Seminar Report On Micromechanical System for System-on-Chip Connectivity
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07-09-2009, 06:53 AM


MEMS technology has enabled us to realize advanced micro devices by using processes similar to VLSI technology. When MEMS devices are combined with other technologies new generation of innovative technology will b created. This will offer outstanding functionality. Such technologies will have wide scale applications in fields ranging from automotive, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, bio-medical and so forth. The main challenge is to integrate all these potentially non-compatible technologies into a single working microsystem that will offer outstanding functionality.
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29-05-2010, 12:35 PM


.docx   Micromechanical System for System-on-Chip Connectivity.docx (Size: 465.97 KB / Downloads: 63)

ABSTRACT


Micromechanical systems can be combined with microelectronics, photonics or wireless capabilities new generation of Microsystems can be developed which will offer far reaching efficiency regarding space, accuracy, precision and so forth. Micromechanical systems (MEMS) technology can be used fabricate both application specific devices and the associated micro packaging systems that will allow for the integration of devices or circuits, made with non-compatible technologies, with a System-on-Chip environment. The MEMS technology can be used for permanent, semi permanent or temporary interconnection of sub modules in a System-on-Chip implementation. The interconnection of devices using MEMS technology is described with the help of a hearing instrument application and related micropackaging.


INTRODUCTION


MEMS technology has enabled us to realize advanced micro devices by using processes similar to VLSI technology. When MEMS devices are combined with other technologies new generation of innovative technology will b created. This will offer outstanding functionality. Such technologies will have wide scale applications in fields ranging from automotive, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, bio-medical and so forth. The main challenge is to integrate all these potentially non-compatible technologies into a single working microsystem that will offer outstanding functionality.
The use of MEMS technology for permanent, semi permanent or temporary interconnection of non-compatible technologies like CMOS, BJT, GaAs, SiGe, and so forth into a System-on-Chip environment can be described using an example application. It is a hearing instrument in which an array of acoustical sensors is used to provide dynamic directional sensitivity that can minimize background noise and reverberation thereby increasing speech intelligibility for the user. The micro array can provide dynamically variable directional sensitivity by employing suitable beam forming and tracking algorithms while implanted completely inside the ear canal.
MEMS ACCOUSTICAL SENSOR ARRAY FOR A HEARING INSTRUMENT


In this application an array of capacitive type sensors are used in a hearing instrument to provide dynamic directional sensitivity and speaker tracking and can be completely implanted in the ear canal. The directional sensitivity is obtained by the method of beam forming. The microphone array is developed using MEMS technology and which can be used to form beam to provide directional sensitivity.


BEAM FORMING USING MICROPHONE ARRAY

The microphone array consists of nine capacitor type microphones arranged in a 3*3 array and utilizes the classical phased array technique for beam forming. In this technique, the relative delay or advance in signal reception is eliminated by applying a delay or advance is that the signal out puts from different microphones can be added to form a beam as shown in figure 1.
It is also possible to steer the direction of the beam by providing additional delay factor that is equal to the negative of the relative delay to the out put of each microphone in the array when a signal arrives from that direction. Figure 2. illustrates the beam steering concept.




Similarly, it is possible to form multiple beams out of the single array employing different delay factors and use such beams to scan the direction of the potential speaker. This scanning beam can easily realized by continuously steering the beam from top to bottom or from left to right by dynamically changing the steering delay using digital filters. An algorithm will detect a speech signal above some threshold level and will steer the main beam towards that direction. The block diagram for such a system is shown in figure 3.
MEMS MEMS Analog CMOS CMOS
Acoustical –º Socket ”» Signal ”–º A/D
Array Interface Conditioning Converter
MoHu1e

i

Digital Digital Array SoC
Beamforming ”–º Signal Control ”–º PCI
& Beam Processing Interface Bus
Steering


Figure 3: Block Diagram of Hearing Aid Instrument

To avoid spatial aliasing at all steering angles the spacing d between the microphones of the array is required to be




= nc/2nf = 1/2]
Where X is the wavelength of the incident acoustical signal and f is the frequency in Hz. c is the velocity.
If the sensor array is to be inserted inside the ear canal, the spacing between the microphones will be much smaller than the required. This constraint can be overcome by introducing additional delay factor to compensate for the difference in delay due to the required spacing d and the delay due to physical microphone spacing.

