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Posts: 2,492
Joined: Mar 2010
18-01-2011, 06:29 PM

1. Passive and Active Hybrid Integrated EMI Filters
2. Active-Clamping Dual Resonant Converter
3. Implementation and Analysis of an Improved Series-Loaded Resonant DC-DC Converter Operating Above Resonance for Battery Chargers
4. Performance Analysis of PV Grid-connected Power Conditioning System with UPS
5. Positive Voltage Injection Switching Inductor (P-VISI) Method for Fast Transient Response in SMPS under Loading Condition
6. High-Voltage Auxiliary Power Supply Using Series-Connected MOSFETs and Floating Self-Driving Technique
7. Using a buck converter in an inverting buck-boost topology
8. A New Single Phase Double-Conversion UPS Using PWAM Method
9. Compact High Voltage IGBT Switch for Pulsed Power Applications
10. Power Conversion from Low-Voltage dc to High-Voltage ac for Single-Phase Grid-Tie Applications
11. A Small Power Switching Mode Power Supply Based on TOP Switch
12. Loss-Free Balancing Circuit for Series Connection of Electrolytic Capacitors Using an Auxiliary Switch-Mode Power Supply
13. EMI Filter Design for Constant Power Loads in More Electric Aircraft Power Systems
14. An Efficient Common-Mode Hybrid EMI Filter Used in Switch-mode Power Supply
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26-04-2012, 03:47 PM


.pdf   01114A.pdf (Size: 805.42 KB / Downloads: 82)

The industry drive toward smaller, lighter and more
efficient electronics has led to the development of the
Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS). There are several
topologies commonly used to implement SMPS.
This application note, which is the first of a two-part
series, explains the basics of different SMPS
topologies. Applications of different topologies and
their pros and cons are also discussed in detail. This
application note will guide the user to select an
appropriate topology for a given application, while
providing useful information regarding selection of
electrical and electronic components for a given SMPS

The main idea behind a switch mode power supply can
easily be understood from the conceptual explanation
of a DC-to-DC converter, as shown in Figure 1. The
load, RL, needs to be supplied with a constant voltage,
VOUT, which is derived from a primary voltage source,
VIN. As shown in Figure 1, the output voltage VOUT can
be regulated by varying the series resistor (RS) or the
shunt current (IS).
When VOUT is controlled by varying IS and keeping RS
constant, power loss inside the converter occurs. This
type of converter is known as shunt-controlled
regulator. The power loss inside the converter is given
by Equation 1. Please note that the power loss cannot
be eliminated even if IS becomes zero.

Buck Converter
A buck converter, as its name implies, can only
produce lower average output voltage than the input
voltage. The basic schematic with the switching
waveforms of a buck converter is shown in Figure 2.
In a buck converter, a switch (Q1) is placed in series
with the input voltage source VIN. The input source VIN
feeds the output through the switch and a low-pass
filter, implemented with an inductor and a capacitor.
In a steady state of operation, when the switch is ON for
a period of TON, the input provides energy to the output
as well as to the inductor (L). During the TON period, the
inductor current flows through the switch and the
difference of voltages between VIN and VOUT is applied
to the inductor in the forward direction, as shown in
Figure 2 ©. Therefore, the inductor current IL rises
linearly from its present value IL1 to IL2, as

In a buck converter, the effect of input voltage variation
on the output voltage can be minimized by
implementing input voltage feed-forward control. It is
easy to implement feed-forward control when using a
digital controller with input voltage sense, compared to
using an analog control method. In the feed-forward
control method, the digital controller starts taking the
appropriate adaptive action as soon as any change is
detected in the input voltage, before the change in input
can actually affect the output parameters.


When the output current requirement is high, the
excessive power loss inside the freewheeling diode D1,
limits the minimum output voltage that can be
achieved. To reduce the loss at high current and to
achieve lower output voltage, the freewheeling diode is
replaced by a MOSFET with a very low ON state
resistance RDSON. This MOSFET is turned on and off
synchronously with the buck MOSFET. Therefore, this
topology is known as a synchronous buck converter. A
gate drive signal, which is the complement of the buck
switch gate drive signal, is required for this
synchronous MOSFET.

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