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Active In SP

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16-02-2010, 01:46 PM

I need project and implimentation report on stepper motor contol .

Thank you
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Posts: 2,270
Joined: Sep 2010
23-09-2010, 03:52 PM


A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless, synchronous electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. The motor's position can be controlled precisely without any feedback mechanism (see Open-loop controller), as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application. Stepper motors are similar to switched reluctance motors (which are very large stepping motors with a reduced pole count, and generally are closed-loop commutated.)

Fundamentals of Operation

Stepper motors operate differently from DC brush motors, which rotate when voltage is applied to their terminals. Stepper motors, on the other hand, effectively have multiple "toothed" electromagnets arranged around a central gear-shaped piece of iron. The electromagnets are energized by an external control circuit, such as a microcontroller. To make the motor shaft turn, first one electromagnet is given power, which makes the gear's teeth magnetically attracted to the electromagnet's teeth. When the gear's teeth are thus aligned to the first electromagnet, they are slightly offset from the next electromagnet. So when the next electromagnet is turned on and the first is turned off, the gear rotates slightly to align with the next one, and from there the process is repeated. Each of those slight rotations is called a "step," with an integer number of steps making a full rotation. In that way, the motor can be turned by a precise angle.
Stepper motor characteristics
Stepper motors are constant power devices.
As motor speed increases, torque decreases. (most motors exhibit maximum torque when stationary, however the torque of a motor when stationary 'holding torque' defines the ability of the motor to maintain a desired position while under external load).
The torque curve may be extended by using current limiting drivers and increasing the driving voltage (sometimes referred to as a 'chopper' circuit, there are several off the shelf driver chips capable of doing this in a simple manner).
Steppers exhibit more vibration than other motor types, as the discrete step tends to snap the rotor from one position to another (called a detent). The vibration makes stepper motors noisier than DC motors.
This vibration can become very bad at some speeds and can cause the motor to lose torque or lose direction. This is because the rotor is being held in a magnetic field which behaves like a spring. On each step the rotor overshoots and bounces back and forth, "ringing" at its resonant frequency. If the stepping frequency matches the resonant frequency then the ringing increases and the motor comes out of synchronism, resulting in positional error or a change in direction. At worst there is a total loss of control and holding torque so the motor is easily overcome by the load and spins almost freely.
The effect can be mitigated by accelerating quickly through the problem speeds range, physically damping (frictional damping) the system, or using a micro-stepping driver.
Motors with a greater number of phases also exhibit smoother operation than those with fewer phases (this can also be achieved through the use of a micro stepping drive)

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11-10-2010, 03:32 PM

.ppt   s-032907019 STEPPER MOTORS.ppt (Size: 2.09 MB / Downloads: 58)
What is a Stepper Motor?

The stepper motor is a motor which takes input pulses and then takes proportional steps to input these signals. You can use for positioning and/or speed control for most any applications. The stepper motor needs a power circuit and a sequence circuit for changing phase.

What is a Stepper Motor? <Applications>

Medical: Infusion Pump, Brad Test, X-ray, Dialysis, DNA Extraction, Pump
Semiconductor: Masking, Etching, Wafer Handling, Test-equipment, Die-Bonder
FA: Pick & Place, NC Machine, X-Y-Z stage
OA: Printer, Fax, Scanner
HA: HVAC, Cleaner Robot
Other: Vending machine

Stepper and Synchronous Motors

Movement Generation
Movement Generation
Step Mode
Reduced Duty Cycle
Synchronous Motor

Movement Generation


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