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project report tiger
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26-02-2010, 10:12 PM

.doc   SHARE ACCOUNTING PACKAGE.doc (Size: 786 KB / Downloads: 95)

When two or more person makes investment for carrying a banking business, then a co-operative bank is formed. So the member of co-operative bank is the shareholder of co-operative bank or in otherwords he or she has to take share in order to become a member. There are two types of shares in co-operative banking sector.
In Share- A class Membership to become a member of the bank, the customer should take a Share-A Class Membership. There are some criteria or rules to be followed when a bank grant membership. Board of directors will check each of criteria of applicant & issue membership to eligible ones. Share amount is the face value of share and not market value of shares. The face value (Share amount) those are common to all members. A member can take any number of shares as per maximum unit prescribed by bank. Initially while opening a membership bank normally issue one share. Once he/she become a member he/she can take any number of shares additionally. But it is subject to maximum limit.
In Nominal Membership a Nominal member is one who becomes the member of the bank for the purpose of pledging loans only (gold loans).
1.1.1. Share A-Class Membership 1
1.1.2. Nominal Membership 1
2.1.1. Storing Bank Details 3
2.1.2. Applicant Requests For Membership 3 2.1.3 Storing Holiday Details Of The Bank 4
2.1.4. Storing Share Details Of The Member 5
2.1.5. Performing Dividend Calculation 6
2.1.6. Setting User Privileges Of The Members 7 SYSTEM STUDY
3.3.1. Advantages Of .NET 9
3.3.2. How .NET Works 10 3.3.3..NET Framework 11 3.4.INRODUCTION TO SQL SERVER 12 3.4.1 Sql Server 2005 Express Edition Features 14
4.2.1. Operational Feasibility 17
4.2.2. Technical Feasibility 18
4.2.3. Schedule Feasibility 18
4.2.4. Economic Feasibility 18
4.4.1. Hardware Configuration 19
4.4.2. Software Configuration 19
4.5.1. Language Used: C# 20
5.1.1. Input Design 24
5.1.2. Output Design 24
5.1.3. Code Design 24
5.1.4. Code Documentation 25
6.1. TESTING 29 6.1.1. Integration Testing 30
7.1. Quality Factors 32
7.2. Advantages 32
7.3. Disadvantages 33
Table Page No:
Figure Page No:
8.2 MAIN FORM 35
When two or more person makes investment for carrying a banking business, then a co-operative bank is formed. So the member of co-operative bank is the shareholder of co-operative bank or in otherwords he or she has to take share in order to become a member. There are two types of shares in co-operative banking sector.
¢ Share- A class membership
¢ Nominal membership 1.1.1.Share-A Class Membership
To become a member of the bank, the customer should take a Share-A Class Membership. There are some criteria or rules to be followed when a bank grant membership. Board of directors will check each of criteria of applicant & issue membership to eligible ones. Share amount is the face value of share and not market value of shares. The face value (Share amount) those are common to all members. A member can take any number of shares as per maximum unit prescribed by bank. Initially while opening a membership bank normally issue one share. Once he/she become a member he/she can take any number of shares additionally. But it is subject to maximum limit.
1.1.2.Nominal Membership
A Nominal member is one who becomes the member of the bank for the purpose of pledging loans only (gold loans). Requirements:
As per the described system above we need a share accounting module that is expected to maintain the details of the member of the bank as well as their transactions also. Needed modules are ¢ Details of share holder
Each share holder has his own id. His share details in the bank are
to be stored
¢ 2.Opening a membership
You open a membership he/she has to satisfy the face value fixed by the bank. The member's details are stored here.
¢ 3.Transaction Details
According to a transaction id for each member addition and withdrawal of share are maintained.
¢ 4. Dividend Calculation
Dividend will be calculated once in a year for the different number of shares held by each member during different periods of the year. Dividend rate and dividend amount need to be found out.
¢ 5. Nominal membership maintenance
A member who becomes a member of the bank for the purpose of taking loan, his details such as duration of the membership, loan amount are stored .once he cancels his/her membership details need to be cleared.
