection unit, Boiler Temperature measurement driver circuit unit and CT and PT with signal conditioning unit. The second side of the project and implimentation monitoring and control unit it consists of LCD display with keypad, for fire alert the alarm was implemented.
The entire project and implimentation was powered with the power supply unit, the project and implimentation it needs two different dc power supply one is +12v it is maintained through LM7812 positive 12v regulator and one more dc +5v supply is maintained through LM7805 positive 5v regulator.
The boiler arrangement was made with help of small electric heater unit. The temperature measurement of the boiler unit was made through LM35 precision temperature senor. The fire detection was made through the MQ5 some detector. the current voltage measurement was made through current transformer (3A rating), voltage transformer (230v/6v) respectively. The LCD displays the parameters temperature of boiler unit, fire detection information and including with current and voltage level of the boiler. During the process microcontroller chip transmits all details about automated unit to remote monitoring unit.
The remote will display the parameters and through that it is possible to set the boiler temperature boundary limit.
4.5 CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
4.5.1 POWER SUPPLY
Power supply unit consists of Step down transformer, Rectifier, Input filter, Regulator unit, Output filter.
The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly, thus it is stepped down. The Transformer consists of primary and secondary coils. To reduce or step down the voltage, the transformer is designed to contain less number of turns in its secondary core. The output from the secondary coil is also AC waveform. Thus the conversion from AC to DC is essential. This conversion is achieved by using the Rectifier Circuit/Unit.
The Rectifier circuit is used to convert the AC voltage into its corresponding DC voltage. There are Half-Wave, Full-Wave and bridge Rectifiers available for this specific function. The most important and simple device used in Rectifier circuit is the diode. The simple function of the diode is to conduct when forward biased and not to conduct in reverse bias.
The Forward Bias is achieved by connecting the diode’s positive with positive of the battery and negative with battery’s negative. The efficient circuit used is the Full wave Bridge rectifier circuit. The output voltage of the rectifier is in rippled form, the ripples from the obtained DC voltage are removed using other circuits available. The circuit used for removing the ripples is called Filter circuit.
Capacitors are used as filter. The ripples from the DC voltage are removed and pure DC voltage is obtained. And also these capacitors are used to reduce the harmonics of the input voltage. The primary action performed by capacitor is charging and discharging. It charges in positive half cycle of the AC voltage and it will discharge in negative half cycle. Here we used 1000µF capacitor. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. This filter is fixed before the regulator. Thus the output is free from ripples.
Regulator regulates the output voltage to be always constant. The output voltage is maintained irrespective of the fluctuations in the input AC voltage. As and then the AC voltage changes, the DC voltage also changes. Thus to avoid this Regulators are used. Also when the internal resistance of the power supply is greater than 30 ohms, the output gets affected. Thus this can be successfully reduced here. The regulators are mainly classified for low voltage and for high voltage. Here we used 7805 positive regulator. It reduces the 6V dc voltage to 5V dc Voltage.
The Filter circuit is often fixed after the Regulator circuit. Capacitor is most often used as filter. The principle of the capacitor is to charge and discharge. It charges during the positive half cycle of the AC voltage and discharges during the negative half cycle. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. This filter is fixed after the Regulator circuit to filter any of the possibly found ripples in the output received finally. Here we used 0.1µF capacitor. The output at this stage is 5V and is given to the Microcontroller
In the power supply circuit two regulators are used. 7805 regulator is used to produce positive 5V dc and 7812 regulator produces positive 12V dc voltage. Relays and ULN 2003 drivers operates at 12V dc and microcontroller and sensors are operated at 5V dc voltage. The output of the 7805 regulator is connected to PIC 16f877A microcontroller, sensors and the output of the 7812 regulator is connected to driver ICs and relays.
4.5.2 CONTROLLER CIRCUIT
Totally two RF transceiver modems used in this project and implimentation, these things were interfaced with PIC 16F877A controller unit through USART of the PIC controller. USART module is available in PORTC RC6th and RC7th pins. The RC6 has Tx-transmitter pin, RC7 has Rx- receiver pin.
The PIC 16f877A microcontroller is a 40-pin IC. The first pin of the controller is MCLR pin and the 5V dc supply is given to this pin through 10KΩ resistor. This supply is also given to 11th pin directly. The 12th pin of the controller is grounded. A tank circuit consists of a 4 MHZ crystal oscillator and two 22pf capacitors are connected to 13th and 14th pins of the PIC.
The CT output is connected with AN2 and AN3 analog pins of the appliance side PIC microcontroller.