MEMS MICROPACKAGING SOLUTION

Platinum \
Silicon Dioxide
Conductor Insulating
Layer
Figure 4a. 3D model of socket submodule


The MEMS technology can be used to create necessary structures for die level integration of MEMS devices or components and CMOS or non-CMOS, like BJT, GaAs, and Silicon-germanium devices. The basic structure of the proposed mechanism is a socket submodule (figure 4) that holds a die or device. The required no of submodules can be stacked vertically or horizontally to realize a completely system in a micropackage.





Connectivity between submodules is achieved by means of microbus card (figure 6.) constructed with heat deformed, gold coated polysilicon cantilever microspring contacts and platinum coated microrails fabricated inside an interconnection channel that is presented in each socket submodule. An illustration of the micropackaging system is shown in figure 5.


MEMS Microphone

MEMS Socket Submoduj
Vertical Micro Bolt Used for Non-permanent Integration
Alignment Key
Power Supply Battery
Socket Submodule for Power Supply
Micro Nut
Figure 5a. Top view of MEMS micropackage

Figure 5a. MEMS micropackaging system: cross section through AA'
Microorganisms and moisture inside the ear canal may contaminate the microsensor array. This can be helped by the submodule type sensor array, which can be removed easily for cleaning or replacement.
The submodules are connected by means of a MEMS microbus with gold coated polysilicon cantilever microspring contacts and platinum coated microrails fabricated inside an interconnection channel that is presented in each socket submodule. Figure 6 shows the 3D model of microbus
DIE TESTING CONFIGURATION



The concept of socket submodules and connectivity can also be used in a die testing platform. The establishment of temporary connectivity for testing a die without exposing the die to otherwise harmful energy sources or contaminations during the test cycles is a major technological challenge. The MEMS submodule can be reconfigured to establish temporary connectivity for die testing with out exposing the die to any contamination while carrying out necessary test procedures. Figure 7 illustrates the die testing configuration using MEMS socket type structures.
In this set up, two different type of MEMS sockets are used: a fixed one connected permanently to a Tester-on-Chip (ToC),which is a die testing SoC using an enabling gold-to-gold thermo sonic bonding technology and a removable socket that acts a die specific carrier. The contact springs on both sides of the removable socket undergo deformation due to a compression mass on the top of the die and generate the necessary contact force. The removable MEMS socket can be redesigned to connect a die that is larger than the ToC. This makes the system a flexible one. The major design objectives of contact spring mechanism is to develop a proper -contact force, low-contact resistance, small area, and short contact path while having the ability to tolerate some torsional misalignment. Another important requirement is to maintain the contact surface that will remain reasonably flat even under torsional deformation to realize a higher contact area. Based on these constraints designs two of contact springs are given in figure 8.

Figure 8. Two types of micro spring contacts



ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES



ADVANTAGES

¢ High efficiency
¢ Cost effective
¢ Flexible
¢ High accuracy precision




DIS ADVANTAGES

¢ Complex design
¢ Complex fabrication procedures
CONCLUSION



MEMS technology offers wide range application in fields like biomedical, aerodynamics, thermodynamics and telecommunication and so forth. MEMS technology can be used to fabricate both application specific devices and the associated micropackaging system that will allow for the integration of devices or circuits, made with non compatible technologies, with a SoC environment. The MEMS technology allows permanent, semi permanent and temporary connectivity. The integration of MEMS to present technology will give way to cutting edge technology that will give outstanding functionality and far reaching efficiency regarding space, accuracy precision, cost, and will wide range applications. Describing typical application of MEMS in a hearing instrument application the flexibility and design challenges and various innovative features of MEMS technology is made to understand. In the hearing aid instrument microphone arrays are used to produce directional sensitivity and improve speech intelligibility. The various components and necessary signal conditioning algorithms are implemented in a custom micropackaging that can be implanted inside the ear canal is described.
REFERENCES

1.
2.



Sazzadur Choudhury,M. Ahmadi, and W.C. Miller , Micromechanical system for System-on-Chip Connectivity', IEEE Circuits and Sytems, September 2002
New battery may jump-start MEMS usage, ISA InTech April 2002



BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. darpa.mil
2. sanyo.co.jp
3. seminar and presentationproject and implimentations.com
CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. MEMS ACCOUSTICAL SENSOR ARRAY FOR A HEARING
INSTRUMENT 2
BEAM FORMING USING MICROPHONE ARRAY 2
3. MEMS MICROPACKAGING SOLUTION 6
4. DIE TESTING CONFIGURATION 10
5. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 12
6. CONCLUSION 13
7. REFERENCES 14
8. BIBLIOGRAPHY 14
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