Share accounting module is expected to maintain the details of the member of the bank as well as their transactions. The needed modules are given below: 2.1.1 Storing Bank Details
For each cooperative bank, details are maintained in a central database. Bank details can be viewed by the administrator as well as the employees of the bank. All the details of the bank can be retrieved from the database. Database includes the name, branch code, address and logo of the particular bank. For each city, separate branch codes are given. Logo represents the emblem of the bank. Bankmaster TABLE refers below:
Table2.1. Bankmaster table
bm Branchcode Varchar 50 Primarykey
bm Bankname Varchar 50
bm Address Varchar 50
bm_City Varchar 50
bmState Varchar 50
bm Pincode Varchar 50
bm Phonenumber Varchar 50
bm_Logo Varchar max
2.1.2. Storing Applicant Details
For becoming a member of a co-operative bank first he/she submit an application form. The application form describes the applicants name, address, age, date of birth, gender, occupation, phone number etc .A Board of members decide whether he/she is allowable to become a member of the bank. His background details are collected and checked by the Board of committee members. As his/her financial backgrounds are certifiable, committee members allow him for taking a share. The database that stores the applicant details refers the TABLE below:
Table2.2 Applicantmaster table
amApplicantid int Primarykey
amBranchcode Varchar 50 Foreign key
amFirstname Varchar 50
amLastname Varchar 50
am_Age int
am_Dob int
amgender Varchar 50
amAddress Varchar 50
am_City Varchar 50
amState Varchar 50
amPincode Varchar 50
amOccupation Varchar 50
am Phonenumber Varchar 50
am Email Varchar 50
2.1.3. Holiday Details Of The Bank
Holiday details are maintained in the cooperative bank so that no transaction may occur in holidays. The bank employee enters the holiday details .Referring to the details stored in the database transactions avoided in holidays of the bank .Holiday master TABLE refers below: Table2.3 Holidaymaster table
hm Branchcode Varchar 50
hm Date datetime
hm Description Varchar 50
hm_Type Varchar 50
2.1.4. Storing Share Details Of The Member
The applicant submits his application form. If he is approved by the committee members of the bank in the Board meeting he becomes the member of the bank. He gets a memberid for recognition. He\she may be a public or private member. A public member means who becomes a member of the bank for pledging loans only. A private member is who takes shares of the bank and retrieves dividend from the bank. The membership master TABLE given below: Table2.4 Sharemembershipmaster table
smm Memberid int Primary key
smmApplicantid int Foreign key
smmShareparameterid int
smm Membertype varchar 50
Share parameter of the bank describes the face value, maximum share for that face value, minimum share and a unique id for this class of share. Share amount is the face value of share and not market value of shares. The face value (Share amount) those are common to all members of particular class. A member can take any number of shares as per maximum unit prescribed by bank. As per the minimum shares permitted each member of the class should have shares with minimum value. Share parameter TABLE is described below: Table2.5 Share parameter table
spShareparameterid int Primary key
spFacevalue float
sp_Date datetime
sp_Maxshare int
sp_Minshare int
The eligible member of the bank can take shares up to maximum limit. Two class shares are provided .As per the Share-class chosen by the member number of maximum shares and minimum shares differs. Sharemaster TABLE given below:
Table2.6Sharemaster table
sm Memberid int Foreign key
sm_Date datetime
smNumberofshareapplied int
sm_Numberofshareissued int
smNumberofshareonhand int
It is also permitted to withdraw the shares of the members as per their needs. But he\she can withdraw the shares below the minimum number of shares as per the Share-class he is member of. Share transaction TABLE is described below: Table2.7 Share transaction table
stShareparameterid int Primary key
st_Memberid int Foreign key
st_Date datetime
st_Sharewithdrawed Varchar 50
2.1.5.Performing Dividend Calculation:
From April1st -March 31st known as financial year of the bank.At
the end of february bank stops giving shares to the members.Then calculates the profit of
the bank.Board of commity members fixes a divident rate.Total number of shares of all
the members are calculated.According to total shares dividend per share is
calculated.Then for each member dividend amount is calculated as per his\her shares
onhand.Dividendmaster TABLE is given below :
Table2.7 Dividendmaster table
dm Memberid int Foreign key
dm Profit float
dm_Divi dendrate float
dm_Year int
dmDividendamount float
dmStatus varchar 50
2.1.6 Setting User Privileges
The access to the details of the member is privileged to employee of the bank and the administrator(manager) only. Login TABLE refers below:
System study aims at establishing requirements for the system to be acquired, developed and installed. It involves studying and analyzing the ways of an organization currently processing the data to produce information. Analyzing the problem thoroughly forms the vital part of system study. In system analysis, the prevailing situation of problem is carefully examined by breaking them in to sub problems. Problematic areas are identified and information is collected. Data gathering is essential to any analysis of requirements. It is necessary that this analysis familiarizes the designer with the objectives, activities, and function of the organization in which the system is to be implemented.
Today in cooperative banks the new entries are filled manually. The member's details in separate records are tedious task. Referring to all the records and updating is needed. If manual errors occurs then bank may loose their money .To avoid these drawbacks developed a software for cooperative banks.
By developing the system we can attain the following facilities:¬> Easy to handle and flexible.
> Cost reduction.
> Fast and convenient. 3.3 INTRODUCTION TO .NET
.NET is the Microsoft Web services strategy to connect information, people, systems, and devices through software. Integrated across the Microsoft platform, .NET technology provides the ability to quickly build, deploy manage, and use connected, security-enhanced solutions with Web services. NET-connected solutions enable businesses to integrate their systems more rapidly and in a more agile manner and help they realize the promise of information anytime, anywhere, on any device.
The Microsoft platform includes everything a business needs to develop and deploy a Web service-connected IT architecture: servers to host Web services, development tools to create them, applications to use them, and a worldwide network of more than 35,000 Microsoft Certified Partner organizations to provide any help you need.
The .NET framework has been plugged by Microsoft as a new programming model for the Internet age. Over the last 10 years or so, Microsoft has gradually been improving the Windows platform, and the associated API and developer tools. So we've seen for example the emergence of COM, then DCOM, then COM+ to enable reuse of software. For Data Access, we had first ODBC, then OLE DB and ADO in various versions. For dynamic web sites we had different versions of ASP. And for programming there were a variety of languages, C++, VB, scripting languages etc
One problem with this is that as the tools and languages have got more sophisticated they have also got more complex, due to the need to support earlier tools or versions of the tools. So for example, these days, COM is an extremely powerful way to package up code for reuse, but if you want to use COM effectively the learning curve is frightening. It takes about 6 months as the minimum time for an experienced developer to learn COM. And if you want to master DCOM or COM+, you've got to learn COM first! Add to this the fact that many people have (rightly in my view) complained that many of these APIs and tools are in some ways badly designed, and you can see why Microsoft has had such a poor reputation amongst many developers up until now.
.NET appears to be a serious attempt to change all that. Rather than just updating the existing tools and languages (and so making them even more complex), Microsoft have started from the ground up again, and developed a completely new framework, within which most programming tasks can be easily accomplished. (And they haven't destroyed backwards compatibility. Your old code will work fine; it's just that new code can be written more easily). Not only that, but .NET has had a very favorable reaction on newsgroups-there seems to be a general consensus that .NET is well designed, and Microsoft are seriously listening to the needs of developers as far as .NET is concerned.