The circuit consist one driver IC ULN 2003 is acts as driver. It is a 16- pin IC. This is of NPN transistor type. And this IC is a combination of 7 transistors. At a time we can connect seven loads to each IC. In this project and implimentation we used four relays and they are connected to driver, the relays acting as a switch. The 8th pin of driver ICs is grounded and the 9th pin is connected to 12V dc voltage which is from 7812 regulator.
First to fourth pins of driver IC are connected to RB0 to RB3 pins of the controller respectively. Similarly 13th to 16th pins are connected to Relays R4, R3, R2, and R1 respectively. The relays used in this project and implimentation are of Single pole Single throw type.
The Relay Driver Circuit is the main circuit that enables the actual control over the applications. As per the project and implimentation designed, the Relay Driver circuit signals the appliances to be used if the user is valid or authenticated. Here we are using transistor as the relay driver circuit. Relay is connected with the transistor, which generally contains five pins totally. The first two pins are connected with the transistor and contain the magnetic coil wound between them. The rest of the pins are common point, Normally Open (NO) point and Normally Close (NC) point.
Initially common point is in contact with Normally Close point. The magnetic coil also contains an arrangement very similar to that of a hook. When supply is given at the supply point, the magnetic coil of the relay gets energized or activated. Due to this a magnetic field is created that lifts the hook upwards. Thus the arrangement that was initially closed gets opened now. The status of the relay point gets changed (i.e. common point gets connected with normally open point).
The status of the relay is depends upon the conduction of the transistor. The transistor configuration used here is that of common emitter mode. The conduction of the transistor depends on the base voltage of the transistor. The supply to the transistor is given from the regulator of the power supply board. Normally transistor acts as a switch. The switch then gets activated by the Microcontroller.
The output of the relay driver circuit is given to any of the port pins. The Microcontroller is programmed to respond corresponding to the relay signal obtained. Thus the transistor acts as a switch to control the relay and indirectly controls the boiler. The RF transceiver unit is connected with the Rx & Tx pins of microcontroller unit. The LCD display unit it contains 16 pins the 1th & 2th - two pins supply pins 15th & 16th pin backlight pins, 3rd pin brightness adjustment pin, 4th pin RS-reset pin, 5th pin RW pin (read/write pin)6th pin EN-enable pin these things are interfaced with microcontroller RC1,RC2,RC3 and 7th to 14th pin are connected in PROTD of the microcontroller.
The four keys are connected in RB7, RB6, RB5, RB4 of the microcontroller on both side of the project and implimentation.
5.1 SOFTWARE TOOLS
• HI-Tech PIC C Compiler
5.2 MPLAB INTEGRATION
MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a free, integrated toolset for the development of embedded applications employing Microchip's PIC micro and dsPIC microcontrollers. MPLAB IDE runs as a 32-bit application on MS Windows, is easy to use and includes a host of free software components for fast application development and super-charged debugging. MPLAB IDE also serves as a single, unified graphical user interface for additional Microchip and third party software and hardware development tools. Moving between tools is a snap, and upgrading from the free simulator to MPLAB ICD 2 or the MPLAB ICE emulator is done in a flash because MPLAB IDE has the same user interface for all tools.
Choose MPLAB C18, the highly optimized compiler for the PIC18 series microcontrollers, or try the newest Microchip's language tools compiler, MPLAB C30, targeted at the high performance PIC24 and dsPIC digital signal controllers. Or, use one of the many products from third party language tools vendors. They integrate into MPLAB IDE to function transparently from the MPLAB project and implimentation manager, editor and compiler.
The fabrication of one demonstration unit is carried out in the following sequence.
• Finalizing the total circuit diagram, listing out the components and sources of procurement.
• Procuring the components, testing the components and screening the components.
• Making layout, repairing the interconnection diagram as per the circuit diagram.
• Assembling the components as per the component layout and circuit diagram and soldering components.
• Integrating the total unit, interwiring the unit and final testing the unit.
5.7 DESIGN OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM
Like every other system development design cycle embedded system too have a design cycle. The flow of the system will be like as given below. For any design cycle these will be the implementation steps. From the initial state of the project and implimentation to the final fabrication the design considerations will be taken like the software consideration and the hardware components, sensor, input and output. The electronics usually uses either a microprocessor or a microcontroller. Some large or old systems use general-purpose mainframe computers or minicomputers.
User interfaces for embedded systems vary widely, and thus deserve some special comment. User interface is the ultimate aim for an embedded module as to the user to check the output with complete convenience. One standard interface, widely used in embedded systems, uses two buttons (the absolute minimum) to control a menu system (just to be clear, one button should be "next menu entry" the other button should be "select this menu entry").