3.3.1 Advantages Of .NET
¢ Most things that you might want to do on Windows, including data access, windowing, connecting to the Internet, and much of the functionality of the Win32 API is now accessible through a very simple object model.
¢ The VB language has been hugely upgraded, so it now includes classes and most of the features previously accessible in C++.
¢ A new language, C#, has been introduced, which combines the efficiency of C++ with some of the ease of development of VB.
¢ Memory management for .NET applications is much more sophisticated, meaning that a badly behaved .NET component is extremely unlikely to crash other components running in the same process.
¢ ASP .NET, the replacement for ASP, offers compiled web pages (making processing of web requests much more efficient) and includes a large number of pre-written components that can generate commonly used HTML from and user-interface items for you (the so-called server controls.
¢ The main programming languages have been moved far closer together, so code written in VB, C++ and C# can be intermixed: For example you can write a class in VB, derive a class in C# (or C++), and freely step between the languages in the debugger.
¢ Components are wrapped up in new unit called an assembly, which is highly self-describing, making installation and use of components very easy.
3.3.2.How .Net Works
The most significant aspect of the .NET architecture is that code in VB, and C# is compiled not to native executable code, but to an Intermediate Language (IL), with the final step of converting to native executable normally happening at runtime. Such code is termed managed code C++ code can optionally be marked as managed code, in which case it gets compiled to IL too. This makes your C++ code interoperable with VB and C# and allows you to take advantage of all the .NET features, but does restrict you to not using some features of C++ (such as multiple inheritance) that are not supported on .NET.
The principle of IL clearly owes something to the ideas of Java, which was also compiled in two stages. (And the resemblance between C# and Java is very strong). However, with Java the emphasis is on cross-platform independence, while .NET is geared to Windows, and has an emphasis on cross-language (rather than cross-platform) independence. Having said that, Microsoft has left opened the possibility of .NET being developed on other platforms. Microsoft also appear to be convinced that the existence of IL won't substantially hurt performance of applications, and may even improve it (because at the final stage of compilation, the compiler knows what processor is going to run the code, and so can take advantage of hardware features specific to that processor this is not the case with direct compilation of source code into executable).
3.3.4 .NET Framework
The .NET Framework is an integral Windows component for building and running the next generation of software applications and Web services. The .NET Framework: Supports over 20 different programming languages. Manages much of the plumbing involved in developing software, enabling developers to focus on the core business logic code. Makes it easier than ever before to build, deploy, and administer secure, robust, and high-performing applications. The .NET Framework is composed of the common language runtime and a unified set of class libraries. Common Language Runtime (CLR)
The Common Language Runtime (CLR) serves as the execution environment for the .NET Framework. The CLR is responsible for managing the compiled code of .NET applications, which can be written in different languages including VB, C#, Java, and Perl. The cross-language integration is achieved through the two major components of CLR: Intermediate Language and Metadata.
Intermediate Language (IL) is an assembly language that runs on almost any type of CPU. IL achieves this versatility by using stacks to handle functions that normally occur in registers. As managed code, IL is just-in-time (JIT) compiled when .NET applications are executed. JIT compilers convert IL into machine language that is specific to the host CPU. [During runtime, JIT compilers have the luxury of choosing stacks, registers or other stores to implement IL stacks.] Various JIT compilers are provided by the CLR, making it possible for different computer architectures to execute IL. Unlike other assembly languages, IL integrates high-level concepts which make CLR code more robust. As a high level language, IL is strongly typed and uses the ideas behind structured-exception handling, deployment support, and component interaction. Thus a range of software can run on the .NET Framework as long as the compiler can produce IL.
Metadata, the second component of the CLR, is a description of the implemented code. The Metadata is responsible for ensuring that the CLR executes the code securely. To prevent modules of software from breaking type definitions, Metadata stores information regarding classes, methods, and types. Registers are no longer required to keep track of information because relevant data is stored with the compiled code or IL. By housing information on classes and registrations, Metadata allows the CLR to function more efficiently since programs are less likely to get hung up on version and inheritance dependencies.
Base classes provide standard functionality such as input/output, string manipulation, security management, network communications; thread management, text management, and user interface design features.
The ADO.NET classes enable developers to interact with data accessed in the form of XML through the OLE DB, ODBC, Oracle, and SQL Server interfaces. XML classes enable XML manipulation, searching, and translations. The ASP.NET classes support the development of Web-based applications and Web services. The Windows Forms classes support the development of desktop-based smart client applications.
Together, the class libraries provide a common, consistent development interface across all languages supported by the .NET Framework.
More than ever developers are leveraging relational databases to provide a rich end-user experience. SQL Server Express helps developers build robust and reliable applications. Too often database systems are overly complex for building simple applications. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 and SQL Server Express reduce this complexity by providing a simple but powerful development environment for building data-driven applications. Developers can design schemas, add data, and query local databases, all inside the Visual Studio 2005 environment. If developers need more advanced database features, then SQL Server Express can be seamlessly upgraded to more sophisticated versions of SQL Server.
In today's fast changing world even the most basic Web sites need to be interactive. SQL Server Express and Visual Web Developer provide a simple integrated platform for building dynamic and reliable Web sites. Together these two products provide the tools necessary to build, deploy, and manage Web sites.
SQL Server Express includes many features attractive for Web development. It uses the advanced query optimization engine of SQL Server 2005 to deliver fast performance. Full-text search is included to provide powerful query capability over textual data. In addition, databases can easily be loaded into a hosted environment through the XCopy feature. Native XML support inside the database ensures that your Web environment can easily interoperate with other applications through Web services.
Creating reporting applications is often a cumbersome process. SQL Server Express simplifies this process with SQL Server 2005 Reporting Services, a complete, server-based platform for creating, managing, and delivering traditional and interactive reports. Developers can easily create sophisticated reports with tables, charts, and graphics, and then embed them in applications.
Simplify Deployment and Servicing
Supporting and maintaining software is a huge expense for application software developers. An embedded database helps reduce this cost by
providing automated tuning and management, automated patching and servicing, and support for embedded setup and installation. SQL Server Express was specifically designed with these goals in mind.
Using the SQL Server 2005 database engine, SQL Server Express can be configured to dynamically tune database parameters to respond to changing usage characteristics. Additionally, software developers do not have to worry about directly deploying database updates because SQL Server Express uses Microsoft Update to directly deliver updates to end users. For enterprise users, SQL Server Express easily plugs in to most enterprise management environments. SQL Server Express also provides support for either silent installs or GUI-based setup and installations. This gives the software developer ultimate control and flexibility over the installation and setup of the embedded database.
SQL Server 2005 Express Edition is the next version of MSDE and is a free, easy-to-use, lightweight, and embeddable version of SQL Server 2005. free to redistribute, free to embed, and easy for new developers to use immediately, SQL Server Express Edition includes powerful features such as SQL Server 2005 Reporting Services, a server-based platform for creating and delivering traditional and interactive reports, and a graphical management tool, SQL Server 2005 Management Studio Express, for easily managing your database. Best of all, as your needs grow; your applications will seamlessly work with the rest of the SQL Server product family.
3.4.1.Sql Server 2005 Express Edition Features
SQL Server 2005 Express Edition is the next version of MSDE and is a free, easy-to-use, lightweight, and embeddable version of SQL Server 2005. free to redistribute, free to embed, and easy for new developers to use immediately, SQL Server Express Edition includes powerful features such as SQL Server 2005 Reporting Services, a server-based platform for creating and delivering traditional and interactive reports, and a graphical management tool, SQL Server 2005 Management Studio Express, for easily managing your database. Best of all, as your needs grow; your applications will seamlessly work with the rest of the SQL Server product family.
Easy to Install
> Fast download
> Simplified setup user interface
> Silent install for embedded usage
> Integrated deployment through ClickOnce
Easy to Use and Manage
> New lightweight management and query editing tool (SQL Server 2005 Management Studio Express)
> Advanced query optimizer that automatically optimizes queries
> Automated tuning
> Computer manager for starting and stopping services
> Automated servicing and patching Rich Database Functionality
> Stored procedures
> Views
> Triggers
> Cursors
> Extended indexes
> Snapshot isolation level
> Advanced query optimizer
> Transact-SQL support
> Full Text Search
> Reporting Services
Enhanced Security
> "Secure by Default" settings
> Finely tuned administration rights
> Three levels of code access security, including: Safe, External Access (verifiable), and Unsafe
> Active Directory support
> Access to stored procedures as an abstraction layer
> Support for Windows authentication Simple Pricing and Licensing
> Always free to obtain and use
> Royalty-free redistribution XML Support
> Native XML data type
> Support for structured and semistructured data
> XQuery support
> XML schema support
Deep Integration with Visual Studio 2005
> Installed with Visual Studio 2005
> Visual Studio data explorer for designing schemas, adding data, and querying local databases
> Common language runtime (CLR) hosted inside SQL Server Express
> User-defined types and aggregates
> In-process data access with ADO.NET
> Integration of SQL Server and CLR security
> Integrated debugging
> SQL Server reporting controls in Visual Studio Scalability and Performance
> Supports 1 CPU, but can be installed on any server
> 1 gigabyte (GB) addressable RAM
> 4 GB maximum database size Distributed Client Database
> Transactional replication subscriber
> Merge replication subscriber
> Client for SQL Server service broker
> Support for distributed transactions
Analysis involves a detailed study of the current system, leading to specifications of a new system. In system study I only discussed about the study of the current system and proposed system. System analysis is a detailed study of various operations performed by a system and their relationships within and outside the system. During analysis, data for the project and implimentation are collected on the available files, decision points and transactions handled by the present system. Interviews, on-site observation and questionnaire are the tools used for system analysis.
The main points to be discussed in system analysis are:
¢ Specification of what the new system is to accomplish based on the user requirements.
¢ Functional hierarchy showing the functions to be performed by the new system and their relationship with each other.
¢ Function network which are similar to function hierarchy but they highlight those functions which are common to more than one procedure.
¢ List of attributes of the entities-these are the data items which need to be held about each entity (record)
On the basis of result of the initial study, feasibility study takes place. The feasibility study is basically the test of the proposed system in the light of its workability, meeting user's meeting user's requirements, effective use of resources and of course, the cost effectiveness. The main goal of feasibility study is not to solve the problem but to achieve the scope. In the process of feasibility study, the cost and benefits are estimated with greater accuracy.
Here in my project and implimentation, Activity viewer, Controller & network identifier we have see that the existing system and the proposed system in study phase. Here I am not solving the problems exactly. Additional requirements for my project and implimentation are added. Study how it should work what is the user's requirement and how the cost can be kept minimum. Thus I select the .Net platform.
4.2.1 Operational Feasibility
Measure the urgency of the problem or the acceptability of a
¢ Is the problem worth solving
¢ Will the solution to has problem work
¢ Political acceptability 4.2.2. Technical Feasibility
¢ can only be evaluated after the technical issues are resolved issues
¢ Is the prepared technology practical
¢ Do we currently process the necessary technology and time
4.2.3 Schedule Feasibility
¢ To measures the reasonable project and implimentation timetable.
4.2.4 Economic Feasibility
¢ To measure the cost-effectiveness of a project and implimentation or solution. Which is often called cost-benefit analysis.
¢ Costs are impossible to estimate before requirements and technical solutions have been identified.