Another basic trick is to minimize and simplify the type of output. Designs sometimes use a status light for each interface plug, or failure condition, to tell what failed. A cheap variation is to have two light bars with a printed matrix of errors that they select- the user can glue on the labels for the language that he speaks. For example, most small computer printers use lights labeled with stick-on labels that can be printed in any language. In some markets, these are delivered with several sets of labels, so customers can pick the most comfortable language.
In many organizations, one person approves the user interface. Often this is a customer, the major distributor or someone directly responsible for selling the system.
There are many different CPU architectures used in embedded designs such as ARM, MIPS, Coldfire/68k, PowerPC, X86, PIC, 8051, Atmel AVR, H8, SH, V850, FR-V, M32R etc.
This in contrast to the desktop computer market, which as of this writing (2003) is limited to just a few competing architectures, mainly the Intel/AMD x86, and the Apple/Motorola/IBM PowerPC, used in the Apple Macintosh. With the growing acceptance of Java in this field, there is a tendency to even further eliminate the dependency on specific CPU/hardware (and OS) requirements.
Standard PC/104 is a typical base for small, low-volume embedded and ruggedized system design. These often use DOS, Linux or an embedded real-time operating system such as QNX or Inferno.
A common configuration for very-high-volume embedded systems is the system on a chip, an application-specific integrated circuit, for which the CPU was purchased as intellectual property to add to the IC's design. A related common scheme is to use a field-programmable gate array, and program it with all the logic, including the CPU. Most modern FPGAs are designed for this purpose.
Like typical computer programmers, embedded system designers use compilers, assemblers, and debuggers to develop embedded system software. However, they also use a few tools that are unfamiliar to most programmers.
Software tools can come from several sources:
• Software companies that specialize in the embedded market.
• Ported from the GNU software development tools.
Sometimes, development tools for a personal computer can be used if the embedded processor is a close relative to a common PC processor. Embedded system designers also use a few software tools rarely used by typical computer programmers.
One common tool is an "in-circuit emulator" (ICE) or, in more modern designs, an embedded debugger. This debugging tool is the fundamental trick used to develop embedded code. It replaces or plugs into the microprocessor, and provides facilities to quickly load and debug experimental code in the system. A small pod usually provides the special electronics to plug into the system. Often a personal computer with special software attaches to the pod to provide the debugging interface.
Another common tool is a utility program (often home-grown) to add a checksum or CRC to a program, so it can check its program data before executing it.
An embedded programmer that develops software for digital signal processing often has a math workbench such as MathCad or Mathematica to simulate the mathematics.
Less common are utility programs to turn data files into code, so one can include any kind of data in a program. A few project and implimentations use Synchronous programming languages for extra reliability or digital signal processing.
Debugging is usually performed with an in-circuit emulator, or some type of debugger that can interrupt the microcontroller's internal microcode. The microcode interrupt lets the debugger operate in hardware in which only the CPU works. The CPU-based debugger can be used to test and debug the electronics of the computer from the viewpoint of the CPU. This feature was pioneered on the PDP-11.
As the complexity of embedded systems grows, higher level tools and operating systems are migrating into machinery where it makes sense. For example, cell phones, personal digital assistants and other consumer computers often need significant software that is purchased or provided by a person other than the manufacturer of the electronics. In these systems, an open programming environment such as Linux, OSGi or Embedded Java is required so that the third-party software provider can sell to a large market.
• Home appliance control through RF remote
• Factory automation
• Factory water pump control using RF wireless communication unit
The System operated successfully. The automated side the controller take the control over the boiler unit through driver circuit and same time it was measuring the power of the boiler. The remote side controller continuously monitors the parameters of the automated side. The RF module it is called as DCE Data communication equipment it is properly receiving and transmitting the data, simply it interfaced both side of the project and implimentation controller.
SCOPE OF FUTURE STUDY
This project and implimentation can be enhanced to the level of ZigBee based wireless communication and we can extend the area covered up to 75 meters and we can form the network in between sensors and machineries and control panel. Meanwhile the parameters of the process can be data logged in PC using same ZigBee network communication protocol.
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Joined: Jan 2012
23-01-2012, 06:47 PM
i need ieee paper of this project and implimentation.plz send it to email@example.com
Joined: Jul 2011
24-01-2012, 10:50 AM
to get information about the topic SECURITY INTEGRATED SYSTEM BASED ON WIRELESS ACCESS PROTOCOL FOR REMOTE MONITORING full report,ppt and related topic refer the link bellow
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Joined: Jan 2012
28-03-2012, 10:36 PM
header filkes are missing in its code eeprom.h n gsm.h.please mail me the code for defining the header files
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03-09-2012, 11:03 AM
how much initial cost of the hole project and implimentation