¢ Benefits are easier to determine at an early stage.
¢ The alternative solution can be evaluated according to four criteria: Operational, technical, schedule, and economic feasibility.
Data Collection is the technique of getting information in the forms of feedback and various materials about the working of the current system. There are many methods of data collection. In which identifying an appropriate method is difficult task. The method depends on what type of data the analyst wants to extract from the Existing System.
The main three methods used for data collection are:
¢ Review of Written Documents
¢ On-Site Observations
¢ Interviews
In record or document Review, check existing details from any written document. When available all documentation on data carriers is organized and evaluated include in the procedures manuals are the requirement of the system, which helps in determining in what extent they are met by the present system. Regarding existing forms, the analyst need to find out how they are filled out, how useful they are to the user, what changes need to be made, and how easy they are read.
At the initial stages of system study the main technique used was On-Site Observation where the working of the system and various transactions are observed and noted the all relevant information. The analyst's role is that of an information seeker. One purpose of onsite observation is to get as close as possible to the real system being studied. Onsite observation is the most difficult fact finding technique. It requires intrusion into the user area. The analyst observes the physical layout of the current system, the location and movement of people and the workflow.
The onsite observation is directed towards describing and understanding events and behavior as they occur. This method however is less effective; the alternative is a personal interview. In this method, heavy reliance is place on the interviewers report for the information about the present system or experience. The quality of the response is judged in terms of its reliability and validity. Reliability of a response means that the information gathered is dependable enough to be used for making decisions about the system being studied.
Data collection of this project and implimentation is not a difficult part. Because it is a system side project and implimentation. I am collecting data directly from the system. The only thing is that we have to understand from where that data is getting and such things. For this I refer some written documents. And it also gets from the user's requirement also. Interview is not essential here. We can make interview by asking what data they want to display and from this we can decide how much data we want to take from the system. 4.4.MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS
4.4.1.Hardware Configuration
¢ PROCEESOR : Pentium series
¢ RAM : 512 MB
4.4.2 Software Configuration
¢ SQL Server2005
The software we used is another important feature. It is also selected by checking if the selected software satisfies the requirements. 4.5.1 Language Used: C#
C# (Pronounced C-Sharp) is a new language for Windows applications, intended as an alternative to the main previous languages, C++ and VB. Its purpose is twofold:
1 .It gives access to many of the facilities previously available only in C++, while retaining some of the simplicity to learn of VB.
2. It has been designed specifically with the .NET framework in mind, and hence is very well structured for writing code that will be compiled for .NET.
It is important to interview C# not in isolation but as an integral part of the entire .NET framework. .NET represents not only a revolution in facilities available for general-purpose Windows programming, but it will also be the immediate environment seen by your .NET code (more properly known as managed code) when it runs.
The real benefit of C# is that it has been designed from scratch specifically with the .NET framework in mind. This means that in many cases the syntax and features of the language have been designed in such a way as to make it is particularly easy for you to take advantage of the features offered by .NET.
Of course we should emphasize that to those abilities aren't just confined to C#. VB has been heavily upgraded into what is effectively a new language, VB.NET; While C++ has also been extended, by the addition of certain keywords allowing you to write Managed C++, which is also .NET aware. Both VB.NET and managed C++ are able to provide much of the same functionality that C# does. However both of these languages are to some extent hampered by having evolved over the last decade or even longer. This means much of their syntax has not been designed with .NET in mind - which can to some extent hamper ease of development. Indeed in the case of the syntax arguably isn't really designed even to facilitate good object-oriented programming at all.
C# on the other hand comes with a clean slate. Microsoft have been able to design it from scratch looking simultaneously at the requirements of the .NET framework, the requirements of good object oriented design, and the need to try to keep the
syntax as simple as practicable. A for this reason you'll find C# is a very well designed language for working with the .NET framework.
C# As an Object Oriented Programming Language
A crucial aspect of C# is that it is a genuine object oriented programming language. This may he not sound very revolutionary after all C++ is also object-oriented, and VB has also been described as object-oriented.
In the case of C++, although it is a successful and well designed object-oriented language, this is never really enabled the code reuse that was thought likely when the object-oriented programming style first appeared. This has got a lot to do with the facts that (a) classic C++ code is not language interoperable, and (b) the way C++ works; you need access to the header files from the original source code in order to be able to inherit classes.
Some language interoperability was provided later with the introduction of COM. C++ classes could be coded up as COM objects, which meant that they could be called very easily from other applications written in any COM-aware language including VB, J++, C and C++. However COM had the disadvantage of being very hard to learn, and it also never really supported inheritance in classical object-oriented way.VB on the other hand was great for generating COM objects, which could therefore be used by other applications, while hiding the developer from the complexities of COM. However, most OOP experts would say that VB was not truly object-oriented because VB's model was did not support inheritance.
C# (or .more correctly .NET also provided these features) gives you the best of both worlds. It fully supports inheritance, but also of the .NET framework insures that enough information is included in the compiled library files (the assemblies) that your classes can be inherited from and used by other .NET-aware code without requiring access to your source files. To this extent .NET arguably should provide real cross language code reuse using true object-oriented principles for the first time in the history of programming.
C# as an Intermediate Level Programming Language
C# is designed to fill a perceived gap between VB and C++. It's aimed at developers who would like to be able to write code more easily than is possible with C++, but without the overhead of VB. (A gap that J++ seems to have largely failed to satisfy-although it has to be said that there are a lot of similarities between C# and J++). C# has a syntax that is very similar to C++, and supports many C++ language features, for example inheritance (though not multiple inheritance) of classes. For this reason C++ programmers are likely to find C# easy to learn.
Based on the user requirements and the detailed analysis of a new system, the new system must be designed. This is the phase of system designing. It is a most crucial phase in the development of a system. Normally, the design proceeds in two stages:
¢ preliminary or general design
¢ Structure or detailed design
Preliminary or general design: In the preliminary or general design, the features of the new system are specified. The costs of implementing these features and the benefits to be derived are estimated. If the project and implimentation is still considered to be feasible, we move to the detailed design stage.
Structure or Detailed design: In the detailed design stage, computer oriented work begins in earnest. At this stage, the design of the system becomes more structured. Structure design is a blue print of a computer system solution to a given problem having the same components and inter-relationship among the same components are drawn up in detail. In the design stage, the programming language and the platform in which the new system will run are also decided.
There are several tools and techniques used for designing. These tools and technique are:
¢ Flowchart
¢ Data flow diagram (DFDs)
¢ Data dictionary
¢ Structured English
¢ Decision table
¢ Decision tree
The goal of software design is to produce a model or representation of an entity that will be built later. This project and implimentation makes use of three main types of designs namely.
> Input Design
> Output Design
> Code Design
There is another important part in the design phase that is database design .It must be done at first. But this project and implimentation does not include any database. So we don't want to bother about it.
5.1.1 Input Design
Input design is the process of converting a user-oriented description of the inputs to a computer-based system into a programmer oriented specification.
Inaccurate input data is the most common cause of data processing error. If poor input design particularly where operators must enter data from source produced are of little value, the input design process was initiated in the study phase as part of the feasibility study. The most common source of data processing error is inaccurate input data. The objective of input design is to create an input layout that is easy to follow and does not include operator errors. One of the most common input devices is CRT terminal. The layout of the screen is designed and documented with the use of a display layout sheet or its equivalent. There input media, such as key-to-tape and key-to-disk devices, optical readers and punched cards is also used and have particular design consideration.
5.1.2 Output Design
Output design has been an ongoing activity almost from the beginning of the project and implimentation. In this phase outputs were identified and described generally in the project and implimentation directive. Medium was the selected and sketches made of each output. Both printed outputs and CRT displays can include a title, column headings, detailed data and tools. They must be described in detail for programmers. Forms called print charts and display layout sheets are used to communicate this design detail. Especially forms can be designed for printed reports.
5.1.3 Code Design
After designing the new system, the whole system is required to be converted into computer understanding language. Coding the new system into computer programming language does this. It is an important stage where the defined procedures are transformed into control specifications by the help of a computer language. This is also called the programming phase in which the programmer converts the program specifications into computer instructions, which we refer as programs. The programs coordinate the data movements and control the entire process in a system.
It is generally felt that the programs must be modular in nature. This helps in fast development, maintenance and future change, if required. 5.1.4 Code Documentation
This project and implimentation involves mainly the following namespaces.
> System.Net
> System. Diagnostics
> System. Windows. Forms
The System.Net namespace provides a simple programming interface for many of the protocols used on networks today.
The System. Diagnostics namespace provides classes that allow you to interact with system processes, event logs, and performance counters.
The Event Log component provides functionality to write to event
logs, read event log entries, and create and delete event logs and event sources on the
network. TheEntryWrittenEventHandler provides a
way to interact with event logs asynchronously.
Supporting classes provide access to more detailed control, including: permission restrictions, the ability to specify event log types (which controls the type of default data that is written with an event log entry), and iterate through collections of event log entries
The System.Windows.Forms namespace contains classes for creating Windows-based applications that take full advantage of the rich user interface features available in the Microsoft Windows operating system. The classes in this namespace can be grouped into the following categories:
¢ Control, User Control, and Form. Most classes within the System. Windows. Forms namespace derive from the Control class. The Control class provides the base functionality for all controls that are displayed on a Form. The Form class represents a window within an application. This includes dialog boxes, modeless windows, and Multiple Document Interface (MDI) client and parent windows. To create a custom control that is a composite of other controls, use the User Control class.
¢ Controls. The System.Windows.Forms namespace provides a variety of control classes that allow you to create rich user interfaces. Some controls are designed for data entry within the application, such as Textbox and Combo Box controls. Other controls display application data, such as Label and List View. The namespace also provides controls for invoking commands within the application, such as Button and Toolbar. In addition, the Property Grid control can be used to create your own Windows Forms designer that displays the designer-visible properties of the controls.
¢ Components. In addition to controls, the System.Windows.Forms namespace provides other classes that do not derive from the Control class but still provide visual features to a Windows-based application. Some classes, such as Menu, Menu Item, and Context Menu, provide the ability display menus to the user to invoke commands within an application.
System. Management Namespace provides access to a rich set of management information and management events about the system, devices, and applications instrumented to the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) infrastructure. Applications and services can query for interesting management information such as how much free space is left on the disk, what is the current CPU utilization, which database a certain application is connected to, and much more. This system involves mainly the following classes:
1) Eventlog
2) EventLogEntry
3) Environment
4) Dns
5) DirectoryEntry
6) IPHostEntry
EventLog: lets you access or customize Windows 2000 event logs, which record information about important software or hardware events. Using EventLog, you can read from existing logs, write entries to logs create or delete event sources, delete logs, and respond to log entries. You can also create new logs when creating an event source.
Here we create an EventLog array. Take all event logs from the system and stores it into the array.We use the function GetEventLogs(machineName) to get the available events.
> EventLog member: Entries:-Gets the contents of the EventLog. logDisplayName: Gets the eventLog's user friendly name.
EventLogEntry: You usually will not create instance of EventLogEntry directly when working with the EventLog class. The Entries member of the EventLog class contains a collection of EventLogEntry instances.
> EventLogEntry Members
¢ EntryType: Gets the event type of this entry.
¢ EventID: Gets the application- specific event identifier of this event entry.
¢ Machine name: Gets the name of the computer on which this entry was generated
¢ Source: Gets the name of the application that generated this event.
¢ Time Generated: Gets the local time at which this event was generated.
¢ TimeWritten:- Gets the local time at which this event was written to the
¢ Username: - Gets the name of the user who's responsible for this event.
Environment class is used to retrieve information such as command line arguments, the exit code, environment variable settings, contents of the call stack, time since last system boot, and the version of the common language runtime.
> Environment members:
¢ Machine Name: Gets the NetBIOS name of this local computer.
Directory Entry: This class encapsulates a node or object in the Active Directory hierarchy. We can set the path of the Active Directory from where we want to get information.
> DirectoryEntry members:
¢ Path: Gets or sets the path for the Active Directory.
¢ Children: Gets the child entries for the node.
¢ SchemaClassName: Gets the name of the schema used for the directory Entry.
Dns: The Dns class is a static class that retrieves information about a specific host from the Internet Domain Name System (DNS). The host information from the DNS query is returned in an instance of the IPHostEntry class. If the specified host has more than one entry in the DNS database, IPHostEntry contains multiple IP addresses and aliases.
> Dns Members
¢ GetHostByAddress: Gets DNS host information for an IP address.
¢ GetHostByName: Gets DNS host information for the specified DNS host name.
IPHostEntry: This class associated a Domain Name System (DNS) host name with an array of aliases and an array of matching IP addresses. The IPHostEntry class is used as a helper class with the Dns class. IpHostEntry members:
¢ AddressList:-Gets or sets a list of IP addresses associated with a host.
¢ HostName:-Gets or sets the DNS name of the host.
¢ GetHostByName: Gets the DNS information for the specified DNS host name.
In order to check the connectivity of the remote machine, the DOS command "PING" is used. Also in order to send the message to the required machine, DOS command "net send" is used. To control the process in the remote machine, different classes from System. Management namespace is used. The Object Query class
represents a management query to retrieve the management objects and classes. The scope and the query objects are passed to the constructor of the ManagementObjectSearcher class. When the Get ( ) method of the ManagementObjectSearcher class is called, the given query is executed in the specified scope and a collection of management objects that match the query is returned in a ManagementObjectCollection. Using a query the process having the specified ID is selected. By calling the Get ( ) method, the collection of processes matching to the query. Is obtained this collection would hold only one process object since each process has a unique process ID. The Win32_Process class has a method named Terminate ( ) that terminates the process. To invoke the Terminate ( ) method, the Invoke Method () method is called on the process object. The ManagementOperationObserver object is passed to it to manage asynchronous operations and handle management information and events received asynchronously.
Validation testing is a concern which overlaps with integration testing. Ensuring that the application fulfils its specification is a major criterion for the construction of an integration test. Validation testing also overlaps to a large extent with system testing, where the application is tested with respect to its typical working environment. Consequently for many processes no clear division between validation and system testing can be made. Specific tests which can be performed in either or both stages include the following.
¢ Regression testing. Where this version of the software is tested with the automated test harnesses used with previous versions to ensure that the required features of the previous version are still working in the new version.
¢ Recovery testing. Where the software is deliberately interrupted in a number of ways, for example taking its hard disc off line or even turning the computer off, to ensure that the appropriate techniques for restoring any lost data will function.
¢ Security testing. Where unauthorized attempts to operate the software, or parts of it, are attempted. It might also include attempts to obtain access the data, or harm the software installation or even the system software. As with all types of security it is recognized that someone sufficiently determined will be able to obtain unauthorized access and the best that can be achieved is to make this process as difficult as possible.
¢ Stress testing. Where abnormal demands are made upon the software by increasing the rate at which it is asked to accept data, or the rate at which it is asked to produce information. More complex tests may attempt to create very large data sets or cause the software to make excessive demands on the operating system.
¢ Performance testing. Where the performance requirements, if any, are checked. These may include the size of the software when installed, the amount of main memory and/ or secondary storage it requires and the demands made of the operating system when running within normal limits or the response time.
¢ Alpha and beta testing. This is where the software is released to the actual end users. An initial release, the alpha release, might be made to selected users who would be expected to report bugs and other detailed observations back to the production team. Once the application has passed through the alpha phase a beta release, possibly incorporating changes necessitated by the alpha phase, can be made to a larger more representative set users, before the final release is made to all users.
The final process should be a software audit where the complete software project and implimentation is checked to ensure that it meets production management requirements. This ensures that all required documentation has been produced, is in the correct format and is of acceptable quality. The purpose of this review is: firstly to assure the quality of the production process and by implication the product; and secondly to ensure that all is in order before the initial project and implimentation construction phase concludes and the maintenance phase commences. A formal hand over from the development team at the end of the audit will mark the transition between the two phases
6.1.1 Integration Testing
Integration testing can proceed in a number of different ways, which can be broadly characterized as top down or bottom up. In top down integration testing the high level control routines are tested first, possibly with the middle level control structures present only as stubs. Subprogram stubs as incomplete subprograms which are only present to allow the higher level control routines to be tested. Thus a menu driven program may have the major menu options initially only present as stubs, which merely announce that they have been successfully called, in order to allow the high level menu driver to be tested.
Top down testing can proceed in a depth-first or a breadth-first manner. For depth-first integration each module is tested in increasing detail, replacing more and more levels of detail with actual code rather than stubs. Alternatively breadth-first would proceed by refining all the modules at the same level of control throughout the application. In practice a combination of the two techniques would be used. At the initial stages all the modules might be only partly functional, possibly being implemented only to deal with non-erroneous data. These would be tested in breadth-first manner, but over a period of time each would be replaced with successive refinements which were closer to the full functionality. This allows depth-first testing of a module to be performed simultaneously with breadth-first testing of all the modules.
The other major category of integration testing is bottom up integration testing where an individual module is tested from a test harness. Once a set of individual modules have been tested they are then combined into a collection of modules, known as builds, which are then tested by a second test harness. This process can continue until the build consists of the entire application.
In practice a combination of top-down and bottom-up testing would be used. In a large software project and implimentation being developed by a number of sub-teams, or a smaller project and implimentation where different modules were being built by individuals. The sub-teams or individuals would conduct bottom-up testing of the modules which they were constructing before releasing them to an integration team which would assemble them together for top-down testing.
Here we performs integration testing to exposes defects in the interfaces and interaction between integrated components (modules).Insertion and deletion to the database may arise problems due to the primary key and foreign key references between tables. These linking errors are checked in the testing phase and tried to avoid it.
Implementation is one of the most important tasks in project and implimentation. Implementation is the phase, in which one has to be cautious, because all the efforts undertaken during the project and implimentation will be fruitful only if the software is properly, implemented according to the plans made. The developer shall develop and record software corresponding to each software unit in the CSCI design. This activity shall include, as applicable, coding computer instructions and data definitions, building databases, populating databases and other data files with data values, and other activities needed to implement the design. For deliverable software, the developer shall obtain acquirer approval to use any programming language not specified in the contract. Software units in the design may or may not have a one-to-one relationship with the code and data entities (routines, procedures, databases, data files, etc.) that implement them or with the computer files containing those entities
The System developed is tested and its quality and benefits are
The following are the quality attributes of the computerized inventory system.
¢ Correctness:
The system satisfies its specifications and fulfills the objectives of the management
¢ Reliability:
The system is more reliable. Much care is taken as the system handles the transactions.
¢ Maintainability:
Since the system was developed by using the GUI .NET locating errors, adding new policies and changing the procedures are very easy.
¢ Security:
The system can be used only by authorized people. To avoid unauthorized access passwords are used.
> The software is essentially a tool for monitoring share accounting of cooperative banks.
> Monitoring specific services like share transaction , number of shares of each member etc
> It provides support to the user as it allows a user to export a log's events, the user is able to export only the events related to his application rather than an entire log containing events from other event sources
> It is possible to access different forms to obtain detailed information about various activities Detailed information about an applicant is displayed in the Applicant form.
> They do not provide deposit portion from all network workstations and storage in one place
> The number of members is not limited in this case where cooperative banks suggests there is a limit of 20 members .
> Simultaneous review and analysis is possible only for one event log from one computer. Limited possibilities for filtering and search for important events.
User Type : O Administrator O Employee
Fig 8.1: Login form
This form checks the privileges of the user. The administrator and employee has different privileges to the details of the bank
Fig 8.2: Main form
After login administrator or employee can access this form. Administrator has full access to this form .But employee can access only bank details, applicant details and holiday details. All other options are disabled when employee login into this form.
Fig 8.3 Bankmaster form
This gives the details of the bank. Bank details can be viewed by the administrator as well as the employees of the bank.
Fig 8.4: Applicantion form
Storing applicant details. For becoming a member of a co¬operative bank first he/she submit an application form. The application form describes the applicants name, address, age, date of birth, gender, occupation, phone number etc
Fig 8.5: Sharemembershipmaster form
This form gives the details of the members of the bank.
Fig 8.6: Holidaymaster form
From this form we can get the holiday details of the bank. The bank employee enters the holiday details .Referring to the details stored in the database transactions avoided in holidays of the bank.
Shareparameter form gives all the parameters of the particular class membership.
Fig 8.9: Sharetransaction form
Share Transaction form performs transactions for the members.
Fig 8.10: Dividendmaster form
Performing dividend calculation at the end of financial year of the bank,
using this form.
9 sa_Bankreports 00 3
Main Report

3/29/200' Bank Details
Branchcode Banknarne Address City State P
Ekm_07 hindcobank kulenchery ekm KERALA i;
kot_o1 dartcobank kady kottayam KERALA 1;
< >
Current Page No, : 1 Total Page No,: 1 Zoom Factor: 100%
Fig 8.11: Bankmastereport form
Giving all the details of different cooperative bank stored in the database in printing format.
Share accounting software is a business package for cooperative bank. This software provides more feasibility to the bank employers. Also this software gives more flexibility and easiness. This software is more user friendly and changes can be applied easily. It avoids malfunctioning from outsiders. More correctness and accuracy is provided.
This software goes through all the phases of software development cycle. So more accurate the product is. The need of the banker is achieved and reduces burdens of the bank employers. The banker get free from recording the details of the member in separate packing. We have tried to make the product more profitable to the bankers.
This software can be upgradable with more features. Along with share accounting details we can include deposit modules and loan modules. Thus this software is more appropriate to cooperative banks.
We have developed a software named share accounting package in which we worked in documenting the share details of the cooperative bank. In a cooperative banking sector the member of the bank should take shares of the bank. the details of the shares of the shareholders are documented using this product.
Here we created the applicant form, cooperative bank details ,share details of the members, and dividend calculation at the end of the financial year. Administrator or the bank employee can modify the details of the member. Administrator has more privilege than employee. Employee cannot access to the share details, dividend details of the member.
The product can be upgraded by adding more modules like loan module, bank deposit modules ,bank profit calculation ,Reserve fund documentation etc. Loan modules includes loans taken by the government, members, other persons who pledging for gold loans.
Bank deposit module documents deposit details of the bank. It varies from fixed deposit to savings deposit. Bank profit calculation module includes documenting share facevalue and the market value .If the market value increases than the share face value then bank retrieves some profit. This profit stored as per. Reserve fund documentation includes storing the dividend amount that is not received by the members of the bank. Balance dividend amount goes to the reserve fund.

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